Year:

  1.  4
    Are Moral Emotions Key to Informed Risk Decisions? A Commentary on Sabine Roeser, Risk, Technology, and Moral Emotions.Madeleine Hayenhjelm - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 2020:1-12.
  2.  3
    AMICAI: A Method Based on Risk Analysis to Integrate Responsible Research and Innovation Into the Work of Research and Innovation Practitioners.Christopher Brandl, Matthias Wille, Jochen Nelles, Peter Rasche, Katharina Schäfer, Frank O. Flemisch, Martin Frenz, Verena Nitsch & Alexander Mertens - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):667-689.
    The integration of ethics into the day-to-day work of research and innovation is an important but difficult challenge. However, with the Aachen method for identification, classification and risk analysis of innovation-based problems an approach from an engineering perspective is presented that enables the integration of ethical, legal and social implications into the day-to-day work of R&I practitioners. AMICAI appears in particular capable of providing a procedural guidance for R&I practitioners based on a method established in engineering science, breaking down the (...)
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  3.  23
    Artificial Moral Agents: A Survey of the Current Status. [REVIEW]José-Antonio Cervantes, Sonia López, Luis-Felipe Rodríguez, Salvador Cervantes, Francisco Cervantes & Félix Ramos - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):501-532.
    One of the objectives in the field of artificial intelligence for some decades has been the development of artificial agents capable of coexisting in harmony with people and other systems. The computing research community has made efforts to design artificial agents capable of doing tasks the way people do, tasks requiring cognitive mechanisms such as planning, decision-making, and learning. The application domains of such software agents are evident nowadays. Humans are experiencing the inclusion of artificial agents in their environment as (...)
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  4.  3
    Quantification of Conflicts of Interest in an Online Point-of-Care Clinical Support Website.Ambica C. Chopra, Stephanie S. Tilberry, Kaitlyn E. Sternat, Daniel Y. Chung, Stephanie D. Nichols & Brian J. Piper - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):921-930.
    Online medical reference websites are utilized by health care providers to enhance their education and decision making. However, these resources may not adequately reveal pharmaceutical-author interactions and their potential conflicts of interest. This investigation: evaluates the correspondence of two well-utilized CoI databases: the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments and ProPublica’s Dollars for Docs and quantifies CoIs among authors of a publicly available point of care clinical support website which is used to inform evidence-based medicine decisions. Two data (...)
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  5.  2
    Quantification of Conflicts of Interest in an Online Point-of-Care Clinical Support Website.Ambica C. Chopra, Stephanie S. Tilberry, Kaitlyn E. Sternat, Daniel Y. Chung, Stephanie D. Nichols & Brian J. Piper - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):921-930.
    Online medical reference websites are utilized by health care providers to enhance their education and decision making. However, these resources may not adequately reveal pharmaceutical-author interactions and their potential conflicts of interest. This investigation: evaluates the correspondence of two well-utilized CoI databases: the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments and ProPublica’s Dollars for Docs and quantifies CoIs among authors of a publicly available point of care clinical support website which is used to inform evidence-based medicine decisions. Two data (...)
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  6.  2
    Quantification of Conflicts of Interest in an Online Point-of-Care Clinical Support Website.Ambica C. Chopra, Stephanie S. Tilberry, Kaitlyn E. Sternat, Daniel Y. Chung, Stephanie D. Nichols & Brian J. Piper - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):921-930.
    Online medical reference websites are utilized by health care providers to enhance their education and decision making. However, these resources may not adequately reveal pharmaceutical-author interactions and their potential conflicts of interest. This investigation: evaluates the correspondence of two well-utilized CoI databases: the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments and ProPublica’s Dollars for Docs and quantifies CoIs among authors of a publicly available point of care clinical support website which is used to inform evidence-based medicine decisions. Two data (...)
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  7.  13
    The Retribution-Gap and Responsibility-Loci Related to Robots and Automated Technologies: A Reply to Nyholm.Roos de Jong - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):727-735.
    Automated technologies and robots make decisions that cannot always be fully controlled or predicted. In addition to that, they cannot respond to punishment and blame in the ways humans do. Therefore, when automated cars harm or kill people, for example, this gives rise to concerns about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps. According to Sven Nyholm, however, automated cars do not pose a challenge on human responsibility, as long as humans can control them and update them. He argues that the agency exercised in (...)
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  8.  8
    The Participation and Motivations of Grant Peer Reviewers: A Comprehensive Survey.Stephen A. Gallo, Lisa A. Thompson, Karen B. Schmaling & Scott R. Glisson - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):761-782.
