Year:

  1. Can Resources Save Rationality? ‘Anti-Bayesian’ Updating in Cognition and Perception.Eric Mandelbaum, Isabel Won, Steven Gross & Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 143:e16.
    Resource rationality may explain suboptimal patterns of reasoning; but what of “anti-Bayesian” effects where the mind updates in a direction opposite the one it should? We present two phenomena — belief polarization and the size-weight illusion — that are not obviously explained by performance- or resource-based constraints, nor by the authors’ brief discussion of reference repulsion. Can resource rationality accommodate them?
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  2.  10
    Thinking Through Prior Bodies: Autonomic Uncertainty and Interoceptive Self-Inference.Micah Allen, Nicolas Legrand, Camile Maria Costa Correa & Francesca Fardo - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The Bayesian brain hypothesis, as formalized by the free-energy principle, is ascendant in cognitive science. But, how does the Bayesian brain obtain prior beliefs? Veissière and colleagues argue that sociocultural interaction is one important source. We offer a complementary model in which “interoceptive self-inference” guides the estimation of expected uncertainty both in ourselves and in our social conspecifics.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  5
    Rationalizations Primarily Serve Reputation Management, Not Decision Making.Sacha Altay & Hugo Mercier - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We agree with Cushman that rationalizations are the product of biological adaptations, but we disagree about their function. The data available do not show that rationalizations allow us to reason better and make better decisions. The data suggest instead that rationalizations serve reputation management goals, and that they affect our behaviors because we are held accountable by our peers.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  2
    Differentiating Between Different Forms of Moral Obligations.Rajen A. Anderson, Benjamin C. Ruisch & David A. Pizarro - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We argue that Tomasello's account overlooks important psychological distinctions between how humans judge different types of moral obligations, such as prescriptive obligations and proscriptive obligations. Specifically, evaluating these different types of obligations rests on different psychological inputs and has distinct downstream consequences for judgments of moral character.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  14
    Thinking with Other Minds.Edward Baggs & Anthony Chemero - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We applaud the ambition of Veissière et al.'s account of cultural learning, and the attempt to ground higher order thinking in embodied theory. However, the account is limited by loose terminology, and by its commitment to a view of the child learner as inference-maker. Vygotsky offers a more powerful view of cultural learning, one that is fully compatible with embodiment.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  3
    Children's Everyday Moral Conversation Speaks to the Emergence of Obligation.Karen Bartsch - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    For Tomasello's proposed ontology of the human sense of moral obligation, observations of early moral language may provide useful evidence complementary to that afforded by experimental research. Extant reports of children's everyday moral talk reveal patterns of participation and content that accord with the proposal and hint at extensions addressing individual differences.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  5
    The Role of Affect in Feelings of Obligation.Stefen Beeler-Duden, Meltem Yucel & Amrisha Vaish - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello offers a compelling account of the emergence of humans’ sense of obligation. We suggest that more needs to be said about the role of affect in the creation of obligations. We also argue that positive emotions such as gratitude evolved to encourage individuals to fulfill cooperative obligations without the negative quality that Tomasello proposes is inherent in obligations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  3
    Other and Other Waters in the River: Autism and the Futility of Prediction.Matthew K. Belmonte - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Autism has been described as a neural deficit in prediction, people with autism manifest low perceptual construal and are impaired at traversing psychological distances, and Gilead et al.'s hierarchy from iconic to multimodal to fully abstract, socially communicated representations is exactly the hierarchy of representational impairment in autism, making autism a natural behavioural and neurophysiological test case for the prediction–abstraction relationship.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  2
    The Sense of Obligation is Culturally Modulated.Andrea Bender - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues in the target article that, in generalizing the concrete obligations originating from interdependent collaboration to one's entire cultural group, humans become “ultra-cooperators.” But are all human populations cooperative in similar ways? Based on cross-cultural studies and my own fieldwork in Polynesia, I argue that cooperation varies along several dimensions, and that the underlying sense of obligation is culturally modulated.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  3
    Implications for Technological Reserve Development in Advancing Age, Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia.Jared F. Benge & Michael K. Scullin - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary draws connections between technological culture emergence and recent trends in using assistive technology to reduce the burden of Alzheimer's disease. By the technical-reasoning hypothesis, cognitively-impaired individuals will lack the cognitive ability to employ technologies. By the technological reserve hypothesis, social-motivational and cultural transmissibility factors can provide foundations for using technology as cognitive prosthetics even during neurodegenerative illnesses.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  6
    Means and Ends of Habitual Action.Samantha Berthelette & Christopher Kalbach - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:17-18.
    Cushman claims that post hoc rationalization of habitual behavior can improve future reasoning. His characterization of habits includes two components: habitual behavior is a non-rational process, and habitual behavior is sometimes rationalized. We argue that Cushman fails to show any habits that are apt targets for rationalization. Thus, it's unclear when – if ever – rationalizing habits would improve reasoning.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  4
    Chimpanzees' Technical Reasoning: Taking Fieldwork and Ontogeny Seriously.Christophe Boesch - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Following the tradition of comparing humans with chimpanzees placed under unfavorable conditions, the authors suggest many uniquely human technological abilities. However, chimpanzees use spontaneously tools in nature to achieve many different goals demonstrating technological skills and reasoning contradicting the authors contrast. Chimpanzees and humans develop skills through the experiences faced during their upbringing and neglecting this leads to fake conclusions.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  11
    “Through Others We Become Ourselves”: The Dialectics of Predictive Coding and Active Inference.Dimitris Bolis & Leonhard Schilbach - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Thinking through other minds creatively situates the free-energy principle within real-life cultural processes, thereby enriching both sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of cognition. Here, shifting the attention from thinking-through to becoming-with, we suggest complementing such an account by focusing on the empirical, computational, and conceptual investigation of the multiscale dynamics of social interaction.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  5
    Touch Me If You Can: The Intangible but Grounded Nature of Abstract Concepts.Anna M. Borghi & Luca Tummolini - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Thinking about what the senses cannot grasp is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. We argue that “intangible abstracta” are represented differently from other products of abstraction, that goal-derived categorization supports their learning, and that they are grounded also in internalized linguistic and social interaction. We conclude by suggesting different ways in which abstractness contributes to cement group cohesion.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  9
    Have We Lost the Thinker in Other Minds? Human Thinking Beyond Social Norms.Nabil Bouizegarene - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and colleagues suggest that thinking is entirely based on social norms. I point out that despite the fact that social norms are commonly used to alleviate cognitive processing, some individuals are willing and able to go about the costly process of questioning them and exploring other valuable ways of thinking.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  10
    Tomasello on “We” and the Sense of Obligation.Michael E. Bratman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello explores four interrelated phenomena: joint intentional collaboration; joint commitment; “self-regulative pressure from ‘we’”; and the sense of interpersonal obligation. He argues that the version of that involves is the “source” of and so the source of. I note an issue that arises once we distinguish two versions of.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  3
    Rationalization is a Suboptimal Defense Mechanism Associated with Clinical and Forensic Problems.Stuart Brody & Rui Miguel Costa - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman argues that “rationalization is rational.” We show that there is reasonable empirical clinical and forensic psychological evidence to support viewing rationalization as a quite suboptimal defense mechanism. Rationalization has been found to be associated not only with poorer emotional development, but also with a broad range of antisocial behavior, including not only shoplifting, but also pedophilia and murder.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  7
