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  1.  1
    Gender Bias and Conversational Agents: an ethical perspective on Social Robotics.Fabio Fossa & Irene Sucameli - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-23.
    The increase in the spread of conversational agents urgently requires to tackle the ethical issues linked to their design. In fact, developers frequently include in their products cues that trigger social biases in order to maximize the performance and the quality of human-machine interactions. The present paper discusses whether and to what extent it is ethically sound to intentionally trigger gender biases through the design of virtually embodied conversational agents. After outlining the complex dynamics involving social biases, social robots, and (...)
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  2. An Ethical Exploration of Increased Average Number of Authors Per Publication.Mohammad Hosseini, Jonathan Lewis, Hub Zwart & Bert Gordijn - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-24.
    This article explores the impact of an Increase in the average Number of Authors per Publication on known ethical issues of authorship. For this purpose, the ten most common ethical issues associated with scholarly authorship are used to set up a taxonomy of existing issues and raise awareness among the community to take precautionary measures and adopt best practices to minimize the negative impact of INAP. We confirm that intense international, interdisciplinary and complex collaborations are necessary, and INAP is an (...)
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  3. Interdisciplinary Confusion and Resolution in the Context of Moral Machines.Jakob Stenseke - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-17.
    Recent advancements in artificial intelligence have fueled widespread academic discourse on the ethics of AI within and across a diverse set of disciplines. One notable subfield of AI ethics is machine ethics, which seeks to implement ethical considerations into AI systems. However, since different research efforts within machine ethics have discipline-specific concepts, practices, and goals, the resulting body of work is pestered with conflict and confusion as opposed to fruitful synergies. The aim of this paper is to explore ways to (...)
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  4.  1
    Guilt Without Fault: Accidental Agency in the Era of Autonomous Vehicles.Fernando Aguiar, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Pilar Aguilar - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-22.
    The control principle implies that people should not feel guilt for outcomes beyond their control. Yet, the so-called ‘agent and observer puzzles’ in philosophy demonstrate that people waver in their commitment to the control principle when reflecting on accidental outcomes. In the context of car accidents involving conventional or autonomous vehicles, Study 1 established that judgments of responsibility are most strongly associated with expressions of guilt–over and above other negative emotions, such as sadness, remorse or anger. Studies 2 and 3 (...)
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  5.  3
    Correction To: The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jacy Reese Anthis & Jamie Harris - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-2.
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  6.  4
    The Ubuntu Robot: Towards a Relational Conceptual Framework for Intercultural Robotics.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-15.
    Recently there has been more attention to the cultural aspects of social robots. This paper contributes to this effort by offering a philosophical, in particular Wittgensteinian framework for conceptualizing in what sense and how robots are related to culture and by exploring what it would mean to create an “Ubuntu Robot”. In addition, the paper gestures towards a more culturally diverse and more relational approach to social robotics and emphasizes the role technology can play in addressing the challenges of modernity (...)
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  7. Hiding Behind Machines: Artificial Agents May Help to Evade Punishment.Till Feier, Jan Gogoll & Matthias Uhl - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-19.
    The transfer of tasks with sometimes far-reaching implications to autonomous systems raises a number of ethical questions. In addition to fundamental questions about the moral agency of these systems, behavioral issues arise. We investigate the empirically accessible question of whether the imposition of harm by an agent is systematically judged differently when the agent is artificial and not human. The results of a laboratory experiment suggest that decision-makers can actually avoid punishment more easily by delegating to machines than by delegating (...)
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  8.  1
    RESPONSE_ABILITY A Card-Based Engagement Method to Support Researchers’ Ability to Respond to Integrity Issues.Florentine Frantz & Ulrike Felt - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-24.
    Issues related to research integrity receive increasing attention in policy discourse and beyond with most universities having introduced by now courses addressing issues of good scientific practice. While communicating expectations and regulations related to good scientific practice is essential, criticism has been raised that integrity courses do not sufficiently address discipline and career-stage specific dimensions, and often do not open up spaces for in-depth engagement. In this article, we present the card-based engagement method RESPONSE_ABILITY, which aims at supporting researchers in (...)
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  9.  1
    The Future Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: Making Sense of Collaborative Models.Torbjørn Gundersen & Kristine Bærøe - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-16.