    Scientific peer reviewers play an integral role in the grant selection process, yet very little has been reported on the levels of participation or the motivations of scientists to take part in peer review. The American Institute of Biological Sciences developed a comprehensive peer review survey that examined the motivations and levels of participation of grant reviewers. The survey was disseminated to 13,091 scientists in AIBS’s proprietary database. Of the 874 respondents, 76% indicated they had reviewed grant applications in the (...)
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  9.  4
    Classical Liberalism, Discrimination, and the Problem of Autonomous Cars.Michael Gentzel - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):931-946.
    This paper considers possible future legislation that requires the exclusive use of autonomous cars. The author develops and defends a ‘Liberal Argument Against Mandated Autonomous Cars’, which argues that such a law would be incompatible with classical liberalism, provided that the following condition holds: In the event where the car must ‘choose’ between running over a young person or an old person, or both, autonomous cars are programmed to respond by running over old people in order to save young people. (...)
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  10.  2
    Classical Liberalism, Discrimination, and the Problem of Autonomous Cars.Michael Gentzel - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):931-946.
    This paper considers possible future legislation that requires the exclusive use of autonomous cars. The author develops and defends a ‘Liberal Argument Against Mandated Autonomous Cars’, which argues that such a law would be incompatible with classical liberalism, provided that the following condition holds: In the event where the car must ‘choose’ between running over a young person or an old person, or both, autonomous cars are programmed to respond by running over old people in order to save young people. (...)
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  11.  12
    Social Risk Perceptions of Genetically Modified Foods of Engineers in Training: Application of a Comprehensive Risk Model.Sedigheh Ghasemi, Mostafa Ahmadvand, Ezatollah Karami & Ayatollah Karami - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):641-665.
    This survey was conducted in 2017 to investigate factors influencing social risk perception of biotechnologists and plant breeders in training toward GM food based on a conceptual model. A random sample of 210 biotechnologists and plant breeders in training was studied. Confirmatory factor analysis and the reliability tests have been used to verify the uni-dimensionality of the measurement scale, SEM also was carried out to determine the most parsimonious models with the best fit for social risk perception of GM foods (...)
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  12.  8
    From Treasure to Trash: The Lingering Value of Technological Artifacts.Benjamin Hale & Lucy McAllister - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):619-640.
    Electronic waste is the fastest growing form of waste worldwide, associated with a range of environmental, health, and justice problems. Unfortunately, disposal and recycling are hindered by a tendency of consumers to resist recycling their e-waste. This backlog of un-discarded e-waste poses significant challenges for the future. This paper addresses the reasons why many people might continue to value their technological artifacts and therefore to hoard them, suggesting that many of these common explanations are deficient in some way. It argues (...)
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  13. Reflective Consensus Building on Wicked Problems with the Reflect! Platform.Michael H. G. Hoffmann - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):793-819.
    Wicked problems—that is, problems that can be framed in a number of different ways, depending on who is looking at them—pose ethical challenges for professionals that have scarcely been recognized as such. Even though wicked problems are all around us, they are rarely addressed in education. A reason for this failure might be that wicked problems pose almost insurmountable challenges in educational settings. This contribution shows how students can learn to cope with wicked problems in problem-based learning projects that are (...)
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  14. Suggestions to Improve the Comprehensibility of Current Definitions of Scientific Authorship for International Authors.Mohammad Hosseini, Luca Consoli, H. A. E. Zwart & Mariette A. Van den Hoven - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):597-617.
    Much has been said about the need for improving the current definitions of scientific authorship, but an aspect that is often overlooked is how to formulate and communicate these definitions to ensure that they are comprehensible and useful for researchers, notably researchers active in international research consortia. In light of a rapid increase in international collaborations within natural sciences, this article uses authorship of this branch of sciences as an example and provides suggestions to improve the comprehensibility of the definitions (...)
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  15.  5
    Fraud and Understanding the Moral Mind: Need for Implementation of Organizational Characteristics Into Behavioral Ethics.Petr Houdek - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):691-707.
    The development of behavioral ethics has brought forth a detailed understanding of the processes of moral perception, decision-making and behavior within and beyond organizations and communities. However, prescriptive recommendations of behavioral research regarding how to support an ethical environment often underestimate the specifics of organizational characteristics that may encourage the occurrence and persistence of dishonesty, especially regarding deception as a desired action in some instances by some employees and managers. Furthermore, behavioral research does not adequately recognize the notion that dishonesty (...)
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  16.  2
    Handling Anomalous Data in the Lab: Students’ Perspectives on Deleting and Discarding.Mikkel Willum Johansen & Frederik Voetmann Christiansen - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1107-1128.