    Unification at the Cost of Realism and Precision.Rachael L. Brown, Carl Brusse, Bryce Huebner & Ross Pain - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al. must sacrifice explanatory realism and precision in order to develop a unified formal model. Drawing on examples from cognitive archeology, we argue that this makes it difficult for them to derive the kinds of testable predictions that would allow them to resolve debates over the nature of human social cognition and cultural acquisition.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  3
    The Joy of Obligation: Human Cultural Worldviews Can Enhance the Rewards of Meeting Obligations.Emma E. Buchtel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Is it particularly human to feel coerced into fulfilling moral obligations, or is it particularly human to enjoy them? I argue for the importance of taking into account how culture promotes prosocial behavior, discussing how Confucian heritage culture enhances the satisfaction of meeting one's obligations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  2
    A Cognitive Developmental Approach is Essential to Understanding Cumulative Technological Culture.Emily Rachel Reed Burdett & Samuel Ronfard - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud argue that children are not a good methodological choice to examine cumulative technological culture. However, the paper ignores other current work that suggests that young children do display some aspects of creative problem-solving. We argue that using multiple methodologies and examining how technical-reasoning develops in children will provide crucial support for a cognitive approach to CTC.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  5
    On the Implications of Object Permanence: Microhistorical Insights From Piaget's New Theory.Jeremy Trevelyan Burman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The authors’ arguments reflect the dominant traditions of American Psychology. In doing so, however, they miss relevant insights omitted during the original importation of the foreign sources that informed the theories they built upon. Of particular relevance here are Piaget's last studies. These are presented to unpack the meaning of “object permanence” as a kind of representation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  6
    Normativity, Social Change, and the Epistemological Framing of Culture.Andrew Buskell - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The authors deploy an epistemic framework to represent culture and model the acquisition of cultural behavior. Yet, the framing inherits familiar problems with explaining the acquisition of norms. Such problems are conspicuous with regard to human societies where norms are ubiquitous. This creates a new difficulty for the authors in explaining change to mutually exclusive organizational structures of human life.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  3
    Tomasello's Tin Man of Moral Obligation Needs a Heart.Jeremy I. M. Carpendale & Charlie Lewis - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In place of Tomasello's explanation for the source of moral obligation, we suggest that it develops from the concern for others already implicit in the human developmental system. Mutual affection and caring make the development of communication and thinking possible. Humans develop as persons within such relationships and this develops into respect and moral obligation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  3
    Intuitive Theories Inform Children's Beliefs About Intergroup Obligation.Lisa Chalik - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In addition to emerging from children's direct experiences with collaborative partners and groups, children's beliefs about obligation also arise from a process of intuitive theory-building in early childhood. On this account, it is possible for at least some of children's beliefs to emerge in the absence of specific experiences where obligations are held among fellow members of a group “we.”.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  6
    The Multicultural Mind as an Epistemological Test and Extension for the Thinking Through Other Minds Approach.George I. Christopoulos & Ying-yi Hong - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The multicultural experience offers the intriguing possibility for an empirical examination of how free-energy principles explain dynamic cultural behaviors and pragmatic cultural phenomena and a challenging but decisive test of thinking through other minds predictions. We highlight that TTOM needs to treat individuals as active cultural agents instead of passive learners.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  2
    Taking Into Account the Wider Evolutionary Context of Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Nicolas Claidière - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The target article reviews evidence showing that technological reasoning is crucial to cumulative technological culture but it fails to discuss the implications for the emergence of cumulative cultural evolution in general. The target article supports the social view of CCE against the more ecological alternative and suggests that CCE appears when specialised individual-learning mechanisms evolve.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  4
    Digital Life, a Theory of Minds, and Mapping Human and Machine Cultural Universals.Kevin B. Clark - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Emerging cybertechnologies, such as social digibots, bend epistemological conventions of life and culture already complicated by human and animal relationships. Virtually-augmented niches of machines and organic life promise new free-energy-governed selection of intelligent digital life. These provocative eco-evolutionary contexts demand a theory of minds to characterize and validate the immersive social phenomena universally-shaping cultural affordances.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28.  4
    Who Are “We” and Why Are We Cooperating? Insights From Social Psychology.Margaret S. Clark, Brian D. Earp & Molly J. Crockett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues in the target article that a sense of moral obligation emerges from the creation of a collaborative “we” motivating us to fulfill our cooperative duties. We suggest that “we” takes many forms, entailing different obligations, depending on the type of the relationship in question. We sketch a framework of such types, functions, and obligations to guide future research in our commentary.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  4
    Affective Social Learning Serves as a Quick and Flexible Complement to TTOM.Fabrice Clément & Daniel Dukes - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although we applaud the general aims of the target article, we argue that Affective Social Learning completes TTOM by pointing out how emotions can provide another route to acquiring culture, a route which may be quicker, more flexible, and even closer to an axiological definition of culture than TTOM itself.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  4
    Maladaptive Social Norms, Cultural Progress, and the Free-Energy Principle.Matteo Colombo - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and collaborators ground their account of culture and social norms in the free-energy principle, which postulates that the utility of an outcome is equivalent to its probability. This equivalence would mean that their account entails that complying with social norms has always adaptive value. But, this is false, because many social norms are obviously maladaptive.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  2
    Integrating Perspectives: How the Development of Second-Personal Competence Lays the Foundation for a Second-Personal Morality.John Corbit & Chris Moore - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The integration of first-, second-, and third-personal information within joint intentional collaboration provides the foundation for broad-based second-personal morality. We offer two additions to this framework: a description of the developmental process through which second-personal competence emerges from early triadic interactions, and empirical evidence that collaboration with a concrete goal may provide an essential focal point for this integrative process.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  3
    The Blind Men and the Elephant: What is Missing Cognitively in the Study of Cumulative Technological Evolution.Bernard J. Crespi - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    I describe and explain evidence regarding a key role for autism spectrum cognition in human technology; tradeoffs of autistic cognition with social skills; and a model of how cumulative technological culture evolves. This model involves positive feedback whereby increased technical complexity selects for enhanced social learning of mechanistic concepts and skills, leading to further advances in technology.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  6
    Rationalization as Representational Exchange: Scope and Mechanism.Fiery Cushman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The commentaries suggest many important improvements to the target article. They clearly distinguish two varieties of rationalization – the traditional “motivated reasoning” model, and the proposed representational exchange model – and show that they have distinct functions and consequences. They describe how representational exchange occurs not only by post hoc rationalization but also by ex ante rationalization and other more dynamic processes. They argue that the social benefits of representational exchange are at least as important as its direct personal benefits. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  42
    Rationalization is Rational.Fiery Cushman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-69.