    This article examines the role of medical doctors, AI designers, and other stakeholders in making applied AI and machine learning ethically acceptable on the general premises of shared decision-making in medicine. Recent policy documents such as the EU strategy on trustworthy AI and the research literature have often suggested that AI could be made ethically acceptable by increased collaboration between developers and other stakeholders. The article articulates and examines four central alternative models of how AI can be designed and applied (...)
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  10.  1
    Perceptions of Scientific Authorship Revisited: Country Differences and the Impact of Perceived Publication Pressure.David Johann - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-25.
    Relying on data collected by the Zurich Survey of Academics, a unique representative online survey among academics in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, this paper replicates Johann and Mayer's :175–196, 2019) analysis of researchers' perceptions of scientific authorship and expands their scope. The primary goals of the study at hand are to learn more about country differences in perceptions of scientific authorship, as well as the influence of perceived publication pressure on authorship perceptions. The results indicate that academics in Switzerland interpret (...)
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  11. Learning from Retracted Papers Authored by the Highly Cited Iran-affiliated Researchers: Revisiting Research Policies and a Key Message to Clarivate Analytics.Negin Kamali, Farid Rahimi & Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-10.
    Reasons underlying retractions of papers authored by the Iran-affiliated highly cited researchers have not been documented. Here, we report that 229 of the Iran-affiliated researchers were listed by the Clarivate Analytics as HCRs. We investigated the Retraction Watch Database and found that, in total, 51 papers authored by the Iran-affiliated HCRs were retracted from 2006 to 2019. Twenty-three of the 229 HCRs had at least one paper retracted. One of the listed HCRs had 22 papers retracted; 14 of the 23 (...)
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  12. Parity and the Resolution of Value Conflicts in Design.Atay Kozlovski - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-18.
    Recent developments in theories for responsible innovation have focused on the importance of actively accounting for values in our technological designs. Leading among these theories is that of Value Sensitive Design which attempts to guide the design process on the basis of evaluative analysis. However, values often come into conflict and VSD has been criticized for not providing a proper method to resolve such inevitable conflicts. This paper examines three such methods and argues that although each has its merits, they (...)
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  13. Conceptual Tools to Inform Course Design and Teaching for Ethical Engineering Engagement for Diverse Student Populations.Malebogo N. Ngoepe, Kate le Roux, Corrinne B. Shaw & Brandon Collier-Reed - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-23.
    Contemporary engineering education recognises the need for engineering ethics content in undergraduate programmes to extend beyond concepts that form the basis of professional codes to consider relationality and context of engineering practice. Yet there is debate on how this might be done, and we argue that the design and pedagogy for engineering ethics has to consider what and to whom ethics is taught in a particular context. Our interest is in the possibilities and challenges of pursuing the dual imperatives of (...)
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  14. Dual-Use and Trustworthy? A Mixed Methods Analysis of AI Diffusion Between Civilian and Defense R&D.Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe & Stefka Schmid - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-23.
    Artificial Intelligence seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union, normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development, (...)
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  15.  3
    Standards of Conducts for Biostatisticians and Stem Cell Researchers: A Call for Self-formulated Aspirational Ethics Over Built-in Prohibitive Ethics.Keiko Sato & Mika Suzuki - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-20.
    We proposed the Standards of Conducts to provide a general framework that will serve as the basis for guiding each biostatistician and stem cell researcher to formulate their personal standards, rather than as rules with which they are required to comply. Given the responsibility and characteristics of their work, they are expected to maintain independence and work autonomously as professionals. Each of the Standards of Conducts comprises a preamble, mission and values to uphold, Standards of Conducts, and background. When one (...)
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  16.  1
    Developing an Online Data Ethics Module Informed by an Ecology of Data Perspective.Xiaofeng Tang, Eduardo Mendieta & Thomas A. Litzinger - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-22.
    A self-perceived lack of training in ethical theories and related pedagogy has kept many engineering faculty members from teaching data ethics, an important aspect of engineering research that has become more salient in recent years. This paper describes the development of a module, which includes concepts, cases, policies, and best practices, to support the teaching of ethical data practice. Based on a user-oriented design approach and a moral literacy framework, the module was designed to be used in different courses and (...)