    This paper presents and discusses empirical results from a survey about the research practice of Danish chemistry students, with a main focus on the question of anomalous data. It seeks to investigate how such data is handled by students, with special attention to so-called ‘questionable research practices’ where anomalous data are simply deleted or discarded. This question of QRPs is of particular importance as the educational practices students experience may influence how they act in their future professional careers, for instance (...)
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  17.  2
    Technological Enthusiasm: Morally Commendable or Reprehensible?Mahdi Kafaee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):969-980.
    Technological enthusiasm is a value that can influence engineering, shape technologies and subsequently transform human lifestyles. Despite its significant role, up until now, there has been little research done on this value. The dominant idea is that this value is commendable. However, based on consequentialism, a recently proposed idea describes TE as neither morally commendable nor reprehensible. In this paper, three arguments are presented against this recent idea, and a new idea is introduced, which challenges not only commendation for TE (...)
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  18. Technological Enthusiasm: Morally Commendable or Reprehensible?Mahdi Kafaee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):969-980.
    Technological enthusiasm is a value that can influence engineering, shape technologies and subsequently transform human lifestyles. Despite its significant role, up until now, there has been little research done on this value. The dominant idea is that this value is commendable. However, based on consequentialism, a recently proposed idea describes TE as neither morally commendable nor reprehensible. In this paper, three arguments are presented against this recent idea, and a new idea is introduced, which challenges not only commendation for TE (...)
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  19. Technological Enthusiasm: Morally Commendable or Reprehensible?Mahdi Kafaee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):969-980.
    Technological enthusiasm is a value that can influence engineering, shape technologies and subsequently transform human lifestyles. Despite its significant role, up until now, there has been little research done on this value. The dominant idea is that this value is commendable. However, based on consequentialism, a recently proposed idea describes TE as neither morally commendable nor reprehensible. In this paper, three arguments are presented against this recent idea, and a new idea is introduced, which challenges not only commendation for TE (...)
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  20.  5
    Big Data, Big Waste? A Reflection on the Environmental Sustainability of Big Data Initiatives.Federica Lucivero - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1009-1030.
    This paper addresses a problem that has so far been neglected by scholars investigating the ethics of Big Data and policy makers: that is the ethical implications of Big Data initiatives’ environmental impact. Building on literature in environmental studies, cultural studies and Science and Technology Studies, the article draws attention to the physical presence of data, the material configuration of digital service, and the space occupied by data. It then explains how this material and situated character of data raises questions (...)
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  21.  3
    Big Data, Big Waste? A Reflection on the Environmental Sustainability of Big Data Initiatives.Federica Lucivero - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1009-1030.
    This paper addresses a problem that has so far been neglected by scholars investigating the ethics of Big Data and policy makers: that is the ethical implications of Big Data initiatives’ environmental impact. Building on literature in environmental studies, cultural studies and Science and Technology Studies, the article draws attention to the physical presence of data, the material configuration of digital service, and the space occupied by data. It then explains how this material and situated character of data raises questions (...)
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  22.  2
    Exploring Human Values in the Design of a Web-Based QoL-Instrument for People with Mental Health Problems: A Value Sensitive Design Approach.Ivo Maathuis, Maartje Niezen, David Buitenweg, Ilja L. Bongers & Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):871-898.
    Quality of life is an important outcome measure in mental health care. Currently, QoL is mainly measured with paper and pencil questionnaires. To contribute to the evaluation of treatment, and to enhance substantiated policy decisions in the allocation of resources, a web-based, personalized, patient-friendly and easy to administer QoL instrument has been developed: the QoL-ME. While human values play a significant role in shaping future use practices of technologies, it is important to anticipate on them during the design of the (...)
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  23.  3
    Bridging the Gap with Clinicians: The Issue of Underrecognition of Pathologists and Radiologists as Scientific Authors in Contemporary Medical Literature.Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic, Jelena Dotlic, Tatjana Gazibara, Tatjana Terzic & Milica Skender-Gazibara - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):783-792.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate recognition of pathologists and radiologists as coauthors in case reports in the field of surgical oncology. The MEDLINE database was searched for all full free text case reports involving human material published from April 1, 2011 until March 31, 2016, using search terms: “case report” + “tumors” + “surgery” + “malignant”. The search strategy identified a total of 1427 case reports of which 907 were included in this analysis. Of 807 articles with (...)
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  24. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of plagiarism as reported by participants completing the authoraid mooc on research writing.Aamir Raoof Memon & Martina Mavrinac - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1067-1088.