    Rationalization occurs when a person has performed an action and then concocts the beliefs and desires that would have made it rational. Then, people often adjust their own beliefs and desires to match the concocted ones. While many studies demonstrate rationalization, and a few theories describe its underlying cognitive mechanisms, we have little understanding of its function. Why is the mind designed to construct post hoc rationalizations of its behavior, and then to adopt them? This may accomplish an important task: (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  6
    Rationalization and Self-Sabotage.Jason D'Cruz - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In making the case that “rationalization is rational,” Cushman downplays its signature liability: Rationalization exposes a person to the hazard of delusion and self-sabotage. In paradigm cases, rationalization undermines instrumental rationality by introducing inaccuracies into the representational map required for planning and effective agency.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  5
    Rationalization is Rare, Reasoning is Pervasive.Audun Dahl & Talia Waltzer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    If rationalization were ubiquitous, it would undermine a fundamental premise of human discourse. A review of key evidence indicates that rationalization is rare and confined to choices among comparable options. In contrast, reasoning is pervasive in human decision making. Within the constraints of reasoning, rationalization may operate in ambiguous situations. Studying these processes requires careful definitions and operationalizations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  37.  14
    Psychological Consequences of the Normativity of Moral Obligation.Stephen Darwall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    An adequate moral psychology of obligation must bear in mind that although the “sense of obligation” is psychological, what it is a sense of, moral obligation itself, is not. It is irreducibly normative. I argue, therefore, that the “we” whose demands the sense of obligation presupposes must be an ideal rather than an actual “we.”.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  3
    Language as a Mental Travel Guide.Charles P. Davis, Gerry T. M. Altmann & Eiling Yee - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al.'s approach to human cognition places abstraction and prediction at the heart of “mental travel” under a “representational diversity” perspective that embraces foundational concepts in cognitive science. But, it gives insufficient credit to the possibility that the process of abstraction produces a gradient, and underestimates the importance of a highly influential domain in predictive cognition: language, and related, the emergence of experientially based structure through time.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39.  1
    Language as a Mental Travel Guide—ERRATUM.Charles P. Davis, Gerry T. M. Altmann & Eiling Yee - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  5
    Representation, Abstraction, and Simple-Minded Sophisticates.Peter Dayan - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Bayesian decision theory provides a simple formal elucidation of some of the ways that representation and representational abstraction are involved with, and exploit, both prediction and its rather distant cousin, predictive coding. Both model-free and model-based methods are involved.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  2
    Rational Rationalization and System 2.Wim De Neys - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, I highlight the relevance of Cushman's target article for the popular dual-process framework of thinking. I point to the problematic characterization of rationalization in traditional dual-process models and suggest that in line with recent advances, Cushman's rational rationalization account offers a way out of the rationalization paradox.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  1
    Abstracting Abstraction in Development and Cognitive Ability.Andreas Demetriou - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We focus on the theory of abstraction proposed by the target article. We suggest that abstraction varies at different levels of learning, cognitive development, or cognitive ability. We argue that this theory does not specify how abstraction is done at each of these levels. Because of these weaknesses, the theory cannot explicate how individuals differ in mental time travel at different phases of life or different levels of cognitive ability.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  3
    Is It Always So? Unexpected Visions.Jan B. Deręgowski & Benjamin W. Tatler - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    If we consider perceptions as arising from predictive processes, we must consider the manner in which the underlying expectations are formed and how they are applied to the sensory data. We provide examples of cases where expectations give rise to unexpected and unlikely perceptions of the world. These examples may help define bounds for the notion that perceptual hypotheses are direct derivatives of experience and are used to furnish sensible interpretations of sensory data.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  4
    Technical Reasoning Alone Does Not Take Humans This Far.Maxime Derex & Robert Boyd - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although we see much utility in Osiurak and Reynaud's in-depth discussion on the role of what they term technical reasoning in cumulative culture, we argue that they neglect the time and energy costs that individuals would have to face to acquire skills in the absence of specific socio-cognitive abilities.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  5
    Simulation and the Predictive Brain.Daniel Dohrn - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Prediction draws on both simulation and theory. I ask how simulation is defined, and what the roles of simulation and theory are, respectively. Simulation is flexible in structure and resources. Often simulation and theory are combined in prediction. The function of simulation consists of representing a situation that is relevantly like the target situation with regards to the feature predicted.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  18
    Explaining or Redefining Mindreading?Krzysztof Dołęga, Tobias Schlicht & Daniel C. Dennett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al. disrupt current debates over the nature of mindreading by bringing multiple positions under the umbrella of free-energy. However, it is not clear whether integrating the opposing sides under a common formal framework will yield new insights into how mindreading is achieved, rather than offering a mere redescription of the target phenomenon.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  5
    “Social Physiology” for Psychiatric Semiology: How TTOM Can Initiate an Interactive Turn for Computational Psychiatry?Guillaume Dumas, Tudi Gozé & Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Thinking through other minds encompasses new dimensions in computational psychiatry: social interaction and mutual sense-making. It questions the nature of psychiatric manifestations in light of recent data on social interaction in neuroscience. We propose the concept of “social physiology” in response to the call by the conceivers of TTOM for the renewal of computational psychiatry.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  4
    Obligation at Zero Acquaintance.David Dunning, Detlef Fetchenhauer & Thomas Schlösser - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Social obligation begins far before people establish explicit cooperative relationships. Research on trust suggests that people feel obligated to trust other people even at zero acquaintance, thus trusting complete strangers even though they privately expect to be exploited. Such obligations promote mutually beneficial behavior among strangers and likely help people build goodwill needed for more long-lasting relationships.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  5
    Rationalization in the Pejorative Sense: Cushman's Account Overlooks the Scope and Costs of Rationalization.Jonathan Ellis & Eric Schwitzgebel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    According to Cushman, rationalization occurs when a person has performed an action and then concocts beliefs and desires that would have made it rational. We argue that this isn't the paradigmatic form of rationalization. Consequently, Cushman's explanation of the function and usefulness of rationalization is less broad-reaching than he intends. Cushman's account also obscures some of rationalization's pernicious consequences.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  4
    Mind Wandering as Data Augmentation: How Mental Travel Supports Abstraction.Myrthe Faber - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. state that abstraction supports mental travel, and that mental travel critically relies on abstraction. I propose an important addition to this theoretical framework, namely that mental travel might also support abstraction. Specifically, I argue that spontaneous mental travel, much like data augmentation in machine learning, provides variability in mental content and context necessary for abstraction.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  51.  4
    The Productive Mind: Creativity as a Source of Abstract Mental Representations.Mark Fedyk & Fei Xu - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Explanations of how the brain makes successful predictions should refer to abstracta. But, the mind/brain system is for more than prediction alone. Creativity also plays an important role in supply the mind/brain system with abstracta that serve a number of valuable ends over and above prediction.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  52.  4
    Cognitive Representations and the Predictive Brain Depend Heavily on the Environment.Klaus Fiedler - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In their scholarly target article, Gilead et al. explain how abstract mental representations and the predictive brain enable prospection and time-traveling. However, their exclusive focus on intrapsychic capacities misses an important point, namely, the degree to which mind and brain are tuned by the environment. This neglected aspect of adaptive cognition is discussed and illustrated from a cognitive-ecological perspective.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  53.  2
    Scale-Free Architectures Support Representational Diversity.Chris Fields & James F. Glazebrook - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. propose an ontology of abstract representations based on folk-psychological conceptions of cognitive architecture. There is, however, no evidence that the experience of cognition reveals the architecture of cognition. Scale-free architectural models propose that cognition has the same computational architecture from sub-cellular to whole-organism scales. This scale-free architecture supports representations with diverse functions and levels of abstraction.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  54.  5
    Enculturation Without TTOM and Bayesianism Without FEP: Another Bayesian Theory of Culture is Needed.Martin Fortier-Davy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    First, I discuss cross-cultural evidence showing that a good deal of enculturation takes place outside of thinking through other minds. Second, I review evidence challenging the claim that humans seek to minimize entropy. Finally, I argue that optimality claims should be avoided, and that descriptive Bayesianism offers a more promising avenue for the development of a Bayesian theory of culture.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  55.  3
    The Divided We and Multiple Obligations.Bradley Franks & Andrew Stewart - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's account of the origins and nature of moral obligation rightly emphasises the key roles of social relations and a cooperative sense of “we.” However, we suggest that it overlooks the complexity of those social relations and the resulting prevalence of a divided “we” in moral social groups. We argue that the social identity dynamics that arise can lead to competing obligations in a single group, and this has implications for the evolution of obligation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  56.  6
    Representation and Agency.Karl Friston - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. raise some fascinating issues about representational substrates and structures in the predictive brain. This commentary drills down on a core theme in their arguments; namely, the structure of models that generate predictions. In particular, it highlights their factorial nature – both in terms of deep hierarchies over levels of abstraction and, crucially, time – and how this underwrites agency.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  57.  3
    A Cognitive Transition Underlying Both Technological and Social Aspects of Cumulative Culture.Liane Gabora & Cameron M. Smith - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The argument that cumulative technological culture originates in technical-reasoning skills is not the only alternative to social accounts; another possibility is that accumulation of both technical-reasoning skills and enhanced social skills stemmed from the onset of a more basic cognitive ability such as recursive representational redescription. The paper confuses individual learning of pre-existing information with creative generation of new information.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  58.  3
    Where Does the Elephant Come From? The Evolution of Causal Cognition is the Key.Peter Gärdenfors, Anders Högberg & Marlize Lombard - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud do not explain the evolutionary emergence and development of the elephant in the room, that is, technical cognition. We first argue that there is a tight correlation between the evolution of cumulative technological culture and the evolution of reasoning about abstract forces. Second, intentional teaching plays a greater role in CTC evolution than acknowledged in the target article.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  59.  1
    Belief as a Non-Epistemic Adaptive Benefit.Rebekah Gelpi, William Andrew Cunningham & Daphna Buchsbaum - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although rationalization about one's own beliefs and actions can improve an individual's future decisions, beliefs can provide other benefits unrelated to their epistemic truth value, such as group cohesion and identity. A model of resource-rational cognition that accounts for these benefits may explain unexpected and seemingly irrational thought patterns, such as belief polarization.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  60.  6
    Shared Intentionality, Joint Commitment, and Directed Obligation.Margaret Gilbert - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello frequently refers to joint commitment, but does not fully characterize it. In earlier publications, I have offered a detailed account of joint commitment, tying it to a sense that the parties form a “we,” and arguing that it grounds directed obligations and rights. Here I outline my understanding of joint commitment and its normative impact.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  61.  14
    Above and Beyond the Concrete: The Diverse Representational Substrates of the Predictive Brain.Michael Gilead, Yaacov Trope & Nira Liberman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-63.
