Year:

  1.  6
    Willpower Through Cultural Tools: An Example From Alcoholics Anonymous.Pamela Acquaro & Richard Sosis - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We argue that a closer look at the practices and tools that humans use to support willpower, and the cultural contexts in which they are employed, can broaden the applicability of Ainslie's theory and facilitate the development of more effective self-control techniques. To support our argument, we examine Alcoholics Anonymous's method of temptation resistance known as “playing the tape through”.
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  2.  19
    Reply to Commentaries to Willpower with and Without Effort.George Ainslie - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Twenty-six commentators from several disciplines have written on the assumption that choice is determined by comparative valuation in a common denominator of reward, the “competitive marketplace.” There was no apparent disagreement that prospective rewards are discounted hyperbolically, although some found that the resulting predictions could come just as well from other models, including the interpretation of delay as risk and analysis in terms of hot versus cold valuation systems. Several novel ideas emerged.
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  3.  39
    Willpower with and Without Effort.George Ainslie - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-81.
    Most authors who discuss willpower assume that everyone knows what it is, but our assumptions differ to such an extent that we talk past each other. We agree that willpower is the psychological function that resists temptations – variously known as impulses, addictions, or bad habits; that it operates simultaneously with temptations, without prior commitment; and that use of it is limited by its cost, commonly called effort, as well as by the person's skill at executive functioning. However, accounts are (...)
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  4. Sound Sleep: Lullabies as a Test Case for the Neurobiological Effects of Music.Miriam Akkermann, Ugur Can Akkaya, Cagatay Demirel, Dirk Pflüger & Martin Dresler - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Music is part of the cultural practice and, at the same time, is interwoven with biology through its effects on the brain and its likely evolutionary origin. Studies on music, however, are traditionally based on the humanities and often carried out in a purely historical context, without much input from neuroscience and biology. Here, we argue that lullabies are a particularly suited test case to study the biological versus cultural aspects of music.
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  5. Music, Groove, and Play.Richard D. Ashley - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. include groove and dance among musical features which enhance social bonds and group coherence. I discuss groove as grounded in structure and performance, and relate musical performance to play in nonhuman animals and humans. The interplay of individuals' contributions with group action is proposed as the common link between music and play as contributors to social bonding.
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  6.  2
    Musicality Was Not Selected for, Rather Humans Have a Good Reason to Learn Music.Shir Atzil & Lior Abramson - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that not social bonding, but rather a different mechanism underlies the development of musicality: being unable to survive alone. The evolutionary constraint of being dependent on other humans for survival provides the ultimate driving force for acquiring human faculties such as sociality and musicality, through mechanisms of learning and neural plasticity. This evolutionary mechanism maximizes adaptation to a dynamic environment.
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  7. Perceived Number is Not Abstract.Lauren S. Aulet & Stella F. Lourenco - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To support the claim that the approximate number system represents rational numbers, Clarke and Beck argue that number perception is abstract and characterized by a second-order character. However, converging evidence from visual illusions and psychophysics suggests that perceived number is not abstract, but rather, is perceptually interdependent with other magnitudes. Moreover, number, as a concept, is second-order, but number, as a percept, is not.
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  8.  2
    Sizes, Ratios, Approximations: On What and How the ANS Represents.Brian Ball - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck propose that the approximate number system represents rational numbers. The evidence cited supports only the view that it represents ratios. Rational numbers are extensive magnitudes, whereas ratios are intensities. It is also argued that WHAT a system represents and HOW it does so are not as independent of one another as the authors assume.
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  9. Numerical Cognition Needs More and Better Distinctions, Not Fewer.Hilary Barth & Anna Shusterman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We agree that the approximate number system truly represents number. We endorse the authors' conclusions on the arguments from confounds, congruency, and imprecision, although we disagree with many claims along the way. Here, we discuss some complications with the meanings that undergird theories in numerical cognition, and with the language we use to communicate those theories.
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  10.  34
    Numbers, Numerosities, and New Directions.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-20.
    In our target article, we argued that the number sense represents natural and rational numbers. Here, we respond to the 26 commentaries we received, highlighting new directions for empirical and theoretical research. We discuss two background assumptions, arguments against the number sense, whether the approximate number system represents numbers or numerosities, and why the ANS represents rational numbers.
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  11. Social Bonding and Music: Evidence From Lesions to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.Amy M. Belfi - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The music and social bonding hypothesis suggests that damage to brain regions in the proposed neurobiological model, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, would disrupt the social and emotional effects of music. This commentary evaluates prior research in persons with vmPFC damage in light of the predictions put forth by the MSB hypothesis.
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  12.  9
    Evolutionary Linguistics Can Help Refine (and Test) Hypotheses About How Music Might Have Evolved.Antonio Benítez-Burraco - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both the music and social bonding hypothesis and the music as a credible signal hypothesis emerge as solid views of how human music and human musicality might have evolved. Nonetheless, both views could be improved with the consideration of the way in which human language might have evolved under the effects of our self-domestication.
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  13.  2
    The Number Sense Does Not Represent Numbers, but Cardinality Comparisons.José Luis Bermúdez - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Against Clarke and Beck's proposal that the approximate number system represents natural and rational numbers, I suggest that the experimental evidence is better accommodated by the thesis that the ANS represents cardinality comparisons. Cardinality comparisons do not stand in arithmetical relations and being able to apply them does not involve basic arithmetical concepts and operations.
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  14. Willpower Needs Tactical Skill.Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44 (e32):17–18.
    In “Willpower with and without effort”, G. Ainslie advances our understanding of selfcontrol by theoretically unifying multiple forms of willpower. But one crucial question remains unanswered: How do agents pick the right forms of willpower in each situation? I argue that willpower requires tactical skill, which detects willpower-demanding contexts, selects context-appropriate tactics, and monitors their implementation. Research on tactical skill will significantly advance our understanding of willpower.
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  15.  2
    It's Not a Bug, It's Boredom: Effortful Willpower Balances Exploitation and Exploration.Maik Bieleke & Wanja Wolff - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The continuous revaluation of rewards lies at the core of Ainslie's account of willpower. Yet, he does not explicate the underlying experiential mechanisms. We draw upon theoretical, neuroscientific, and computational evidence to demonstrate that boredom evokes revaluation. By biasing behavior toward exploration, boredom necessitates effortful willpower to balance it against exploitation, thereby rendering suppression a highly adaptive function of willpower.
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  16. Cleansing and Separating: From Modern Agriculture and Genocide to Post-Separation Era.Michal Bilewicz & Aleksandra Bilewicz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that the metaphor of cleansing was a by-product of modernization processes. Based on cultural and historical evidence, we claim that the activation of cleansing metaphor triggered positive associations in times when separation was a positively regarded element of human culture and agriculture, but it should not exert the same effect in times when separation became culturally anachronistic.
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  17. Progress Without Exclusion in the Search for an Evolutionary Basis of Music.Daniel L. Bowling, Marisa Hoeschele & Jacob C. Dunn - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Mehr et al.'s hypothesis that the origins of music lie in credible signaling emerges here as a strong contender to explain early adaptive functions of music. Its integration with evolutionary biology and its specificity mark important contributions. However, much of the paper is dedicated to the exclusion of popular alternative hypotheses, which we argue is unjustified and premature.
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  18. The Impact of Grounded Procedures Can Vary as a Function of Perceived Thought Validity, Meaning, and Timing.Pablo Briñol & Richard E. Petty - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Cleansing inductions reduce the impact of negative and positive reactions, whereas connection manipulations magnify them. We suggest that grounded procedures can produce these effects by affecting the perceived validity of thoughts. In accord with the self-validation theory, we also note the importance of considering how moderators, such as the meaning of the action and the timing of inductions, affect outcomes.