    To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding plagiarism in a large culturally diverse sample of researchers who participated in the AuthorAID MOOC on Research Writing. An online survey was designed and delivered through Google Forms to the participants in the AuthorAID MOOC on Research Writing during April to June 2017. A total of 765 participants completed the survey, and 746 responses were included in the analysis. Almost all participants reported knowledge of the term “plagiarism”, and 89.1% of them understand (...)
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  25.  1
    Publishing as an Indicator of Scientific Research Quality and Ethics: The Case of Law Journals From Moldova.Bianca Moldoveanu & Gheorghe Cuciureanu - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1039-1052.
    This paper analyses the way articles are published in scientific journals in the field of law in the Republic of Moldova, including an experiment with a previously published article. Lack of compliance with journal publishing standards, including peer reviewing of articles, leads to the fact that virtually any article can be published. The examined journals do not perform their natural functions, but are rather used by researchers to report that they have scientific outcomes. The study allows us to consider that (...)
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  26. Preserving Human–Nature’s Interaction for Sustainability: Quran and Sunnah Perspective.Asmawati Muhamad, Abdul Halim Syihab & Abdul Halim Ibrahim - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1053-1066.
    Environmental sustainability is one of the contemporary discourses that has abundant values embedded in the Quran and Sunnah teachings. Islam gives great emphasis on environment as it is preserved and protected under the Maqasid al-Shariah. The general outlook of Quranic paradigm on utilizing natural environment is based on prohibition of aggression and misuse. It is likewise founded on the construction and sustainable use. Thus, this article attempts to elaborate key concepts of the Quran and Sunnah teachings that reveal imperative values (...)
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  27.  11
    Facing the Pariah of Science: The Frankenstein Myth as a Social and Ethical Reference for Scientists.Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich & Ed Finn - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):737-759.
    Since its first publication in 1818, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus has transcended genres and cultures to become a foundational myth about science and technology across a multitude of media forms and adaptations. Following in the footsteps of the brilliant yet troubled Victor Frankenstein, professionals and practitioners have been debating the scientific ethics of creating life for decades, never before have powerful tools for doing so been so widely available. This paper investigates how engaging with the Frankenstein myth (...)
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  28.  3
    Clinical Ethics Consultation in the Transition Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.Marcin Orzechowski, Maximilian Schochow & Florian Steger - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):833-850.
    Since 1989, clinical ethics consultation in form of hospital ethics committees was established in most of the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Up to now, the similarities and differences between HECs in Central and Eastern Europe and their counterparts in the U.S. and Western Europe have not been determined. Through search in literature databases, we have identified studies that document the implementation of clinical ethics consultation in Central and Eastern Europe. These studies have been analyzed under the following (...)
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  29. Can Authorship be Denied for Contract Work?Livia Puljak & Dario Sambunjak - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1031-1037.
    Ethical considerations arise when individuals who were contracted and paid to conduct a research study and write it up for publication, are denied authorship on a scholarly publication on the grounds that their work was contracted and paid for. Each of the various stakeholders should be considered. Researchers need to make sure that the contract recognizes their intellectual contribution and their right to be named as authors if and when the contracted study is published. If authorship disputes of published works (...)
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  30.  3
    Awareness of Jordanian Investigators About the Importance of Ethics Review Committees: A Pilot Study.Abeer M. Rababa’H., Karem H. Alzoubi, Mera Ababneh & Omar F. Khabour - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):821-831.
    Protection of study participants is an integral function of the Institutional Review Board. Recently, great efforts were dedicated to enhance investigators’ awareness of ethical principles in conducting human research and to implement reviewing committees’ standards in Jordan to ensure the transparency, versatility, and responsibility in handling human subjects research in the country. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the awareness and attitudes of healthcare investigators in Jordan towards the structure and importance of IRBs. A questionnaire was distributed (...)
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  31.  3
    Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  32.  1
    Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  33. Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  34.  1
    Accommodating an Uninvited Guest: Perspectives of Researchers in Switzerland on ‘Honorary’ Authorship.Priya Satalkar, Thomas Perneger & David Shaw - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):947-967.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the attitudes and reactions of researchers towards an authorship claim made by a researcher in a position of authority who has not made any scientific contribution to a manuscript or helped to write it. This paper draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 33 researchers at three seniority levels working in biomedicine and the life sciences in Switzerland. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of participants’ responses when presented with a vignette describing an (...)