    In recent years, scientists have increasingly taken to investigate the predictive nature of cognition. We argue that prediction relies on abstraction, and thus theories of predictive cognition need an explicit theory of abstract representation. We propose such a theory of the abstract representational capacities that allow humans to transcend the “here-and-now.” Consistent with the predictive cognition literature, we suggest that the representational substrates of the mind are built as a hierarchy, ranging from the concrete to the abstract; however, we argue (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  62.  1
    Above and Beyond “Above and Beyond the Concrete”.Michael Gilead, Yaacov Trope & Nira Liberman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The commentaries address our view of abstraction, our ontology of abstract entities, and our account of predictive cognition as relying on relatively concrete simulation or relatively abstract theory-based inference. These responses revisit classic questions concerning mental representation and abstraction in the context of current models of predictive cognition. The counter arguments to our article echo: constructivist theories of knowledge, “neat” approaches in artificial intelligence and decision theory, neo-empiricist models of concepts, and externalist views of cognition. We offer several empirical predictions (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  63.  1
    Structured Event Complexes Are the Primary Representation in the Human Prefrontal Cortex.Jordan Grafman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Instead of endorsing an all-encompassing view about the influence of abstractions in predictive processing, I suggest that most deliberative thought including complex abstractions, agent actions, and/or perceived environmental sequences are stored in the human prefrontal cortex in the form of structured event complexes.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  64.  3
    Ideology, Shared Moral Narratives, and the Dark Side of Collective Rationalization.Jesse Graham - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary extends the target article's useful concepts to consider collective instances of representational exchange. When groups collectively rationalize their actions, entire networks of beliefs and desires can be created and maintained in the form of shared moral narratives and system-justifying ideologies. These collective rationalization cases illustrate how adaptive advantages can come at the expense of the truth.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  65.  2
    A Cognitive Approach to Cumulative Technological Culture is Useful and Necessary but Only If It Also Applies to Other Species.Thibaud Gruber - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The debate on cumulative technological culture is dominated by social-learning discussions, at the expense of other cognitive processes, leading to flawed circular arguments. I welcome the authors' approach to decouple CTC from social-learning processes without minimizing their impact. Yet, this model will only be informative to understand the evolution of CTC if tested in other cultural species.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  66.  5
    The Role of Communication in Acquisition, Curation, and Transmission of Culture.Hyowon Gweon - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière et al.'s proposal aims to explain how cognition enables cultural learning, but fails to acknowledge a distinctively human behavior critical to this process: communication. Recent advances in developmental and computational cognitive science suggest that the social-cognitive capacities central to TTOM also support sophisticated yet remarkably early-emerging inferences and communicative behaviors that allow us to learn and share abstract knowledge.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  67.  4
    Putting Social Cognitive Mechanisms Back Into Cumulative Technological Culture: Social Interactions Serve as a Mechanism for Children's Early Knowledge Acquisition.Amanda S. Haber & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud offer a unified cognitive approach to cumulative technological culture, arguing that it begins with non-social cognitive skills that allow humans to learn and develop new technical information. Drawing on research focusing on how children acquire knowledge through interactions others, we argue that social learning is essential for humans to acquire technical information.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  68.  2
    Cognitive Dissonance Processes Serve an Action-Oriented Adaptive Function.Eddie Harmon-Jones & Cindy Harmon-Jones - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The action-based model of cognitive dissonance proposes an adaptive function for rationalization that differs from the one offered by Cushman. The one proposed by Cushman is concerned more with the cold construction of cognitions, whereas the one proposed by the action-based model is a motivated protection of a strongly held cognition.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  69.  3
    Human Tool Cognition Relies on Teleology.Mikołaj Hernik - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud's account of human tool cognition misses key element: human capacity for functional representations and teleological inferences. I argue that the teleofunctional approach accounts better for some features of human tool cognition and points to a viable candidate for the cognitive “difference-maker” behind human technological success.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  70.  3
    Conflicting Obligations in Human Social Life.Jacob B. Hirsh, Garriy Shteynberg & Michele J. Gelfand - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello describes how the sense of moral obligation emerges from a shared perspective with collaborative partners and in-group members. Our commentary expands this framework to accommodate multiple social identities, where the normative standards associated with diverse group memberships can often conflict with one another. Reconciling these conflicting obligations is argued to be a central part of human morality.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  71.  2
    How Will We Find the Elephant in the Room?Wybo Houkes & Krist Vaesen - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We argue that Osirak's and Reynaud's technological-reasoning hypothesis raises conceptual and methodological challenges. Interrelations between technical potential and expertise leave it unclear exactly what the technical-reasoning hypothesis encompasses. We submit that it is compatible with a range of hypotheses that are difficult to differentiate empirically.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  72.  13
    The Cost of Over-Intellectualizing the Free-Energy Principle.Daniel D. Hutto - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary raises a question about the target article's proposed explanation of what goes on when we think through other minds. It highlights a tension between non-mindreading characterizations of everyday social cognition and the individualist, cognitivist assumptions that target article's explanatory proposal inherits from the predictive processing framework it favours.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  73.  3
    Personalizing the Demands of Reason.Charles Kalish - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Children come to joint action with a generalized sense of “reason,” which carries normative implications, before personalizing reasons. A general sense of ought precedes specific notions of individual perspective.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  74.  1
    Is That All There Is? Or is Chimpanzees Group Hunt “Fair” Enough?Angelica Kaufmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello claims that we lack convincing evidence that nonhuman animals manifest a sense of moral obligation in their group activities. The philosophical analysis of distinctive evidence from ethology, namely group hunting practices among chimpanzees, can help the author appreciate the distinctive character of this behaviour as a display of fairness put into practice.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  75.  1
    The Moral Obligations of Conflict and Resistance.Melanie Killen & Audun Dahl - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Morality has two key features: moral judgments are not solely determined by what your group thinks, and moral judgments are often applied to members of other groups as well as your own group. Cooperative motives do not explain how young children reject unfairness, and assert moral obligations, both inside and outside their groups. Resistance and experience with conflicts, alongside cooperation, is key to the emergence and development of moral obligation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  76.  4
    Obligations to Whom, Obligations to What? A Philosophical Perspective on the Objects of Our Obligations.Kati Kish Bar-On - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello strives to understand the underlying psychology behind the human sense of obligation, but he only addresses a specific kind of obligation: to other human beings. We argue that in order to account for the psychological underpinning of human behavior, one should also consider people's sense of commitment to non-human entities, such as ideals, values, and moral principles.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  77.  9
    Skill-Based Engagement with a Rich Landscape of Affordances as an Alternative to Thinking Through Other Minds.Julian Kiverstein & Erik Rietveld - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Veissière and colleagues make a valiant attempt at reconciling an internalist account of implicit cultural learning with an externalist account that understands social behaviour in terms of its environment-involving dynamics. However, unfortunately the author's attempt to forge a middle way between internalism and externalism fails. We argue their failure stems from the overly individualistic understanding of the perception of cultural affordances they propose.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  78.  2
    Tools as “Petrified Memes”: A Duality.Carsten Korth - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tools are generated by defined steps, fulfill distinct uses, and elicit affordances or mental representations. When the latter are recombined, they are perceived as “technical reasoning,” resulting in novel tools when executed. They can be exchanged, varied, and selected between individuals in a cumulative social process. Tools are materialized, “petrified” memes forming a duality within the framework of active externalism.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  79.  3