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  19.  15
    Positing Numerosities May Be Metaphysically Extravagant; Positing Representation of Numerosities is Not.Simon A. B. Brown - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck assume that approximate number system representations should be assigned referents from our scientific ontology. However, many representations, both in perception and cognition, do not straightforwardly refer to such entities. If we reject Clarke and Beck's assumption, many possible contents for ANS representations besides number are compatible with the evidence Clarke and Beck cite.
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  20.  3
    Music and Dance Are Two Parallel Routes for Creating Social Cohesion.Steven Brown - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. do an excellent job of making the case for social bonding in general, but do a less good job of distinguishing the manners by which dance and music achieve this. It is important to see dance and music as two parallel and interactive mechanisms that employ the “group body” and “group voice,” respectively, in engendering social cohesion.
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  21. Second-Order Characteristics Don't Favor a Number-Representing ANS.Stefan Buijsman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck argue that the ANS doesn't represent non-numerical magnitudes because of its second-order character. A sensory integration mechanism can explain this character as well, provided the dumbbell studies involve interference from systems that segment by objects such as the Object Tracking System. Although currently equal hypotheses, I point to several ways the two can be distinguished.
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  22.  10
    Increasing Resolution in the Mechanisms of Resolve.Adam Bulley & Daniel L. Schacter - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie offers an encompassing and compelling account of willpower, although his big-picture view comes occasionally at the cost of low resolution. We comment on ambiguity in the metacognitive and prospective mechanisms of resolve implicated in recursive self-prediction. We hope to show both the necessity and promise of specifying testable cognitive mechanisms of willpower.
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  23. Numbers in Action.David C. Burr, Giovanni Anobile, Elisa Castaldi & Roberto Arrighi - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To understand the number sense, we need to understand its function. We argue that numerosity estimation is fundamental not only for perception, but also preparation and control of action. We outline experiments that link numerosity estimation with action, pointing to a generalized numerosity system that serves both perception and action preparation.
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  24. The Number Sense Represents (Rational) Numbers.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-57.
    On a now orthodox view, humans and many other animals possess a “number sense,” or approximate number system, that represents number. Recently, this orthodox view has been subject to numerous critiques that question whether the ANS genuinely represents number. We distinguish three lines of critique – the arguments from congruency, confounds, and imprecision – and show that none succeed. We then provide positive reasons to think that the ANS genuinely represents numbers, and not just non-numerical confounds or exotic substitutes for (...)
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  25. Music, Attachment, and Uncertainty: Music as Communicative Interaction.Ian Cross - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both papers – to different degrees – underplay the interactive dimensions of music, and both would have benefited from integrating the concept of attachment into their treatments of social bonding. I further suggest that their treatment of music as a discrete domain of human experience and behaviour weakens their arguments concerning its functions in human evolution.
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  26.  2
    When Will's Wont Wants Wanting.Peter Dayan - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We use neural reinforcement learning concepts including Pavlovian versus instrumental control, liking versus wanting, model-based versus model-free control, online versus offline learning and planning, and internal versus external actions and control to reflect on putative conflicts between short-term temptations and long-term goals.
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  27.  1
    Music as a Social Bond in Patients with Amnesia.Maria Chiara Del Mastro, Maria Rosaria Strollo & Mohamad El Haj - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The music and social bonding hypothesis proposes that human musicality has evolved as mechanisms supporting social bonding. We consider the MSB hypothesis under the lens of amnesia by arguing how patients with amnesia, especially those with Alzheimer's disease, can benefit from music, not only to retrieve personal memories, but also to use them for social bonding.
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  28.  1
    Ancestral Human Mother–Infant Interaction Was an Adaptation That Gave Rise to Music and Dance.Ellen Dissanayake - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Human infants are born ready to respond to affiliative signals of a caretaker's face, body, and voice. This ritualized behavior in ancestral mothers and infants was an adaptation that gave rise to music and dance as exaptations for promoting group ritual and other social bonding behaviors, arguing for an evolutionary relationship between mother and infant bonding and both music and dance.
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  29. Real Models: The Limits of Behavioural Evidence for Understanding the ANS.Denitza Dramkin & Darko Odic - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck use behavioural evidence to argue that approximate ratio computations are sufficient for claiming that the approximate number system represents the rationals, and the ANS does not represent the reals. We argue that pure behaviour is a poor litmus test for this problem, and that we should trust the psychophysical models that place ANS representations within the reals.
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  30.  12
    The Complex Nature of Willpower and Conceptual Mapping of its Normative Significance in Research on Stress, Addiction, and Dementia.Veljko Dubljević & Shevaun D. Neupert - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Willpower has ramifications for autonomy and mental time-travel. Autonomy presupposes mature powers of volition and the capacity to anticipate future events and consequences of one's actions. Ainslie's study is useful to clarify basic autonomy in addiction and dementia. Furthermore, we show how our study on coping with stress can be applied to suppression and resolve.
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  31.  6
    The Evolution of Music: One Trait, Many Ultimate-Level Explanations.Edgar Dubourg, Jean-Baptiste André & Nicolas Baumard - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose an approach reconciling the ultimate-level explanations proposed by Savage et al. and Mehr et al. as to why music evolved. We also question the current adaptationist view of culture, which too often fails to disentangle distinct fitness benefits.
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  32.  1
    Numerosities Are Not Ersatz Numbers.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & César Frederico dos Santos - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In describing numerosity as “a kind of ersatz number,” Clarke and Beck fail to consider a familiar and compelling definition of numerosity, which conceptualizes numerosity as the cognitive counterpart of the mathematical concept of cardinality; numerosity is the magnitude, whereas number is a scale through which numerosity/cardinality is measured. We argue that these distinctions should be considered.
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  33. The Music and Social Bonding Hypothesis Does Require Multilevel Selection.Dustin Eirdosh & Susan Hanisch - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Is musicality an individual level adaptation? The authors of this target article reject the need for group selection within their model, yet their arguments do not fulfill the conceptual requirements for justifying such a rejection. Further analysis can highlight the explanatory value of embracing multilevel selection theory as a foundational element of the music and social bonding hypothesis.
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  34. Psychology of Cleansing Through the Prism of Intersecting Object Histories.Zachary Ekves, Yanina Prystauka, Charles P. Davis, Eiling Yee & Gerry T. M. Altmann - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We link cleansing effects to contemporary cognitive theories via an account of event representation that provides an explicit, neurally plausible mechanism for encoding objects and their associations across time. It explains separation as resulting from weakening associations between the self in the present and the self in the past.
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  35.  3
    Separation/Connection Procedures: From Cleansing Behavior to Numerical Cognition.Arianna Felisatti, Martin H. Fischer, Elena Kulkova, Katharina Kühne & Alexej Michirev - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz suggest that separation is the grounded procedure underlying cleansing effects in different psychological domains. Here, we interpret L&S's account from a hierarchical view of cognition that considers the influence of physical properties and sensorimotor constraints on mental representations. This approach allows theoretical integration and generalization of L&S's account to the domain of formal quantitative reasoning.
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  36.  1
    Leveraging Individual Differences to Understand Grounded Procedures.Adam K. Fetterman, Michael D. Robinson & Brian P. Meier - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We applaud the goals and execution of the target article, but note that individual differences do not receive much attention. This is a shortcoming because individual differences can play a vital role in theory testing. In our commentary, we describe programs of research of this type and also apply similar thinking to the mechanisms proposed in the target article.
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  37.  1
    Is the MSB Hypothesis (Music as a Coevolved System for Social Bonding) Testable in the Popperian Sense?Jonathan B. Fritz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    “Music As a Coevolved System for Social Bonding” is a brilliant synthesis and appealing hypothesis offering insights into the evolution and social bonding of musicality, but is so broad and sweeping it will be challenging to test, prove or falsify in the Popperian sense. After general comments, I focus my critique on underlying neurobiological mechanisms, and offer some suggestions for experimental tests of MSB.