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  35.  1
    Accommodating an Uninvited Guest: Perspectives of Researchers in Switzerland on ‘Honorary’ Authorship.Priya Satalkar, Thomas Perneger & David Shaw - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):947-967.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the attitudes and reactions of researchers towards an authorship claim made by a researcher in a position of authority who has not made any scientific contribution to a manuscript or helped to write it. This paper draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 33 researchers at three seniority levels working in biomedicine and the life sciences in Switzerland. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of participants’ responses when presented with a vignette describing an (...)
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  36. Accommodating an Uninvited Guest: Perspectives of Researchers in Switzerland on ‘Honorary’ Authorship.Priya Satalkar, Thomas Perneger & David Shaw - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):947-967.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the attitudes and reactions of researchers towards an authorship claim made by a researcher in a position of authority who has not made any scientific contribution to a manuscript or helped to write it. This paper draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 33 researchers at three seniority levels working in biomedicine and the life sciences in Switzerland. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of participants’ responses when presented with a vignette describing an (...)
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  37.  1
    Practices of Responsible Research and Innovation: A Review. [REVIEW]Mirjam Schuijff & Anne M. Dijkstra - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):533-574.
    This paper presents results of a systematic literature review of RRI practices which aimed to gather insights to further both the theoretical and practical development of RRI. Analysing practices of RRI and mapping out main approaches as well as the values, dimensions or characteristics pursued with those practices, can add to understanding of the more conceptual discussions of RRI and enhance the academic debate. The results, based on a corpus of 52 articles, show that practices already reflect the rich variety (...)
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  38. Practices of Responsible Research and Innovation: A Review. [REVIEW]Mirjam Schuijff & Anne M. Dijkstra - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):533-574.
    This paper presents results of a systematic literature review of RRI practices which aimed to gather insights to further both the theoretical and practical development of RRI. Analysing practices of RRI and mapping out main approaches as well as the values, dimensions or characteristics pursued with those practices, can add to understanding of the more conceptual discussions of RRI and enhance the academic debate. The results, based on a corpus of 52 articles, show that practices already reflect the rich variety (...)
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  39.  2
    Practices of Responsible Research and Innovation: A Review. [REVIEW]Mirjam Schuijff & Anne M. Dijkstra - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):533-574.
    This paper presents results of a systematic literature review of RRI practices which aimed to gather insights to further both the theoretical and practical development of RRI. Analysing practices of RRI and mapping out main approaches as well as the values, dimensions or characteristics pursued with those practices, can add to understanding of the more conceptual discussions of RRI and enhance the academic debate. The results, based on a corpus of 52 articles, show that practices already reflect the rich variety (...)
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  40.  6
    Characteristics of Peer Review Reports: Editor-Suggested Versus Author-Suggested Reviewers.Jovan Shopovski, Cezary Bolek & Monika Bolek - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):709-726.
    Peer review is widely recognized as a mechanism for quality control of academic content. This research article aims at comparing the review reports and decisions of reviewers who are members of the editorial board of the European Scientific Journal with those reviewers suggested by the authors and who are not affiliated with the journal. 457 review reports on 378 papers submitted to the ESJ in the period of October–December 2017 were analysed. Statistical methods including OLS and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were (...)
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  41.  1
    Author’s Index: Without Distortions.Shahryar Sorooshian - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1131-1132.
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  42.  5
    AWOSE - A Process Model for Incorporating Ethical Analyses in Agile Systems Engineering.Benjamin Strenge & Thomas Schack - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):851-870.
    Ethical, legal and social implications are widely regarded as important considerations with respect to technological developments. Agile Worth-Oriented Systems Engineering is an innovative approach to incorporating ethically relevant criteria during agile development processes through a flexibly applicable methodology. First, a predefined model for the ethical evaluation of socio-technical systems is used to assess ethical issues according to different dimensions. The second part of AWOSE ensures that ethical issues are not only identified, but also systematically considered during the design of systems (...)
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  43.  5
    It is the Quality of the Review that Matters.Bor Luen Tang - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1129-1130.
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  44.  1
    A Reflective Account of a Research Ethics Course for an Interdisciplinary Cohort of Graduate Students.Bor Luen Tang & Joan Siew Ching Lee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1089-1105.
    The graduate course in research ethics in the Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering at the National University of Singapore consists of a semester long mandatory course titled: “Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity.” The course provides students with guiding principles for appropriate conduct in the professional and social settings of scientific research and in making morally weighted and ethically sound decisions when confronted with moral dilemmas. It seeks to enhance understanding and appreciation of the moral reasoning underpinning various rules (...)
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  45. Imaginative Value Sensitive Design: Using Moral Imagination Theory to Inform Responsible Technology Design.Steven Umbrello - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):575-595.