    Rationalization May Improve Predictability Rather Than Accuracy.P. Kyle Stanford, Ashley J. Thomas & Barbara W. Sarnecka - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We present a theoretical and an empirical challenge to Cushman's claim that rationalization is adaptive because it allows humans to extract more accurate beliefs from our non-rational motivations for behavior. Rationalization sometimes generates more adaptive decisions by making our beliefs about the world less accurate. We suggest that the most important adaptive advantage of rationalization is instead that it increases our predictability as potential partners in cooperative social interactions.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  80. What Kind of Rationalization is System Justification?Kristin Laurin & William M. Jettinghoff - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman uses rationalization to refer to people's explanations for their own actions. In system justification theory, scholars use the same term to refer to people's efforts to cast their current status quo in an exaggeratedly positive light. We try to reconcile these two meanings, positing that system justification could result from people trying to explain their own failure to take action to combat inequality. We highlight two novel and contested predictions emerging from this interpretation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  81.  1
    Experiences of Liking Versus Ideas About Liking.Alison Ledgerwood, Paul W. Eastwick & Bertram Gawronski - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We leverage the notion that abstraction enables prediction to generate novel insights and hypotheses for the literatures on attitudes and mate preferences. We suggest that ideas about liking are more abstract than experiences of liking, and that ideas about liking may facilitate mental travel beyond the here-and-now.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  82.  6
    Rationalization Enables Cooperation and Cultural Evolution.Neil Levy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman argues that the function of rationalization is to attribute mental representations to ourselves, thereby making these representations available for future planning. I argue that such attribution is often not necessary and sometimes maladaptive. I suggest a different explanation of rationalization: making representations available to other agents, to facilitate cooperation, transmission, and the ratchet effect that underlies cumulative cultural evolution.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  83.  1
    The Sense of Obligation in Children's Testimonial Learning.Pearl Han Li, Annelise Pesch & Melissa A. Koenig - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We extend Tomasello's discussion of children's developing sense of obligation to testimonial learning. First, we review a battery of behaviors in testimonial exchanges that parallel those described by Tomasello. Second, we explore the variable ways in which children hold others accountable, suggestive that children's evaluations of moral and epistemic responsibilities in joint collaborative activities are distinct.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  84.  1
    A Lifelong Preoccupation with the Sociality of Moral Obligation.Zoe Liberman & John W. Du Bois - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello provides compelling evidence that children understand that people are morally obligated toward members of their social group. We call for expanding the scope of inquiry to encompass the full developmental trajectory of humans’ understanding of the relation between moral obligation, sociality, and stancetaking in interaction. We suggest that humans display a lifelong preoccupation with the sociality of moral obligation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  85.  9
    Culture and the Plasticity of Perception.Michael Lifshitz & T. M. Luhrmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Culture shapes our basic sensory experience of the world. This is particularly striking in the study of religion and psychosis, where we and others have shown that cultural context determines both the structure and content of hallucination-like events. The cultural shaping of hallucinations may provide a rich case-study for linking cultural learning with emerging prediction-based models of perception.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  86.  3
    Prospection Does Not Imply Predictive Processing.Piotr Litwin & Marcin Miłkowski - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Predictive processing models of psychopathologies are not explanatorily consistent with the present account of abstract thought. These models are based on latent variables probabilistically mapping the structure of the world. As such, they cannot be informed by representational ontology based on mental objects and states. What actually is the case is merely some terminological affinity between subjective and informational uncertainty.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  87.  4
    Missing in Action: Tool Use is Action Based.Jeffrey J. Lockman, Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda & Karen E. Adolph - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary on Osiurak and Reynaud's target article, we argue that action is largely missing in their account of the ascendance of human technological culture. We propose that an action-based developmental account can help to bridge the cognitive-sociocultural divide in explanations of the discovery, production, and cultural transmission of human tool use.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  88. The Sense of Moral Obligation Facilitates Information Agency and Culture.Heather M. Maranges, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello argues that humans’ sense of moral obligation emerges early in development, relies on a shared “we,” and serves as the foundation of cooperation. This perspective complements our theoretical view of the human self as information agent. The shared “we” promotes not only proximal cooperative goals but also distal ones via the construction of shared understanding – it promotes culture.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  89. Obligations Without Cooperation.Julia Marshall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Our sense of obligation is evident outside of joint collaborative activities. Most notably, children and adults recognize that parents are obligated to care for and love their children. This is presumably not because we think parents view their children as worthy cooperative partners, but because special obligations and duties are inherent in certain relational dynamics, namely the parent-child relationship.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  90.  8
    How Does Social Cognition Shape Enculturation?John Michael & Leon de Bruin - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Other people in our culture actively transform our behavioral dispositions and mental states by shaping them in various ways. In the following, we highlight three points which Veissière et al. may consider in leveraging their account to illuminate the dynamics by which this occurs, and in particular, to shed light on how social cognition supports, and is supported by, enculturation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  91.  6
    Encultured Minds, Not Error Reduction Minds.Robert Mirski, Mark H. Bickhard, David Eck & Arkadiusz Gut - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    There are serious theoretical problems with the free-energy principle model, which are shown in the current article. We discuss the proposed model's inability to account for culturally emergent normativities, and point out the foundational issues that we claim this inability stems from.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  92.  2
    A Theory Limited in Scope and Evidence.Elena Miu, Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson & Thomas J. H. Morgan - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    What promised to be a refreshing addition to cumulative cultural evolution, by moving the focus from cultural transmission to technological innovation, falls flat through a lack of thoroughness, explanatory power, and data. A comprehensive theory of cumulative cultural change must carefully integrate all existing evidence in a cohesive multi-level account. We argue that the manuscript fails to do so convincingly.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  93.  3
    Shared Intentionality Shapes Humans' Technical Know-How.Henrike Moll, Ryan Nichols & Ellyn Pueschel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud argue that cumulative technological culture is made possible by a “non-social cognitive structure” and they offer an account that aims “to escape from the social dimension” of human cognition. We challenge their position by arguing that human technical rationality is unintelligible outside of our species' uniquely social form of life, which is defined by shared intentionality :319–37; Tomasello 2019a, Becoming human: A theory of ontogeny. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  94.  2
    Catching the Intangible: A Role for Emotion?Maria Montefinese, Ettore Ambrosini, Antonino Visalli & David Vinson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    A crucial aspect of Gilead and colleagues’ ontology is the dichotomy between tangible and intangible representations, but the latter remains rather ill-defined. We propose a fundamental role for interoceptive experience and the statistical distribution of entities in language, especially for intangible representations, that we believe Gilead and colleagues’ ontology needs to incorporate.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  95.  2
    The Technical Reasoning Hypothesis Does Not Rule Out the Potential Key Roles of Imitation and Working Memory for CTC.Alba Motes-Rodrigo, Eva Reindl & Elisa Bandini - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    To support their claim for technical reasoning skills rather than imitation as the key for cumulative technological culture, Osiurak and Reynaud argue that chimpanzees can imitate mechanical actions, but do not have CTC. They also state that an increase in working memory in human evolution could not have been a key driver of CTC. We discuss why we disagree with these claims.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  96.  4