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  38. If Music Be the Food of Love, Play On: Four Ways That Music May Lead to Social Connection.Shira Gabriel & Elaine Paravati - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The hypothesis that music is well suited to facilitate social bonding is highly consistent with social psychological research on the need to belong. We explore how music is uniquely placed to increase feelings of connections to large collectives by increasing collective effervescence, providing narratives, reminding one of others, and providing social surrogates.
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  39.  1
    The Approximate Number System Represents Magnitude and Precision.Charles R. Gallistel - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Numbers are symbols manipulated in accord with the axioms of arithmetic. They sometimes represent discrete and continuous quantities, but they are often simply names. Brains, including insect brains, represent the rational numbers with a fixed-point data type, consisting of a significand and an exponent, thereby conveying both magnitude and precision.
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  40. Human Evolution of Gestural Messaging and its Critical Role in the Human Development of Music.Martin F. Gardiner - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    By fostering bonding, music illustrates marvelously its ability to induce emotional experience. But, music can induce emotion more generally as well. To help explain how music fosters bonding and induces other emotions, I propose that music derives this power from the evolution of what I term “gestural messaging.”.
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  41. Developmental Antecedents of Cleansing Effects: Evidence Against Domain-Generality.Emily Gerdin, Shruthi Venkatesh, Joshua Rottman & Jasmine M. DeJesus - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz propose grounded procedures of separation as a domain-general mechanism underlying cleansing effects. One strong test of domain generality is to investigate the ontogenetic origins of a process. Here, we argue that the developmental evidence provides weak support for a domain-general grounded procedures account. Instead, it is likely that distinct separation procedures develop uniquely for different content domains.
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  42.  3
    Grounded Separation: Can the Sensorimotor Be Grounded in the Symbolic?Michael Gilead, Yaacov Trope & Nira Liberman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    According to Lee and Schwarz, the sensorimotor experience of cleansing involves separating one physical entity from another and grounds mental separation of one psychological entity from another. We propose that cleansing effects may result from symbolic cognition. Instead of viewing abstract meanings as emerging from concrete physical acts of cleansing, this physical act may be appended with pre-existing, symbolic meaning.
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  43. Music's Putative Adaptive Function Hinges on a Combination of Distinct Mechanisms.Bruno Gingras - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Music's efficacy as a credible signal and/or as a tool for social bonding piggybacks on a diverse set of biological and cognitive processes, implying different proximate mechanisms. It is likely this multiplicity of mechanisms that explains why it is so difficult to account for music's putative biological role, as well as its possible origins, by proposing a single adaptive function.
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  44. Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Number and the Approximate Number System.David Maximiliano Gómez - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The distinction between non-symbolic and symbolic number is poorly addressed by the authors despite being relevant in numerical cognition, and even more important in light of the proposal that the approximate number system represents rational numbers. Although evidence on non-symbolic number and ratios fits with ANS representations, the case for symbolic number and rational numbers is still open.
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  45. Is Neural Entrainment to Rhythms the Basis of Social Bonding Through Music?Jessica A. Grahn, Anna-Katharina R. Bauer & Anna Zamm - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Music uses the evolutionarily unique temporal sensitivity of the auditory system and its tight coupling to the motor system to create a common neurophysiological clock between individuals that facilitates action coordination. We propose that this shared common clock arises from entrainment to musical rhythms, the process by which partners' brains and bodies become temporally aligned to the same rhythmic pulse.
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  46.  8
    Beyond Willpower.James J. Gross & Angela L. Duckworth - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    For all its popularity as a psychological construct, willpower is irremediably polysemous. A more helpful construct is self-control, defined as the self-regulation of conflicting impulses. We show how the process model of self-control provides a principled framework for examining how undesirable impulses may be weakened and desirable impulses may be strengthened.
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  47.  13
    Representation of Pure Magnitudes in ANS.Steven Gross, William Kowalsky & Tyler Burge - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    According to Clarke and Beck, the approximate number system represents numbers. We argue that the ANS represents pure magnitudes. Considerations of explanatory economy favor the pure magnitudes hypothesis. The considerations C&B direct against the pure magnitudes hypothesis do not have force.
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  48.  5
    Grounded Procedures of Separation in Clinical Psychology: What's to Be Expected?Anke Haberkamp & Thomas Schmidt - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The hypothesis of grounded procedures of separation predicts accentuated effects in individuals with psychiatric disorders, for example, obsessive-compulsive disorders with washing compulsion. This could provide a vantage point for understanding cognitive processes related to specific disorders. However, fully exploring it requires updated experimental designs, including extensive control conditions, exclusion of alternative explanations, internal replications, and parametric variation to strengthen internal validity.
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  49. An Evolutionary Theory of Music Needs to Care About Developmental Timing.Erin E. Hannon, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Joel S. Snyder & Karli M. Nave - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both target papers cite evidence from infancy and early childhood to support the notion of human musicality as a somewhat static suite of capacities; however, in our view they do not adequately acknowledge the critical role of developmental timing, the acquisition process, or the dynamics of social learning, especially during later periods of development such as middle childhood.
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  50. Oxytocin as an Allostatic Agent in the Social Bonding Effects of Music.Niels Chr Hansen & Peter E. Keller - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Despite acknowledging that musicality evolved to serve multiple adaptive functions in human evolution, Savage et al. promote social bonding to an overarching super-function. Yet, no unifying neurobiological framework is offered. We propose that oxytocin constitutes a socio-allostatic agent whose modulation of sensing, learning, prediction, and behavioral responses with reference to the physical and social environment facilitates music's social bonding effects.
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  51.  1
    Weighting on Waiting: Willpower and Attribute Weighting Models of Decision Making.Alison Harris - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Willpower is often conceptualized as incorporating effortful and momentary suppression of immediate but ultimately inferior rewards. Yet, growing evidence instead supports a process of attribute weighting, whereby normatively optimal choices arise from separable evaluation of different attributes. Strategic allocation of attention settles conflicts between competing choice-relevant attributes, which could be expanded to include self-referential predictions.
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  52. Against Unitary Theories of Music Evolution.Peter M. C. Harrison & Madeleine Seale - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. and Mehr et al. provide well-substantiated arguments that the evolution of musicality was shaped by adaptive functions of social bonding and credible signalling. However, they are too quick to dismiss byproduct explanations of music evolution, and to present their theories as complete unitary accounts of the phenomenon.
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  53.  1
    Bonding System in Nonhuman Primates and Biological Roots of Musicality.Yuko Hattori - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Comparative studies of primates indicate that humans have evolved unique motivations and cognitive skills for sharing emotions, experiences, and collaborative actions. Given the characteristics of music, the music and social bonding hypothesis by Savage et al. fits this view. Within a cross-species approach, predispositions not observed in current communication system may contribute to a better understanding of the biological roots of human musicality.
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  54.  3
    Not so Rational: A More Natural Way to Understand the ANS.Eli Hecht, Tracey Mills, Steven Shin & Jonathan Phillips - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In contrast to Clarke and Beck's claim that that the approximate number system represents rational numbers, we argue for a more modest alternative: The ANS represents natural numbers, and there are separate, non-numeric processes that can be used to represent ratios across a wide range of domains, including natural numbers.
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  55. Numerical Cognition: Unitary or Diversified System(S)?Avishai Henik, Moti Salti, Aviv Avitan, Elad Oz-Cohen, Yoel Shilat & H. Moriah Sokolowski - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Many researchers, including Clarke and Beck, describe the human numerical system as unitary. We offer an alternative view – the coexistence of several systems; namely, multiple systems existing in parallel, ready to be activated depending on the task/need. Based on this alternative view, we present an account for the representation of rational numbers.
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  56.  2
    Aspiration Fuels Willpower: Evidence From the Addiction Literature.Gene M. Heyman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie identifies two possible motivational sources for resolve: “thinking categorically” and “intertemporal bargaining.” Ainslie opts for intertemporal bargaining, adding that thinking categorically has no motivational power. The most researched instance of willpower is remission from addiction. This literature shows that aspirations for a more desirable identity and comfortable lifestyle motivate remission. In other words, “thinking categorically” drives willpower.