    Safe-by-Design (SBD) frameworks for the development of emerging technologies have become an ever more popular means by which scholars argue that transformative emerging technologies can safely incorporate human values. One such popular SBD methodology is called Value Sensitive Design (VSD). A central tenet of this design methodology is to investigate stakeholder values and design those values into technologies during early stage research and development (R&D). To accomplish this, the VSD framework mandates that designers consult the philosophical and ethical literature to (...)
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  46.  3
    Are Researchers Willing to Share Their Published Manuscript?Rayan H. M. Alkhawtani, Hugo J. A. Adams & Thomas C. Kwee - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):121-122.
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  47.  13
    When Public Discourse Mirrors Academic Debate: Research Integrity in the Media.Ilaria Ampollini & Massimiano Bucchi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):451-474.
    Most studies of research integrity in the general media focus on the coverage of specific cases of misconduct. This paper tries to provide a more general, long-term perspective by analysing media discourse about research integrity and related themes in the Italian and United Kingdom daily press from 2000 to 2016. The results, based on a corpus of 853 articles, show that media coverage largely mirrors debates about integrity and misconduct. In fact, salient themes in the news include the importance to (...)
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  48.  6
    Solutions to Gender Balance in STEM Fields Through Support, Training, Education and Mentoring: Report of the International Women in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Task Group.Gilda Barabino, Monique Frize, Fatimah Ibrahim, Eleni Kaldoudi, Lenka Lhotska, Loredana Marcu, Magdalena Stoeva, Virginia Tsapaki & Eva Bezak - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):275-292.
    The aim of this article is to offer a view of the current status of women in medical physics and biomedical engineering, while focusing on solutions towards gender balance and providing examples of current activities carried out at national and international levels. The International Union of Physical and Engineering Scientists in Medicine is committed to advancing women in science and health and has several initiatives overseen by the Women in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Task Group. Some of the main (...)
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  49.  27
    Solving the Single-Vehicle Self-Driving Car Trolley Problem Using Risk Theory and Vehicle Dynamics.Rebecca Davnall - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):431-449.
    Questions of what a self-driving car ought to do if it encounters a situation analogous to the ‘trolley problem’ have dominated recent discussion of the ethics of self-driving cars. This paper argues that this interest is misplaced. If a trolley-style dilemma situation actually occurs, given the limits on what information will be available to the car, the dynamics of braking and tyre traction determine that, irrespective of outcome, it is always least risky for the car to brake in a straight (...)
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  50.  11
    What Do We Have to Lose? Offloading Through Moral Technologies: Moral Struggle and Progress.Lily Eva Frank - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):369-385.
    Moral bioenhancement, nudge-designed environments, and ambient persuasive technologies may help people behave more consistently with their deeply held moral convictions. Alternatively, they may aid people in overcoming cognitive and affective limitations that prevent them from appreciating a situation’s moral dimensions. Or they may simply make it easier for them to make the morally right choice by helping them to overcome sources of weakness of will. This paper makes two assumptions. First, technologies to improve people’s moral capacities are realizable. Second, such (...)
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  51.  3
    Good Scientific Practice: Developing a Curriculum for Medical Students in Germany.Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow & Florian Steger - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):127-139.
    German medical schools have not yet sufficiently introduced students to the field of good scientific practice. In order to prevent scientific misconduct and to foster scientific integrity, courses on GSP must be an integral part of the curriculum of medical students. Based on a review of the literature, teaching units and materials for two courses on GSP were developed and tested in a pilot course. The pilot course was accompanied by a pre-post evaluation that assessed students’ knowledge and attitudes towards (...)
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  52.  9
    Regulation of Stem Cell Technology in Malaysia: Current Status and Recommendations.Nishakanthi Gopalan, Siti Nurani Mohd Nor & Mohd Salim Mohamed - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):1-25.
    Stem cell technology is an emerging science field; it is the unique regenerative ability of the pluripotent stem cell which scientists hope would be effective in treating various medical conditions. While it has gained significant advances in research, it is a sensitive subject involving human embryo destruction and human experimentation, which compel governments worldwide to ensure that the related procedures and experiments are conducted ethically. Based on face-to-face interviews with selected Malaysian ethicists, scientists and policymakers, the objectives and effectiveness of (...)
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  53.  25
    Building Moral Robots: Ethical Pitfalls and Challenges.John-Stewart Gordon - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):141-157.
    This paper examines the ethical pitfalls and challenges that non-ethicists, such as researchers and programmers in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence and robotics, face when building moral machines. Whether ethics is “computable” depends on how programmers understand ethics in the first place and on the adequacy of their understanding of the ethical problems and methodological challenges in these fields. Researchers and programmers face at least two types of problems due to their general lack of ethical knowledge or expertise. (...)