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  17.  1
    Max Power: Implementing the Capabilities Approach to Identify Thresholds and Ceilings in Energy Justice.Patrik Baard & Anders Melin - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, we apply the capabilities approach—with the addition of capability ceilings—to energy justice. We argue that, to ensure energy justice, energy policies and scenarios should consider enabling not only minimal capability thresholds but also maximum capability ceilings. It is permissible, perhaps even morally required, to limit the capabilities of those above the threshold if it is necessary for enabling those below the threshold to reach the level required by justice. We make a distinction between tragic and non-tragic conflicts (...)
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  18.  2
    The Societal Readiness Thinking Tool: A Practical Resource for Maturing the Societal Readiness of Research Projects.Michael J. Bernstein, Mathias Wullum Nielsen, Emil Alnor, André Brasil, Astrid Lykke Birkving, Tung Tung Chan, Erich Griessler, Stefan de Jong, Wouter van de Klippe, Ingeborg Meijer, Emad Yaghmaei, Peter Busch Nicolaisen, Mika Nieminen, Peter Novitzky & Niels Mejlgaard - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-32.
    In this paper, we introduce the Societal Readiness Thinking Tool to aid researchers and innovators in developing research projects with greater responsiveness to societal values, needs, and expectations. The need for societally-focused approaches to research and innovation—complementary to Technology Readiness frameworks—is presented. Insights from responsible research and innovation concepts and practice, organized across critical stages of project-life cycles are discussed with reference to the development of the SR Thinking Tool. The tool is designed to complement not only shortfalls in TR (...)
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  19.  4
    Questionable Research Practices and Misconduct Among Norwegian Researchers.Matthias Kaiser, Laura Drivdal, Johs Hjellbrekke, Helene Ingierd & Ole Bjørn Rekdal - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-31.
    This article presents results from the national survey conducted in 2018 for the project Research Integrity in Norway. A total of 31,206 questionnaires were sent out to Norwegian researchers by e-mail, and 7291 responses were obtained. In this paper, we analyse the survey data to determine attitudes towards and the prevalence of fabrication, falsification and plagiarism and contrast this with attitudes towards and the prevalence of the more questionable research practices surveyed. Our results show a relatively low percentage of self-reported (...)
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  20.  4
    Energy Communities and the Tensions Between Neoliberalism and Communitarianism.Erik Laes & Gunter Bombaerts - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-21.
    The convergent development of distributed electricity sources, storage technologies, ‘big data’ devices, and novel ICT infrastructure matching energy supply and demand enables new local and collective forms of energy consumption and production. This socio-technical evolution has been accompanied by the development of citizen energy communities that have been supported by EU energy governance and directives, adopting a political narrative of placing the citizen central in the ongoing energy transition. But to what extent are the ideals that motivate the energy community (...)
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  21.  1
    Meaningful Lives in an Age of Artificial Intelligence: A Reply to Danaher.Lucas Scripter - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-9.
    Does the rise of artificial intelligence pose a threat to human sources of meaning? While much ink has been spilled on how AI could undercut meaningful human work, John Danaher has raised the stakes by claiming that AI could “sever” human beings from non-work-related sources of meaning—specifically, those related to intellectual and moral goods. Against this view, I argue that his suggestion that AI poses a threat to these areas of meaningful activity is overstated. Self-transformative activities pose a hard limit (...)
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  22.  8
    Ethical, Legal and Social Issues of Digital Phenotyping as a Future Solution for Present-Day Challenges: A Scoping Review.Ana Tomičić, Anamaria Malešević & Anto Čartolovni - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-25.
    Digital phenotyping represents an avenue of consideration in patients' self-management. This scoping review aims to explore the trends in the body of literature on ethical, legal, and social challenges relevant to the implementation of digital phenotyping technologies in healthcare. The study followed the PRISMA-ScR methodology :467–473, 2018. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850). The review systematically identified relevant literature, characterised the discussed technology, explored its impacts and the proposed solutions to identified challenges. Overall, the literature, perhaps unsurprisingly, concentrates on technical rather than ethical, legal, and (...)
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  23.  4
    Taking Responsible Innovation to China: The Dalian Port Development Case.Ping Yan, Qian Wang & Carl Mitcham - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-19.
    Responsible innovation is playing a progressively significant role in the developed countries of Europe and North America, but is not as often used as a framework for analysis in developing countries. This article describes how what we term latent or implicit RI was introduced to a large-scale technological project in China: the expansion of the deep-sea port in Dalian. This analysis first reviews the historical development of the port and summarizes the Chinese context since the Reform and Opening that began (...)
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