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  57. Why Musical Hierarchies?Courtney B. Hilton, Rie Asano & Cedric Boeckx - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Credible signaling may have provided a selection pressure for producing and discriminating increasingly elaborate proto-musical signals. But, why evolve them to have hierarchical structure? We argue that the hierarchality of tonality and meter is a byproduct of domain-general mechanisms evolved for reasons other than credible signaling.
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  58.  1
    Willpower Without Risk?Andre Hofmeyr - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie does not formally incorporate risk and uncertainty in his framework for modelling impulses and willpower. To provide a complete account of the motivational bases of choice behaviour, Ainslie should extend his framework to incorporate risk attitudes and subjective beliefs.
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  59. Unravelling the Origins of Musicality: Beyond Music as an Epiphenomenon of Language.Henkjan Honing - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The two target articles address the origins of music in complementary ways. However, both proposals focus on overt musical behaviour, largely ignoring the role of perception and cognition, and they blur the boundaries between the potential origins of language and music. To resolve this, an alternative research strategy is proposed that focuses on the core cognitive components of musicality.
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  60. The Role of Mortality Concerns in Separation and Connection Effects: Comment on Lee and Schwarz.Dylan E. Horner & Jeff Greenberg - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Using terror management theory and research findings, we expand the framework provided by Lee and Schwarz to highlight the potential link between separation and connection effects to existential, death-related concerns. Specifically, we address how death awareness may motivate separation and connection behaviors and how engaging in these behaviors may serve a protective terror management function.
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  61.  14
    More Dynamical and More Symbiotic: Cortico-Striatal Models of Resolve, Suppression, and Routine Habit.Linus Ta-Lun Huang - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    I extend Ainslie's core claims with three cortico-striatal models that respectively subserve the key constructs of resolve, suppression, and routine habit. I show that these models suggest a more dynamical and symbiotic relation among the constructs: there are more ways they interact to reinforce willpower, and the temporal dimension of the interactions can often determine the effectiveness of the reinforcement.
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  62. Ratio-Based Perceptual Foundations for Rational Numbers, and Perhaps Whole Numbers, Too?Edward M. Hubbard & Percival G. Matthews - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck suggest that the ratio processing system may be a component of the approximate number system, which they suggest represents rational numbers. We argue that available evidence is inconsistent with their account and advocate for a two-systems view. This implies that there may be many access points for numerical cognition – and that privileging the ANS may be a mistake.
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  63.  2
    Willpower is Overrated.Michael Inzlicht & Malte Friese - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Any analysis of self-regulation that focuses solely on willpower in conflict-laden situations is insufficient. Research makes clear that the best way to reach one's goal is not to resist temptations but to avoid temptations before they arrive; it further suggests that willpower is fragile and not to be relied on; and that the best self-regulators engage in willpower remarkably seldom.
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  64. What's Not Music, but Feels Like Music to You?Vijay Iyer - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The category “music” as used in this area of science is inconsistent and unstable, and its logical relationship to the word “musicality” – used by scientists to denote the human capacity for music – is circular. Therefore, rather than pursue the question, “Why did music evolve?” let us ask more inclusively, “What experiences in humankind's deep past might have felt like music?”.
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  65.  5
    What Are We Doing When We Perceive Numbers?Max Jones, Karim Zahidi & Daniel D. Hutto - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck rightly contend that the number sense allows us to directly perceive number. However, they unnecessarily assume a representationalist approach and incur a heavy theoretical cost by invoking “modes of presentation.” We suggest that the relevant evidence is better explained by adopting a radical enactivist approach that avoids characterizing the approximate number system as a system for representing number.
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  66. Mind the Gap: The Mediating Role of Emotion Mechanisms in Social Bonding Through Musical Activities.Patrik N. Juslin - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    I support the music and social bonding framework, but submit that the authors' predictions lack discriminative power, and that they do not engage sufficiently with the emotion mechanisms that mediate between musical features and social bonding. I elaborate on how various mechanisms may contribute, in unique ways, to social bonding at various levels to help account for the socio-emotional effects of music.
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  67. Going Beyond Elementary Mechanisms: The Strategic Interplay Between Grounded Procedures.Peter Kardos - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The model presented by Lee and Schwarz provides a novel explanation for the elementary mechanisms of psychological cleansing. I argue that the model could be extended to account for complex instances of psychological cleansing where the grounded procedures are not isolated and the opposing motives of separation and connection are entangled in a strategic interplay.
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  68.  1
    A Neurodevelopmental Disorders Perspective Into Music, Social Attention, and Social Bonding.Anna Kasdan, Reyna L. Gordon & Miriam D. Lense - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Our commentary addresses how two neurodevelopmental disorders, Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder, provide novel insights into the credible signaling and music and social bonding hypotheses presented in the two target articles. We suggest that these neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by atypical social communication, allow us to test hypotheses about music, social bonding, and their underlying neurobiology.
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  69. Credible Signalling and Social Bonds: Ultimately Drawing on the Same Idea.Patrick Kennedy & Andrew N. Radford - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The hypotheses in both target articles rely implicitly on much the same logic. For a “social-bonding” device to make sense, there must be an underlying reason why an otherwise-arbitrary behaviour sustains alliances – namely, credible signals of one's value to partners. To illustrate our points, we draw on the parallels with supposed bonding behaviours in nonhuman animals.
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  70.  9
    Is “Willpower” a Scientific Concept? Suppressing Temptation Contra Resolution in the Face of Adversity.Elias L. Khalil - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The distinction that Ainslie draws among the triple-phenomena “suppression,” “resolve,” and “habit” is a great advance in decision making theory. But the conceptual machinery “willpower,” and its underpinning distinction between small/soon rewards as opposed to large/later rewards, provides a faulty framework to understand the triple-phenomena.
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  71.  3
    Not by Signalling Alone: Music's Mosaicism Undermines the Search for a Proper Function.Anton Killin, Carl Brusse, Adrian Currie & Ronald J. Planer - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Mehr et al. seek to explain music's evolution in terms of a unitary proper function – signalling cooperative intent – which they cash out in two guises, coalition signalling and parental attention signalling. Although we recognize the role signalling almost certainly played in the evolution of music, we reject “ultimate” causal explanations which focus on a unidirectional, narrow range of causal factors.
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  72.  1
    Specifying Separation: Avoidance, Abstraction, Openness to New Experiences.Anita Körner & Fritz Strack - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz suggest grounded procedures of separation as a mechanism for embodied cleansing. We compare this process to other mechanisms in grounded cognition and suggest a broader conceptualization that allows integration into general cognitive models of social behavior. Specifically, separation will be understood as a mindset of completed avoidance resulting in high abstraction and openness to new experiences.
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  73. Musicality as a Predictive Process.Nils Kraus & Guido Hesselmann - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. argue for musicality as having evolved for the overarching purpose of social bonding. By way of contrast, we highlight contemporary predictive processing models of human cognitive functioning in which the production and enjoyment of music follows directly from the principle of prediction error minimization.
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  74.  1
    Willpower is a Form of, but Not Synonymous with, Self-Control.Ariella Kristal & Julian Zlatev - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We build on Ainslie's discussion of willpower by highlighting another common misconception in the literature: the conflation of self-control and willpower. In our commentary, we identify this issue and discuss the importance of recognizing willpower not as synonymous with self-control, but rather as a subset of self-control. We describe a set of upstream strategies as more effective alternatives to willpower.
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  75. Culture, Ecology, and Grounded Procedures.Jung Yul Kwon, Arthur M. Glenberg & Michael E. W. Varnum - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that grounded procedures may help explain psychological variations across cultures. Here we offer a set of novel predictions based on the interplay between the social and physical ecology, chronic sensorimotor experience, and cultural norms.