    Importance of the “Thinking Through Other Minds” Process Explored Through Motor Correlates of Motivated Social Interactions.Harold Mouras - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We wanted to gather recent results supporting the idea of the central role of sharing agency in socioaffective and motivational information processing. Here, we want to support the idea that this process is quite arbitrary, early in the temporal chain of processes and not only influence the psychological, but also the motor correlates of socioaffective information processes.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  97.  2
    Above and Beyond the Content: Feelings Influence Mental Simulations.Kellen Mrkva, Luca Cian & Leaf Van Boven - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. present a rich account of abstraction. Though the account describes several elements which influence mental representation, it is worth also delineating how feelings, such as fluency and emotion, influence mental simulation. Additionally, though past experience can sometimes make simulations more accurate and worthwhile, many systematic prediction errors persist despite substantial experience.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  98.  2
    Are All Distances Created Equal? Insights From Developmental Psychology.Bronwyn O'Brien, Joshua L. Rutt & Cristina M. Atance - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al.'s theory presupposes that traversing temporal, spatial, social, and hypothetical distances are largely interchangeable acts of mental travel that co-occur in human ontogeny. Yet, this claim is at odds with recent developmental data suggesting that children's reasoning is differentially affected by the dimension which they must traverse, and that different representational abilities underlie travel across different dimensions.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  99.  2
    A Long View of Cumulative Technological Culture.Michael J. O'Brien & R. Alexander Bentley - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We agree that the emergence of cumulative technological culture was tied to nonsocial cognitive skills, namely, technical-reasoning skills, which allowed humans to constantly acquire and improve information. Our concern is with a reading of the history of cumulative technological culture that is based largely on modern experiments in simulated settings and less on phenomena crucial to the long-term dynamics of cultural evolution.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  100.  2
    The Nature of Obligation's Special Force.David Olbrich - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's characterization of obligation as demanding and coercive is not an implication of the centrality of collaborative commitment. Not only is this characterization contentious, it appears to be falsified in some cases of personal conviction. The theory would be strengthened if the nature of obligation's force and collaborative commitment were directly linked, possibly through Tomasello's notions of identity and identification.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  101.  9
    The Elephant in the Room: What Matters Cognitively in Cumulative Technological Culture.François Osiurak & Emanuelle Reynaud - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-57.
    Cumulative technological culture refers to the increase in the efficiency and complexity of tools and techniques in human populations over generations. A fascinating question is to understand the cognitive origins of this phenomenon. Because CTC is definitely a social phenomenon, most accounts have suggested a series of cognitive mechanisms oriented toward the social dimension, thereby minimizing the technical dimension and the potential influence of non-social, cognitive skills. What if we have failed to see the elephant in the room? What if (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  102.  3
    The Elephant in the China Shop: When Technical Reasoning Meets Cumulative Technological Culture.François Osiurak & Emanuelle Reynaud - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The commentaries have both revealed the implications of and challenged our approach. In this response, we reply to these concerns, discuss why the technical-reasoning hypothesis does not minimize the role of social-learning mechanisms – nor assume that technical-reasoning skills make individuals omniscient technically – and make suggestions for overcoming the classical opposition between the cultural versus cognitive niche hypothesis of cumulative technological culture.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  103.  5
    The Future of TTOM.Søren Overgaard - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    “Thinking through other minds,” or TTOM, is defined in two different ways. On the one hand, it refers to something people do – for example, inferences they make about others’ expectations. On the other hand, it refers to a particular theoretical model of those things that people do. If the concept of TTOM is to have any future, this ambiguity must be redressed.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  104.  1
    Letting Rationalizations Out of the Box.Philip Pärnamets, Petter Johansson & Lars Hall - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We are very happy that someone has finally tried to make sense of rationalization. But we are worried about the representational structure assumed by Cushman, particularly the “boxology” belief-desire model depicting the rational planner, and it seems to us he fails to accommodate many of the interpersonal aspects of representational exchange.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  105.  8
    Choosing a Markov Blanket.Thomas Parr - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary focuses upon the relationship between two themes in the target article: the ways in which a Markov blanket may be defined and the role of precision and salience in mediating the interactions between what is internal and external to a system. These each rest upon the different perspectives we might take while “choosing” a Markov blanket.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  106.  4
    Abstraction Still Holds its Feet on the Ground.Mariella Pazzaglia & Erik Leemhuis - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In view of current scientific knowledge, it seems premature to hypothesize a qualitative distinction between processes, networks, and structures involved in abstract processes from those based on perception, episodic, or procedural memories. Predictive thought and mental travel strongly rely, at different levels of consciousness, on past and ongoing sensory input, bodily information, and the results of perceptual elaboration.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  107.  5
    Neuronal Codes for Predictive Processing in Cortical Layers.Lucy S. Petro & Lars Muckli - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Predictive processing as a computational motif of the neocortex needs to be elaborated into theories of higher cognitive functions that include simulating future behavioural outcomes. We contribute to the neuroscientific perspective of predictive processing as a foundation for the proposed representational architectures of the mind.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  108.  22
    A Hard Choice for Tomasello.Philip Pettit - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Michael Tomasello explains the human sense of obligation by the role it plays in negotiating practices of acting jointly and the commitments they underwrite. He draws in his work on two models of joint action, one from Michael Bratman, the other from Margaret Gilbert. But Bratman's makes the explanation too difficult to succeed, and Gilbert's makes it too easy.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  109.  6
    Social Epistemic Actions.Giovanni Pezzulo, Laura Barca, Domenico Maisto & Francesco Donnarumma - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We consider the ways humans engage in social epistemic actions, to guide each other's attention, prediction, and learning processes towards salient information, at the timescale of online social interaction and joint action. This parallels the active guidance of other's attention, prediction, and learning processes at the longer timescale of niche construction and cultural practices, as discussed in the target article.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  110.  4
    Dynamic Hierarchical Cognition: Music and Language Demand Further Types of Abstracta.Tudor Popescu & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Hierarchical structures are rapidly and flexibly built up in the domains of human language and music. These domains require a tree-building capacity – “dendrophilia” – to dynamically infer hierarchical structures from sensory input, based on subunits stored in a lexicon. This dynamic process involves a crucial class of abstracta overlooked in the target article.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  111.  22
    Rationalization is Irrational and Self-Serving, but Useful.Jake Quilty-Dunn - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Rationalization through reduction of cognitive dissonance does not have the function of representational exchange. Instead, cognitive dissonance is part of the “psychological immune system” and functions to protect the self-concept against evidence of incompetence, immorality, and instability. The irrational forms of attitude change that protect the self-concept in dissonance reduction are useful primarily for maintaining motivation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  112.  9
    Rationalization of Emotion is Also Rational.Peter Railton - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman seeks to explain rationalization in terms of fundamental mental processes, and he hypotheses a selected-for function: information exchange between “rational” and “non-rational” processes in the brain. While this is plausible, his account overlooks the importance – and information value – of rationalizing the emotions of ourselves and others. Incorporating such rationalization would help explain the effectiveness of rationalization and its connection with valuation, as well as raise a challenge to his way of bifurcating “rational” and “non-rational” processes.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  113.  3