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  54.  3
    Using Participatory Design to Inform the Connected and Open Research Ethics Commons.John Harlow, Nadir Weibel, Rasheed Al Kotob, Vincent Chan, Cinnamon Bloss, Rubi Linares-Orozco, Michelle Takemoto & Camille Nebeker - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):183-203.
    Mobile health research involving pervasive sensors, mobile apps and other novel data collection tools and methods present new ethical, legal, and social challenges specific to informed consent, data management and bystander rights. To address these challenges, a participatory design approach was deployed whereby stakeholders contributed to the development of a web-based commons to support the mHealth research community including researchers and ethics board members. The CORE platform now features a community forum, a resource library and a network of nearly 600 (...)
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  55.  19
    Self-Focused Emotions and Ethical Decision-Making: Comparing the Effects of Regulated and Unregulated Guilt, Shame, and Embarrassment.Cory Higgs, Tristan McIntosh, Shane Connelly & Michael Mumford - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):27-63.
    Research has examined various cognitive processes underlying ethical decision-making, and has recently begun to focus on the differential effects of specific emotions. The present study examines three self-focused moral emotions and their influence on ethical decision-making: guilt, shame, and embarrassment. Given the potential of these discrete emotions to exert positive or negative effects in decision-making contexts, we also examined their effects on ethical decisions after a cognitive reappraisal emotion regulation intervention. Participants in the study were presented with an ethical scenario (...)
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  56.  13
    Distinguishing Characteristics of Corruption Risks in Iranian Construction Projects: A Weighted Correlation Network Analysis.M. Reza Hosseini, Igor Martek, Saeed Banihashemi, Albert P. C. Chan, Amos Darko & Mahdi Tahmasebi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):205-231.
    The construction industry consistently ranks amongst the highest contributors to global gross domestic product, as well as, amongst the most corrupt. Corruption therefore inflicts significant risk on construction activities, and overall economic development. These facts are widely known, but the various sources and nature of corruption risks endemic to the Iranian construction industry, along with the degree to which such risks manifest, and the strength of their impact, remain undescribed. To address the gap, a mixed methods approach is used; with (...)
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  57.  16
    Islamic Perspectives on CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Human Germline Gene Editing: A Preliminary Discussion.Noor Munirah Isa, Nurul Atiqah Zulkifli & Saadan Man - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):309-323.
    The recent development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has rekindled the ethical debate concerning human germline modification that has begun decades ago. This inexpensive technology shows tremendous promise in disease prevention strategies, while raising complex ethical concerns about safety and efficacy of the technology, human dignity, tampering with God’s creation, and human genetic enhancement. Germline gene editing may result in heritable changes in the human genome, therefore the question of whether it should be allowed requires deep and careful discussion from various perspectives. (...)
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  58.  13
    Engineers’ Moral Responsibility: A Confucian Perspective.Shan Jing & Neelke Doorn - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):233-253.
    Moral responsibility is one of the core concepts in engineering ethics and consequently in most engineering ethics education. Yet, despite a growing awareness that engineers should be trained to become more sensitive to cultural differences, most engineering ethics education is still based on Western approaches. In this article, we discuss the notion of responsibility in Confucianism and explore what a Confucian perspective could add to the existing engineering ethics literature. To do so, we analyse the Citicorp case, a widely discussed (...)
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  59. Why Trolley Problems Matter for the Ethics of Automated Vehicles.Geoff Keeling - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):293-307.
    This paper argues against the view that trolley cases are of little or no relevance to the ethics of automated vehicles. Four arguments for this view are outlined and rejected: the Not Going to Happen Argument, the Moral Difference Argument, the Impossible Deliberation Argument and the Wrong Question Argument. In making clear where these arguments go wrong, a positive account is developed of how trolley cases can inform the ethics of automated vehicles.
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  60.  39
    Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions.Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):89-120.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated markets. However, because AIC is still a relatively young and inherently (...)
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  61.  10
    Pragmatism and Care in Engineering Ethics.Indira Nair & William M. Bulleit - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):65-87.
    Engineering is a practice that must function in an environment of incomplete and uncertain knowledge. This environment has become even more difficult in an increasingly complex world. Engineering ethics has to be framed and taught in a way that addresses these realities. This paper proposes a combination of the philosophy of pragmatism and the ethic of care as a possible framework for the practice of engineering ethics that can provide flexibility and openness to address engineering ethics problems more realistically within (...)