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  76.  1
    Suppression, Resolve, and Habit in Everyday Financial Behaviour.Stephen E. G. Lea - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Everyday financial behaviour involves inter-temporal choices, between saving, spending, and debt. Consumers do not always take these decisions to their best advantage. Ainslie's analysis of the means to willpower as suppression, resolve, and habit is potentially applicable to understanding and improving the decisions that consumers make. Some relevant research on these topics exists, and it is briefly reviewed here.
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  77. Bio-Culturally Grounded: Why Separation and Connection May Not Be the Same Around the World.Albert Lee & Gianluca Esposito - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Central to the account of grounded procedures is the premise that mental experiences are grounded in physical actions. We complement this account by incorporating frameworks in cultural psychology and developmental neuroscience, with new predictions. Through the examples of vicarious experiences and demerit transfer, we discuss why, and how, separation and connection may operate somewhat differently across cultures.
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  78.  1
    Grounded Procedures in Mind and Society.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Our commentators explore the operation of grounded procedures across all levels of analysis in the behavioral sciences, from mental to social, developmental, and evolutionary/functional. Building on them, we offer two integrative principles for systematic effects of grounded procedures to occur. We discuss theoretical topics at each level of analysis, address methodological recommendations, and highlight further extensions of grounded procedures.
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  79.  7
    Grounded Procedures: A Proximate Mechanism for the Psychology of Cleansing and Other Physical Actions.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-78.
    Experimental work has revealed causal links between physical cleansing and various psychological variables. Empirically, how robust are they? Theoretically, how do they operate? Major prevailing accounts focus on morality or disgust, capturing a subset of cleansing effects, but cannot easily handle cleansing effects in non-moral, non-disgusting contexts. Building on grounded views on cognitive processes and known properties of mental procedures, we propose grounded procedures of separation as a proximate mechanism underlying cleansing effects. This account differs from prevailing accounts in terms (...)
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  80. From Washing Hands to Washing Consciences and Polishing Reputations.Matthieu Légeret & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    While Lee and Schwarz propose grounded procedures of separation as an explanation for physical cleansing in various domains, we suggest that separation can also account for behavioral cleansing aimed at washing consciences and polishing reputations. We discuss this extension in terms of degrees of behavioral cleansing, motivations, and intentions behind cleansing, and social settings.
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  81. The Origins of Music in (Musi)Language.Evelina Leivada - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The view of music as a byproduct of other cognitive functions has been deemed incomplete or incorrect. Revisiting the six lines of evidence that support this conclusion, it is argued that it is unclear how the hypothesis that music has its origins in language is discarded. Two additional promising research lines that can support or discard the byproduct hypothesis are presented.
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  82. Knowledge Songs as an Evolutionary Adaptation to Facilitate Information Transmission Through Music.Daniel J. Levitin - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    I propose an adjunct to the two models presented in the target articles, a function of music that is ubiquitous and would have solved a clear adaptive problem, that of transmitting important survival information among pre-literate humans. This class of knowledge songs uniquely preserved cultural, botanical, medical, safety, and practical information that increased the adaptive fitness of societies.
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  83. A Rational Explanation for Links Between the ANS and Math.Melissa E. Libertus, Shirley Duong, Danielle Fox, Leanne Elliott, Rebecca McGregor, Andrew Ribner & Alex M. Silver - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The proposal by Clarke and Beck offers a new explanation for the association between the approximate number system and math. Previous explanations have largely relied on developmental arguments, an underspecified notion of the ANS as an “error detection mechanism,” or affective factors. The proposal that the ANS represents rational numbers suggests that it may directly support a broader range of math skills.
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  84. If It Quacks Like a Duck: The by-Product Account of Music Still Stands.Debra Lieberman & Joseph Billingsley - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Discerning adaptations from by-products is a defining feature of evolutionary science. Mehr, Krasnow, Bryant, and Hagen posit that music is an adaptation that evolved to function as a credible signal. We counter this claim, as we are not convinced they have dispelled the possibility that music is an elaboration of extant features of language.
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  85. Signaling Games and Music as a Credible Signal.Massimo Lumaca, Elvira Brattico & Giosuè Baggio - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The argument by Mehr et al. that music emerged and evolved culturally as a credible signal is convincing, but it lacks one essential ingredient: a model of signaling behavior that supports the main hypothesis theoretically and empirically. We argue that signaling games can help us explain how musical structures emerge as population-level phenomena, through sender–receiver signaling interactions.
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  86.  1
    Contents of the Approximate Number System.Jack C. Lyons - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck argue that the approximate number system represents rational numbers, like 1/3 or 3.5. I think this claim is not supported by the evidence. Rather, I argue, ANS should be interpreted as representing natural numbers and ratios among them; and we should view the contents of these representations are genuinely approximate.
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  87.  2
    Pleas for Patience From the Cumulative Future Self.Sam J. Maglio & Hal E. Hershfield - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Current selves wield all the power in intertemporal tradeoffs. Although one set of future selves will make similar tradeoffs in the future, another self – who we term the cumulative future self – falls on the receiving end of those dictated decisions. How current selves commune with the cumulative future self determines whether the former heed pleas, from the latter, for patience.
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  88. Pluralism Provides the Best Chance for Addressing Big Questions About Music.Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Studying a complex cultural phenomenon like music requires many kinds of expertise. Savage et al. adopt a pluralistic approach, considering multiple forms of evidence and perspectives from multiple fields. This commentary argues that a similar scholarly ecumenicism should be embraced by more studies of music and other cultural phenomena.
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  89. Weighted Numbers.Mila Marinova, Marta Fedele & Bert Reynvoet - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck discuss in their sections on congruency and confounds literature that has challenged the claim that the approximate number system represents numerical content. We argue that the propositions put forward by these studies aren't that far from the indirect model of number perception suggested by C&B.
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  90.  4
    The Number Sense Represents Multitudes and Magnitudes.Oliver R. Marshall - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck's view that numbers are both second-order and sensible is based on an empirically dubious claim, which is required to show that what they call the “weak sensitivity principle” is satisfied. The explanatory benefits that they say are gained by positing a sensory relation to numbers are also gained by positing such a relation to multitudes of objects.
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  91.  10
    Resolve is Always Effortful.Olivier Massin & Bastien Gauchot - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie argues there are two main kinds of willpower: suppression, which is necessarily effortful, and resolve, which is not. We agree with the distinction but argue that all resolve is effortful. Alleged cases of effortless resolve are indeed cases of what Ainslie calls habits, namely stable results of prior uses of resolve.
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  92.  1
    Self-Control From a Multiple Goal Perspective of Mixed Reward Options.Zita Mayer & Alexandra M. Freund - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We introduce a distinct type of choice that has yet to be addressed by self-control research: Choosing between activities that offer both delayed and immediate rewards. We describe when and why such mixed-reward choices pose challenges to self-control, and suggest that self-control in mixed-reward choices may be supported by delay discounting.
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  93.  10
    Origins of Music in Credible Signaling.Samuel A. Mehr, Max M. Krasnow, Gregory A. Bryant & Edward H. Hagen - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-41.
    Music comprises a diverse category of cognitive phenomena that likely represent both the effects of psychological adaptations that are specific to music and the effects of adaptations for non-musical functions. How did music evolve? Here, we show that prevailing views on the evolution of music – that music is a byproduct of other evolved faculties, evolved for social bonding, or evolved to signal mate quality – are incomplete or wrong. We argue instead that music evolved as a credible signal in (...)
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  94. Music, Bonding, and Human Evolution: A Critique.Bjorn Merker - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. propose that music filled a hypothetical “bonding gap” in human sociality by Baldwinian gene-culture coevolution. Both these stepping stones to an evolutionary account of the function and origin of music are problematic. They are scrutinized in this commentary, and an alternative is proposed.