    How is the Moral Stance Related to the Intentional Stance and Group Thinking?Hannes Rakoczy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The natural history of our moral stance told here in this commentary reveals the close nexus of morality and basic social-cognitive capacities. Big mysteries about morality thus transform into smaller and more manageable ones. Here, I raise questions regarding the conceptual, ontogenetic, and evolutionary relations of the moral stance to the intentional and group stances and to shared intentionality.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  114.  2
    The Social Side of Innovation.Bruce Rawlings & Cristine H. Legare - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Innovation is fundamental to cumulative culture, allowing progressive modification of existing technology. The authors define innovation as an asocial process, uninfluenced by social information. We argue that innovation is inherently social – innovation is frequently the product of modifying others' outputs, and successful innovations are acquired by others. Research should target examination of the cognitive underpinnings of socially-mediated innovations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  115.  2
    Caregiving Relationships as Evolutionary and Developmental Bases of Obligation.Rachna B. Reddy & Henry M. Wellman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Obligation as defined by Tomasello requires mutually capable parties, but one-sided caregiver relationships reveal its developmental and evolutionary precursors. Specifically, “coercive” emotions may prompt protective action by caregivers toward infant primates, and infants show distress toward caregivers when they appear to violate expectations in their relationships. We argue that these early social-relational expectations and emotions may form the base of obligation.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  116.  2
    Abstraction: An Alternative Neurocognitive Account of Recognition, Prediction, and Decision Making.Valerie F. Reyna & David A. Broniatowski - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. offer a thoughtful and much-needed treatment of abstraction. However, it fails to build on an extensive literature on abstraction, representational diversity, neurocognition, and psychopathology that provides important constraints and alternative evidence-based conceptions. We draw on conceptions in software engineering, socio-technical systems engineering, and a neurocognitive theory with abstract representations of gist at its core, fuzzy-trace theory.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  117.  4
    Does the Concept of Obligation Develop From the Inside-Out or Outside-In?Marjorie Rhodes - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello proposes that the concept of obligation develops “from the inside-out”: emerging first in experiences of shared agency and generalizing outward to shape children's broader understanding. Here I consider that obligation may also develop “from the outside-in,” emerging as a domain-specific instantiation of a more general conceptual bias to expect categories to prescribe how their members are supposed to behave.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  118.  4
    A Little Too Technical: The Threat of Intellectualising Technical Reasoning.Ian Robertson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud claim that research into the origin of cumulative technological culture has been too focused on social cognition and has consequently neglected the importance of uniquely human reasoning capacities. This commentary raises two interrelated theoretical concerns about O&R's notion of technical-reasoning capacities, and suggests how these concerns might be met.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  119.  5
    Rationalization and the Status of Folk Psychology.Adina L. Roskies - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman's theory has implications for the philosophical debate about the nature of folk psychological states, for it entails realism about propositional attitudes. I point out a tension within his view and suggest a different view upon which rationalization emerges as a consequence of the adaptiveness of mentalizing. This alternative avoids the strong metaphysical implications of Cushman's theory.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  120.  3
    Shared Reality and Abstraction: The Social Nature of Predictive Models.Maya Rossignac-Milon, Federica Pinelli & E. Tory Higgins - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We propose that abstraction is an interpersonal process and serves a social function. Research on shared reality shows that in communication, people raise their level of abstraction in order to create a common understanding with their communication partner, which can subsequently distort their mental representation of the object of communication. This work demonstrates that, beyond building accurate models, abstraction also functions to build accurate models but also to build socially shared models – to create a shared reality.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  121.  2
    Shared Reality and Abstraction: The Social Nature of Predictive Models—ERRATUM.Maya Rossignac-Milon, Federica Pinelli & E. Tory Higgins - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  122.  1
    Feelings of Obligation Are Valuations of Signaling-Mediated Social Payoffs.Amanda Rotella, Adam Maxwell Sparks & Pat Barclay - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We extend Tomasello's framework by addressing the functional challenge of obligation. If the long-run social consequences of a decision are sufficiently costly, obligation motivates the actor to forgo potential immediate benefits in favor of long-term social interests. Thus, obligation psychology balances the downstream socially-mediated payoffs from a decision. This perspective can predict when and why obligation will be experienced.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  123.  2
    New Caledonian Crows Afford Invaluable Comparative Insights Into Human Cumulative Technological Culture.Christian Rutz & Gavin R. Hunt - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The New Caledonian crow may be the only non-primate species exhibiting cumulative technological culture. Its foraging tools show clear signs of diversification and progressive refinement, and it seems likely that at least some tool-related information is passed across generations via social learning. Here, we explain how these remarkable birds can help us uncover the basic biological processes driving technological progress.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  124.  2
    Rationalization: Why, When, and What For?Rebecca Saxe & Daniel Nettle - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, we ask when rationalization is most likely to occur and to not occur, and about where to expect, and how to measure, its benefits.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  125.  3
    Abstractions, Predictions, and Speech Sound Representations.Mathias Scharinger - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Gilead et al. provide a unified account of predictive cognition in which abstract representations play an essential role. Although acknowledging the similarity to linguistic concepts toward the higher end of the proposed abstraction gradient, Gilead et al. do not consider the potential of their account to embrace phonetic and phonological speech sound representations and their neural bases.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  126.  3
    Simulation Across Representation: The Interplay of Schemas and Simulation-Based Inference on Different Levels of Abstraction.Malte Schilling, Nancy Chang, Katharina J. Rohlfing & Michael Spranger - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Language comprehension of action verbs recruits embodied representations in the brain that are assumed to invoke a mental simulation. This extends to abstract concepts, as well. We, therefore, argue that mental simulation works across levels of abstractness and involves higher-level schematic structures that subsume a generic structure of actions and events.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  127.  1
    Who Are “We”? Dealing with Conflicting Moral Obligations.Alex Shaw & Shoham Choshen-Hillel - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Satisfying one's obligations is an important part of being human. However, people's obligations can often prescribe contradictory behaviors. Moral obligations conflict, and so do obligations to different groups. We propose that a broader framework is needed to account for how people balance different social and moral obligations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  128.  1
    A Modern Materialist Approach to Abstraction, Concreteness, and Explanation in Cognition.Richard Shillcock - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although endorsing the authors’ concentration on the issue of abstraction, I critique the philosophical nature of their abstract–concrete dimension, their view of the brain–world barrier, and their implicit positivist one-way hierarchy that has abstraction as the goal.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  129. Antecedent Rationalization: Rationalization Prior to Action.Eric Thomas Sievers - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Often times we find ourselves wrestling with the urge to commit a non-rational action. When this happens, we are quite good at adopting quasi-beliefs that, if true, would make the action rational. In other words, rationalization often occurs antecedent to a behavioral choice. A complete account of the evolutionary history of rationalization must include antecedent rationalization.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  130.  2
    Ex Ante Coherence Shifts.Dan Simon & Keith J. Holyoak - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman characterizes rationalization as the inverse of rational reasoning, but this distinction is psychologically questionable. Coherence-based reasoning highlights a subtler form of bidirectionality: By distorting task attributes to make one course of action appear superior to its rivals, a patina of rationality is bestowed on the choice. This mechanism drives choice and action, rather than just following in their wake.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  131.  14
    How Does Inequality Affect Our Sense of Moral Obligation?Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's novel and insightful theory of obligation explains why we sometimes sense an obligation to treat each other equally, but he has not yet explained why human morality also allows and enables much inequality in wealth and power. Ullman-Margalit's account of norms of partiality suggested a different source and kind of norms that might help to fill out Tomasello's picture.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  132.  5