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  62.  12
    A Methodological Framework for Developing More Just Footprints: The Contribution of Footprints to Environmental Policies and Justice.Rita Vasconcellos Oliveira - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):405-429.
    The rapid growth of human population and associated industrialisation creates strains on resources and climate. One way to understand the impact of human activity is to quantify the total environmental pressures by measuring the ‘footprint’. Footprints account for the total direct and/or indirect effects of a product or a consumption activity, which may be related to e.g. carbon, water or land use, and can be seen as a proxy for environmental responsibility. Footprints shape climate and resource debates, especially concerning environmental (...)
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  63.  9
    An Empirical Study on Construction Process Corruption Susceptibility: A Vignette of International Expertise.Emmanuel Kingsford Owusu, Albert P. C. Chan, Ming Shan & Erika Pärn - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):325-349.
    Construction process stages are argued to be vulnerable to the prevalence of corrupt practices. However, the validity of this argument has not been empirically explored in the extant literature of construction management. Therefore, this study examines the stages of the construction process susceptibility to corruption and its most prominent forms of corrupt activities. A total of forty-four project-related professionals were involved in an expert survey to assess such susceptibilities and the criticality of the identified corrupt activities at each stage. A (...)
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  64.  5
    Perceptions of Work-Related Stress and Ethical Misconduct Amongst Non-Tenured Researchers in Italy.Oronzo Parlangeli, Stefano Guidi, Enrica Marchigiani, Margherita Bracci & Paul M. Liston - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):159-181.
    The relationship between stress and unethical behaviour amongst non-tenured research staff in academia is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The research reported herein was therefore carried out with the aim of exploring the relationship between stress, the socio-organisational factors which contribute to it, job satisfaction, perceptions of job instability, and the occurrence of unethical behaviour in research. 793 Italian researchers participated in the research—all of whom were working on fixed-term contracts—after being individually requested to complete an online questionnaire. The data indicate (...)
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  65.  21
    Wired Emotions: Ethical Issues of Affective Brain–Computer Interfaces.Steffen Steinert & Orsolya Friedrich - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):351-367.
    Ethical issues concerning brain–computer interfaces have already received a considerable amount of attention. However, one particular form of BCI has not received the attention that it deserves: Affective BCIs that allow for the detection and stimulation of affective states. This paper brings the ethical issues of affective BCIs in sharper focus. The paper briefly reviews recent applications of affective BCIs and considers ethical issues that arise from these applications. Ethical issues that affective BCIs share with other neurotechnologies are presented and (...)
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  66.  16
    Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution.Taylor Stone, Filippo Santoni de Sio & Pieter E. Vermaas - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):387-403.
    This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. (...)
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  67.  75
    Values, Imagination, and Praxis : Towards a Value Sensitive Future with Technology. [REVIEW]Steven Umbrello - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):495-499.
    A new book by Batya Friedman and David G. Hendry, Value Sensitive Design: Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination, is reviewed. Value Sensitive Design is a project into the ethical and design issues that emerge during the engineering programs of new technologies. This book is intended to build on the over two decades of value sensitive design research, however with a greater emphasis on the developments of the theoretical underpinnings of the approach as well as initial steps that designers can employ (...)
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  68.  16
    How to Weigh Values in Value Sensitive Design: A Best Worst Method Approach for the Case of Smart Metering.Geerten van de Kaa, Jafar Rezaei, Behnam Taebi, Ibo van de Poel & Abhilash Kizhakenath - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):475-494.
    Proactively including the ethical and societal issues of new technologies could have a positive effect on their acceptance. These issues could be captured in terms of values. In the literature, the values stakeholders deem important for the development of technology have often been identified. However, the relative ranking of these values in relation to each other have not been studied often. The best worst method is proposed as a possible method to determine the weights of values, hence it is used (...)
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  69.  16
    Two Genealogies of Human Values: Nietzsche Versus Edward O. Wilson on the Consilience of Philosophy, Science and Technology.Charles C. Verharen - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):255-274.
    In the twenty-first century, Stephen Hawking proclaimed the death of philosophy. Only science can address philosophy’s perennial questions about human values. The essay first examines Nietzsche’s nineteenth century view to the contrary that philosophy alone can create values. A critique of Nietzsche’s contention that philosophy rather than science is competent to judge values follows. The essay then analyzes Edward O. Wilson’s claim that his scientific research provides empirically-based answers to philosophy’s questions about human values. Wilson’s bold new hypothesis about the (...)
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  70.  5
    The Challenges of Medical Ethics in China: Are Gene-Edited Babies Enough?Zeng Jie Ye, Xiao Ying Zhang, Jian Liang & Ying Tang - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):123-125.
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