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  95.  11
    Stress and Imagining Future Selves: Resolve in the Hot/Cool Framework.Janet Metcalfe & William James Jacobs - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Although Ainslie dismisses the hot/cool framework as pertaining only to suppression, it actually also has interesting implications for resolve. Resolve focally involves access to our future selves. This access is a cool system function linked to episodic memory. Thus, factors negatively affecting the cool system, such as stress, are predicted to impact two seemingly unrelated capabilities: willpower and episodic memory.
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  96. Present-State Dependency in Valuation of the Future.John R. Monterosso - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's target article provides a map of distinct mechanisms relevant to self-control, potentially providing needed precision to the field. He also breaks new ground in characterizing the symbiotic relationship between suppression and resolve. In this commentary, I argue that one behaviorism-based feature of his framework, present-state independence, is unjustified and unnecessary for the broader claims of the theory.
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  97. Bonds and Signals Underlie the Music Learning Experience.Steven J. Morrison - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The music learning environment is a context in which fundamental forces and values underlying human musicality may be evident. Social bonding within music-making groups is characterized by a high degree of complexity whereas issues of clarity, accuracy, and coordination remain the focus of learning. Physical and cognitive impairments that compromise music learning opportunities offer a critical test of music's link to social bonding.
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  98. Why Don't Cockatoos Have War Songs?Cody Moser, Jordan Ackerman, Alex Dayer, Shannon Proksch & Paul E. Smaldino - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We suggest that the accounts offered by the target articles could be strengthened by acknowledging the role of group selection and cultural niche construction in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of human music. We argue that group level traits and highly variable cultural niches can explain the diversity of human song, but the target articles' accounts are insufficient to explain such diversity.
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  99.  1
    Self-Control (or Willpower) Seeks to Bias the Resolution of Motivational Conflicts Toward an Individual's Long-Term Interests.Samuel A. Nordli & Edward R. Hirt - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We define self-control as an individual's efforts to bias the outcome of present or anticipated motivational conflicts in order to increase the likelihood that subsequent behavior serves perceived long-term interests. We suggest suppression and resolve are not “mechanisms” that underlie self-control, but rather are classes of strategies that influence motivations in order to increase the likelihood of successful self-control outcomes.
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  100.  2
    The Perception of Quantity Ain't Number: Missing the Primacy of Symbolic Reference.Rafael E. Núñez, Francesco D'Errico, Russell D. Gray & Andrea Bender - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck's defense of the theoretical construct “approximate number system” is flawed in serious ways – from biological misconceptions to mathematical naïveté. The authors misunderstand behavioral/psychological technical concepts, such as numerosity and quantical cognition, which they disdain as “exotic.” Additionally, their characterization of rational numbers is blind to the essential role of symbolic reference in the emergence of number.
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  101.  4
    Unwarranted Philosophical Assumptions in Research on ANS.John Opfer, Richard Samuels, Stewart Shapiro & Eric Snyder - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Clarke and Beck import certain assumptions about the nature of numbers. Although these are widespread within research on number cognition, they are highly contentious among philosophers of mathematics. In this commentary, we isolate and critically evaluate one core assumption: the identity thesis.
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  102.  1
    Cultural Mindsets Shape What Grounded Procedures Mean: Cleansing Can Separate or Connect and Separating Can Feel Good or Not so Good.Daphna Oyserman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Are grounded procedures such as cleansing value-neutral main effects? Culture-as-situated-cognition theory suggests otherwise. Societies differ in how frequently they trigger membership and individualizing cultural mindsets and their linked mental-procedures – connecting and separating, respectively. Commonly triggered mindsets feel fluent. Fluency feels good. Cleansing can separate from but also connect to others in the form of membership-based rituals.
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  103.  1
    Where They Sing Solo: Accounting for Cross-Cultural Variation in Collective Music-Making in Theories of Music Evolution.Aniruddh D. Patel & Chris von Rueden - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Collective, synchronous music-making is far from ubiquitous across traditional, small-scale societies. We describe societies that lack collective music and offer hypotheses to help explain this cultural variation. Without identifying the factors that explain variation in collective music-making across these societies, theories of music evolution based on social bonding or coalition signaling remain incomplete.
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  104.  5
    Distinguishing the Specific From the Recognitional and the Canonical, and the Nature of Ratios.Christopher Peacocke - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    There are three independent properties of a mode of presentation of a number: being specific; being recognitional; and being canonical. A perceptual m.p. of the form that many Fs is specific although it is neither recognitional nor canonical. The literature has not distinguished noncanonical from nonspecific m.p.s of numbers. Ratios are fundamentally ratios of magnitudes.
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  105. Music Production Deficits and Social Bonding: The Case of Poor-Pitch Singing.Peter Q. Pfordresher - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both of the companion target articles place considerable performance on music performance ability, with specific attention paid to singing in harmony for the music and social bonding hypothesis proposed by Savage and colleagues. In this commentary, I evaluate results from recent research on singing accuracy in light of their implications for the MSB hypothesis.
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  106. The Approximate Number System Represents Rational Numbers: The Special Case of an Empty Set.Michal Pinhas, Rut Zaks-Ohayon & Joseph Tzelgov - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We agree with Clarke and Beck that the approximate number system represents rational numbers, and we demonstrate our support by highlighting the case of the empty set – the non-symbolic manifestation of zero. It is particularly interesting because of its perceptual and semantic uniqueness, and its exploration reveals fundamental new insights about how numerical information is represented.
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  107.  4
    Sex and Drugs and Rock and Roll.Steven Pinker - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    This article is extraordinarily rigorous and rich, although there are reasons to be skeptical of its theory that music originated to signal group quality and infant solicitude. These include the lack of any signature of the centrality of these functions in the distribution or experience of music; of a role for the pleasure taken in music; and of its connections with language.
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  108.  2
    It's a Matter of (Executive) Load: Separation as a Load-Dependent Resetting Procedure.Giorgia Ponsi, Vanessa Era, Chiara Fini & Ilenia Falcinelli - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz made considerable theoretical advances in the psychology of cleansing by proposing that cleaning actions might serve as separation procedures between two psychological entities. Here, we propose that the effectiveness of the separation process may be modulated by the available amount of executive resources, and that separation may operate as a load-dependent resetting procedure.
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  109. Musical Features Emerging From a Biocultural Musicality.Tudor Popescu, Nathan Oesch & Bryony Buck - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Savage et al. make a compelling case, Mehr et al. less so, for social bonding and credible signalling, respectively, as the main adaptive function of human musicality. We express general advocacy for the former thesis, highlighting: overlap between the two; direct versus derived biological functions, and aspects of music embedded in cultural evolution, for example, departures from tonality.
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  110. Isochrony, Vocal Learning, and the Acquisition of Rhythm and Melody.Andrea Ravignani - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    A cross-species perspective can extend and provide testable predictions for Savage et al.'s framework. Rhythm and melody, I argue, could bootstrap each other in the evolution of musicality. Isochrony may function as a temporal grid to support rehearsing and learning modulated, pitched vocalizations. Once this melodic plasticity is acquired, focus can shift back to refining rhythm processing and beat induction.
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  111.  1
    A Boldly Comparative Approach Will Strengthen Co-Evolutionary Accounts of Musicality's Origins.Luke Rendell, Emily L. Doolittle, Ellen C. Garland & Alex South - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Focus on the evolutionary origins of musicality has been neglected relative to attention on language, so these new proposals are welcome stimulants. We argue for a broad comparative approach to understanding how the elements of musicality evolved, and against the use of overly simplistic evolutionary accounts.
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  112. The Lack of Robust Evidence for Cleansing Effects.Ivan Ropovik, Alessandro Sparacio & Hans IJzerman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The pattern of data underlying the successful replications of cleansing effects is improbable and most consistent with selective reporting. Moreover, the meta-analytic approach presented by Lee and Schwarz is likely to find an effect even if none existed. Absent more robust evidence, there is no need to develop a theoretical account of grounded procedures.
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  113.  3
    Is Resolve Mainly About Resisting Hyperbolic Discounting?Don Ross - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie insightfully refines the concept of willpower by emphasizing low-effort applications of resolve. However, he gives undue weight to intertemporal discounting as the problem that willpower is needed to overcome. Nonhumans typically don't encounter choices that differ only in the time of consumption. Humans learn to transform uncertainty into problems they can solve using culturally evolved mechanisms for quantifying risk.
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  114.  1
    The Role of Meta-Analysis and Preregistration in Assessing the Evidence for Cleansing Effects.Robert M. Ross, Robbie C. M. van Aert, Olmo R. van den Akker & Michiel van Elk - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz interpret meta-analytic research and replication studies as providing evidence for the robustness of cleansing effects. We argue that the currently available evidence is unconvincing because publication bias and the opportunistic use of researcher degrees of freedom appear to have inflated meta-analytic effect size estimates, and preregistered replications failed to find any evidence of cleansing effects.
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  115.  2
    Grounding Together: Shared Reality and Cleansing Practices.Maya Rossignac-Milon & E. Tory Higgins - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that cleansing behaviors and other acts of separation or connection have more powerful effects when they are grounded in shared practices – in a shared reality. We conceptualize sensorimotor and shared reality effects as synergistic. Most potent should be physical behaviors performed collectively as a shared practice, grounded both in sensorimotor experience and in shared reality.
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  116.  2
    Clarifying the Link Between Music and Social Bonding by Measuring Prosociality in Context.Matthew E. Sachs, Oriel FeldmanHall & Diana I. Tamir - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To corroborate the music and social bonding hypothesis, we propose that future investigations isolate specific components of social bonding and consider the influence of context. We deconstruct and operationalize social bonding through the lens of social psychology and provide examples of specific measures that can be used to assess how the link between music and sociality varies by context.
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  117.  11
    Music as a Coevolved System for Social Bonding.Patrick E. Savage, Psyche Loui, Bronwyn Tarr, Adena Schachner, Luke Glowacki, Steven Mithen & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-36.
    Why do humans make music? Theories of the evolution of musicality have focused mainly on the value of music for specific adaptive contexts such as mate selection, parental care, coalition signaling, and group cohesion. Synthesizing and extending previous proposals, we argue that social bonding is an overarching function that unifies all of these theories, and that musicality enabled social bonding at larger scales than grooming and other bonding mechanisms available in ancestral primate societies. We combine cross-disciplinary evidence from archeology, anthropology, (...)
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  118.  2
    Body Ownership as a Proxy for Individual and Social Separation and Connection.Marina Scattolin, Maria Serena Panasiti & Salvatore Maria Aglioti - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwartz procedures of separation offer a much needed interpretation of the literature on moral cleansing. However, body ownership as a grounded mechanism of separation and connection has been neglected. We argue that embodiment may be employed to connect the self to desirable aspects of cognitive and emotional interactions and disembodiment to disconnect from undesirable elements.
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  119.  29
    Teleology First: Goals Before Knowledge and Belief.Tobias Schlicht, Johannes L. Brandl, Frank Esken, Hans-Johann Glock, Albert Newen, Josef Perner, Franziska Poprawe, Eva Schmidt, Anna Strasser & Julia Wolf - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Comparing knowledge with belief can go wrong in two dimensions: If the authors employ a wider notion of knowledge, then they do not compare like with like because they assume a narrow notion of belief. If they employ only a narrow notion of knowledge, then their claim is not supported by the evidence. Finally, we sketch a superior teleological view.
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  120.  2
    Cleansing and Separation Procedures Reflect Resource Concerns.Simone Schnall & Robert K. Henderson - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We propose that procedures of separation have two functions, namely first, to establish the integrity of individual parts, and second, to make previously joint entities discreet and therefore countable. This allows taking stock of available resources, including evaluating the use of individual objects, a process that is especially adaptive under conditions of threat of contagious disease and resource scarcity.
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  121.  1
    Proper Understanding of Grounded Procedures of Separation Needs a Dual Inheritance Approach.Thomas W. Schubert & David J. Grüning - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Grounded procedures of separation are conceptualized as a learned concept. The simultaneous cultural universality of the general idea and immense diversity of its implementations might be better understood through the lens of dual inheritance theories. By drawing on examples from developmental psychology and emotion theorizing, we argue that an innate blueprint might underlie learned implementations of cleansing that vary widely.
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  122. Ecological and Psychological Factors in the Cultural Evolution of Music.Thom Scott-Phillips, Atsuko Tominaga & Helena Miton - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The two target articles agree that processes of cultural evolution generate richness and diversity in music, but neither address this question in a focused way. We sketch one way to proceed – and hence suggest how the target articles differ not only in empirical claims, but also in their tacit, prior assumptions about the relationship between cognition and culture.
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  123.  16
    Socializing Willpower: Resolve From the Outside In.Stephen Setman & Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's account of willpower is conspicuously individualistic. Because other people, social influence, and culture appear only peripherally, it risks overlooking what may be resolve's deeply social roots. We identify a general “outside-in” explanatory strategy suggested by a range of recent research into human cognitive evolution, and suggest how it might illuminate the origins and more social aspects of resolve.
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  124. Rapid Dissonant Grunting, or, but Why Does Music Sound the Way It Does?Beau R. Sievers & Thalia Wheatley - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Each target article contributes important proto-musical building blocks that constrain music as-we-know-it. However, neither the credible signaling nor social bonding accounts elucidate the central mystery of why music sounds the way it does. Getting there requires working out how proto-musical building blocks combine and interact to create the complex, rich, and affecting music humans create and enjoy.
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  125. A Not-so Proximate Account of Cleansing Behavior.Jonathan Sigger & Thomas E. Dickins - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In this commentary we outline perceptual control theory and suggest this as a fruitful way for Lee and Schwarz to fully embody their account of cleansing behavior. Moreover, we take issue with the command control approach that L&S have taken seeing this as an unnecessary cognitive commitment within an embodied model of cleansing behavior.
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  126. Functional and Evolutionary Parallels Between Birdsong and Human Musicality.Kate T. Snyder & Nicole Creanza - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Here, we compare birdsong and human musicality using insights from songbird neuroethology and evolution. For example, neural recordings during songbird duetting and other coordinated vocal behaviors could inform mechanistic hypotheses regarding human brain function during music-making. Furthermore, considering songbird evolution as a model system suggests that selection favoring certain culturally transmitted behaviors can indirectly select for associated underlying neural functions.
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  127. Making Music: Let's Not Be Too Quick to Abandon the Byproduct Hypothesis.Steve Stewart-Williams - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    It is premature to conclude that music is an adaptation. Given the danger of overextending the adaptationist mode of explanation, the default position should be the byproduct hypothesis, and it should take very strong evidence to drag us into the adaptationist camp. As yet, the evidence isn't strong enough – and the proposed adaptationist explanations have a number of unresolved difficulties.
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  128.  4
    Putting the Pieces Together: Self-Control as a Complex Interaction of Psychological Processes.Fritz Strack, Roland Deutsch & Bleen Abraham - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Ainslie's account of willpower addresses many important mechanisms. We argue that a model of willpower should be grounded in general psychological principles and with a primary focus on their interplay. We discuss the reflective-impulsive model that covers willpower and impulsiveness as special constellations of processes that govern various forms of cognition and behavior.
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  129. Pre-Hunt Charade as the Cradle of Human Musicality.Szabolcs Számadó - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Human language and human music are both unique communication systems that evolved in the human lineage. Here, I propose that they share the same root, they evolved from an ancestral communication system yet to be described in detail. I suggest that pre-hunt charade was this shared root, which helped organize and coordinate the hunt of early hominins.
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  130. Beyond “Consistent with” Adaptation: Is There a Robust Test for Music Adaptation?Parker Tichko, Kevin A. Bird & Gregory Kohn - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In their article, Mehr et al. conclude that the design features of music are consistent with adaptations for credible signaling. Although appealing to design may seem like a plausible basis for identifying adaptations, probing adaptive theories of music must be done at the genomic level and will require a functional understanding of the genomic, phenotypic, and fitness properties of music.
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  131. Understanding the Origins of Musicality Requires Reconstructing the Interactive Dance Between Music-Specific Adaptations, Exaptations, and Cultural Creations.Laurel J. Trainor - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The evolutionary origins of complex capacities such as musicality are not simple, and likely involved many interacting steps of musicality-specific adaptations, exaptations, and cultural creation. A full account of the origins of musicality needs to consider the role of ancient adaptations such as credible singing, auditory scene analysis, and prediction-reward circuits in constraining the emergence of musicality.
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  132. Challenging Infant-Directed Singing as a Credible Signal of Maternal Attention.Sandra E. Trehub - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    I challenge Mehr et al.'s contention that ancestral mothers were reluctant to provide all the attention demanded by their infants. The societies in which music emerged likely involved foraging mothers who engaged in extensive infant carrying, feeding, and soothing. Accordingly, their singing was multimodal, its rhythms aligned with maternal movements, with arousal regulatory consequences for singers and listeners.
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  133. The Evolutionary Benefit of Less-Credible Affective Musical Signals for Emotion Induction During Storytelling.Caitlyn Trevor & Sascha Frühholz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The credible signaling theory underexplains the evolutionary added value of less-credible affective musical signals compared to vocal signals. The theory might be extended to account for the motivation for, and consequences of, culturally decontextualizing a biologically contextualized signal. Musical signals are twofold, communicating “emotional fiction” alongside biological meaning, and could have filled an adaptive need for affect induction during storytelling.
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  134. Considerations of the Proximate Mechanisms and Ultimate Functions of Disgust Will Improve Our Understanding of Cleansing Effects.Joshua M. Tybur & Debra Lieberman - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To understand the consequences of cleansing, Lee and Schwarz favor a grounded procedures perspective over recently developed disgust theory. We believe that this position stems from three errors: interpreting cleansing effects as broader than they are; not detailing the proximate mechanisms underlying disgust; and not detailing adaptive function versus system byproducts when developing the grounded procedures perspective.
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  135.  1
    Self-Organization of Power at Will.Elpida Tzafestas - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We challenge and extend Ainslie's top-down view of willpower as a dual function, resolve and suppression. Instead, we propose an alternative self-organizational view of the motivational system as a network of urges, incentives, drives, and so on that interact dynamically. With such a view, resolve, suppression, and other functions emerge under certain environmental and social conditions for certain personality profiles.
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  136. Incomplete Grounding: The Theory of Symbolic Separation is Contradicted by Pervasive Stability in Attitudes and Behavior.Oleg Urminsky - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The proposed theory is broad enough to accommodate the reduction or elimination of prior influences by a variety of acts symbolizing separation. However, it does not account for stability in psychological variables, and is contradicted by widely documented stability in people's actual attitudes and behavior over time, in multiple domains, despite people's pervasive everyday acts of symbolic separation.
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  137. The Evolution of Music as Artistic Cultural Innovation Expressing Intuitive Thought Symbolically.Valerie van Mulukom - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Music is an artistic cultural innovation, and therefore it may be considered as intuitive thought expressed in symbols, which can efficiently convey multiple meanings in learning, thinking, and transmission, selected for and passed on through cultural evolution. The symbolic system has personal adaptive benefits besides social ones, which should not be overlooked even if music may tend more to the latter.
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  138.  28
    Evolving Resolve.Walter Veit & David Spurrett - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The broad spectrum revolution brought greater dependence on skill and knowledge, and more demanding, often social, choices. We adopt Sterelny's account of how cooperative foraging paid the costs associated with longer dependency, and transformed the problem of skill learning. Scaffolded learning can facilitate cognitive control including suppression, whereas scaffolded exchange and trade, including inter-temporal exchange, can help develop resolve.
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  139. Singing is Not Associated with Social Complexity Across Species.Jan Verpooten & Marcel Eens - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Based on their social bonding hypothesis, Savage et al. predict a relation between “musical” behaviors and social complexity across species. However, our qualitative comparative review suggests that, although learned contact calls are positively associated with complex social dynamics across species, songs are not. Yet, in contrast to songs, and arguably consistent with their functions, contact calls are not particularly music-like.
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  140. Music as a Trait in Evolutionary Theory: A Musicological Perspective.Melanie Wald-Fuhrmann, Lara Pearson, Tina Roeske, Christian Grüny & Rainer Polak - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Although it can be straightforward to define the features of physical traits, complex cultural categories tend to elude widely accepted definitions that transcend cultural and historical context. Addressing papers by Mehr et al. and Savage et al., which both aim to explain music as an evolved trait, we discuss fundamental problems that arise from their conceptualizations of music.
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  141. Grounded Procedures of Connection Are Not Created Equal.Daniel Wentzel, Benjamin von Walter & Philipp Scharfenberger - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Lee and Schwarz propose that grounded procedures can also be related to connection rather than separation. Drawing on consumer behavior research, we point to different grounded procedures of connection – in terms of the motor actions involved, their salient properties, and their motivational conditions – and discuss how procedures of separation may be affected by the procedures of connection that precede them.
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  142. Musical Bonds Are Orthogonal to Symbolic Language and Norms.Connor Wood - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both Mehr et al.'s credible signaling hypothesis and Savage et al.'s music and social bonding hypothesis emphasize the role of multilevel social structures in the evolution of music. Although empirical evidence preferentially supports the social bonding hypothesis, rhythmic music may enable bonding in a way uniquely fitted to the normative and language-based character of multilevel human societies.
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  143.  1
    The Role of Goal-Generalization Processes in the Effects of Grounded Procedures.Robert S. Wyer - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    This commentary provides an interpretation of the effects of grounded procedures in terms of the goal-generalization processes involved in coping with negative feelings and identifies some implications that might not yet have been considered.
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  144. Music as Social Bonding: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.Ivan Yifan Zou & William S.-Y. Wang - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    We extend Savage et al.'s music and social bonding hypothesis by examining it in the context of Chinese music. First, top-down functions such as music as political instrument should receive more attention. Second, solo performance can serve as important cues for social identity. Third, a right match between the tones in lyrics and music contributes also to social bonding.
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  145. Numerosity, Area-Osity, Object-Osity? Oh My.Sami R. Yousif - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    There is ongoing debate about whether number is perceived directly. Clarke and Beck suggest that what plagues this debate is a lack of shared understanding about what it means to perceive number in the first place. I agree. I argue that the perception of number is held to a different standard than, say, the perception of objecthood; considering this, I explore what it might mean for the number system to represent rational numbers.
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  146. Constructing Rationals Through Conjoint Measurement of Numerator and Denominator as Approximate Integer Magnitudes in Tradeoff Relations.Jun Zhang - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    To investigate mechanisms of rational representation, I consider construction of an ordered continuum of psychophysical scale of magnitude of sensation; counting mechanism leading to an approximate numerosity scale for integers; and conjoint measurement structure pitting the denominator against the numerator in tradeoff positions. Number sense of resulting rationals is neither intuitive nor expedient in their manipulation.
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  147.  1
    Why Language Survives as the Dominant Communication Tool: A Neurocognitive Perspective.Qing Zhang & Edward Ruoyang Shi - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    By focusing on the contributions of subcortical structures, our commentary suggests that the functions of the hippocampus underlying “displacement,” a feature enabling humans to communicate things and situations that are remote in space and time, make language more effective at social bonding. Based on the functions of the basal ganglia and hippocampus, evolutionary trajectory of the subcomponents of music and language in different species will also be discussed.
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