    Thinking Through Others’ Emotions: Incorporating the Role of Emotional State Inference in Thinking Through Other Minds.Ryan Smith & Richard D. Lane - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The active inference framework offers an attractive starting point for understanding cultural cognition. Here, we argue that affective dynamics are essential to include when constructing this type of theory. We highlight ways in which interactions between emotional responses and the perception of those responses, both within and between individuals, can play central roles in both motivating and constraining sociocultural practices.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  133.  2
    Abstracting Reward.David Spurrett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The costs of and returns from actions are varied and individually concrete dimensions, combined in heterogeneous ways. The many needs of the body also fluctuate. Making action selection efficiently track some ultimate goal, whether fitness or another utility function, itself requires representational abstraction. Therefore, predictive brains need abstract value representations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  134.  3
    Evidence for the Rationalisation Phenomenon is Exaggerated.Tom Stafford - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The evidence for rationalisation, which motivates the target article, is exaggerated. Experimental evidence shows that rationalisation effects are small rather than gross and, I argue, largely silent on the pervasiveness and persistence of the phenomenon. At least some examples taken to show rationalisation also have an interpretation compatible with deliberate, knowing reason-responsiveness on the part of participants.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  135.  4
    A Deeper and Distributed Search for Culture.Paul S. Strand - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The target article does not address the neural mediation of complex social behavior. I review evidence that such mediation may be compatible with proposed Bayesian information-processing principles. Notably, however, such mediation occurs subcortically as well as cortically, concerns reward uncertainty and information uncertainty, and impacts culture via group-level payoff structures that define individualism and collectivism.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  136.  4
    The Crow in the Room: New Caledonian Crows Offer Insight Into the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Alex H. Taylor & Sarah Jelbert - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    New Caledonian crow populations have developed complex tools that show suggestive evidence of cumulative change. These tool designs, therefore, appear to be the product of cumulative technological culture. We suggest that tool-using NC crows offer highly useful data for current debates over the necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of CTC.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  137.  2
    Cooperation and Obligation in Early Parent-Child Relationships.Ross A. Thompson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Tomasello's moral psychology of obligation would be developmentally deepened by greater attention to early experiences of cooperation and shared social agency between parents and infants, evolved to promote infant survival. They provide a foundation for developing understanding of the mutual obligations of close relationships that contribute to growing collaborative skills, fairness expectations, and fidelity to social norms.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  138.  3
    Supporting the Weight of the Elephant in the Room: Technical Intelligence Propped Up by Social Cognition and Language.Alex Thornton, Francesca Happé & Christine A. Caldwell - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We consider the evolutionary plausibility of Osiurak and Reynaud's arguments. We argue that technical reasoning is not quite the magic bullet that O&R assume, and instead propose a co-evolutionary account of the interplay between technical reasoning and social learning, with language emerging as a vital issue neglected in O&R's account.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  139.  1
    Quantifying the Prevalence and Adaptiveness of Behavioral Rationalizations.Warren Tierney & Eric Luis Uhlmann - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Critical aspects of the “rationality of rationalizations” thesis are open empirical questions. These include the frequency with which past behavior determines attitudes, the extent to which post hoc justifications take on a life of their own and shape future actions, and whether rationalizers experience benefits in well-being, social influence, performance, or other desirable outcomes.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  140.  11
    The Many Faces of Obligation.Michael Tomasello - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    My response to the commentaries focuses on four issues: the diversity both within and between cultures of the many different faces of obligation; the possible evolutionary roots of the sense of obligation, including possible sources that I did not consider; the possible ontogenetic roots of the sense of obligation, including especially children's understanding of groups from a third-party perspective ; and the relation between philosophical accounts of normative phenomena in general – which are pitched as not totally empirical – and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  141.  16
    The Moral Psychology of Obligation.Michael Tomasello - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-33.
    Although psychologists have paid scant attention to the sense of obligation as a distinctly human motivation, moral philosophers have identified two of its key features: First, it has a peremptory, demanding force, with a kind of coercive quality, and second, it is often tied to agreement-like social interactions in which breaches prompt normative protest, on the one side, and apologies, excuses, justifications, and guilt on the other. Drawing on empirical research in comparative and developmental psychology, I provide here a psychological (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  142.  4
    What Matters Emotionally: The Importance of Pride for Cumulative Culture.Jessica L. Tracy - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud highlight a major omission of models of cumulative technological culture. I propose an additional problematic omission: pride. By taking this emotion into account, we can address the question of why humans seek to learn, teach, and innovate – three processes essential to cumulative technological culture. By fostering achievement, prestige, and social learning, pride provides a pivotal piece of the puzzle.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  143.  1
    Heroes of Our Own Story: Self-Image and Rationalizing in Thought Experiments.Tomer David Ullman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman's rationalization account can be extended to cover another part of his portrayal of representational exchange: thought experiments that lead to conclusions about the self. While Cushman's argument is compelling, a full account of rationalization as adaptive will need to account for the divergence in rationalizing one's actions compared to the actions of others.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  144.  1
    The Social Function of Rationalization: An Identity Perspective.Jay J. Van Bavel, Anni Sternisko, Elizabeth Harris & Claire Robertson - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    In this commentary, we offer an additional function of rationalization. Namely, in certain social contexts, the proximal and ultimate function of beliefs and desires is social inclusion. In such contexts, rationalization often facilitates distortion of rather than approximation to truth. Understanding the role of social identity is not only timely and important, but also critical to fully understand the function of rationalization.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  145.  4
    The Dark Side of Thinking Through Other Minds.Sander Van de Cruys & Francis Heylighen - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We show that TTOM has a lot to offer for the study of the evolution of cultures, but that this also brings to the fore the dark implications of TTOM, unexposed in Veissière et al. Those implications lead us to move beyond meme-centered or an organism-centered concept of fitness based on free-energy minimization, toward a social system-centered view.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  146.  9
    TTOM in Action: Refining the Variational Approach to Cognition and Culture.Samuel P. L. Veissière, Axel Constant, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Karl J. Friston & Laurence J. Kirmayer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The target article “Thinking Through Other Minds” offered an account of the distinctively human capacity to acquire cultural knowledge, norms, and practices. To this end, we leveraged recent ideas from theoretical neurobiology to understand the human mind in social and cultural contexts. Our aim was both synthetic – building an integrative model adequate to account for key features of cultural learning and adaptation; and prescriptive – showing how the tools developed to explain brain dynamics can be applied to the emergence (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  147.  35
    Thinking Through Other Minds: A Variational Approach to Cognition and Culture.Samuel P. L. Veissière, Axel Constant, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Karl J. Friston & Laurence J. Kirmayer - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-97.
    The processes underwriting the acquisition of culture remain unclear. How are shared habits, norms, and expectations learned and maintained with precision and reliability across large-scale sociocultural ensembles? Is there a unifying account of the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of culture? Notions such as “shared expectations,” the “selective patterning of attention and behaviour,” “cultural evolution,” “cultural inheritance,” and “implicit learning” are the main candidates to underpin a unifying account of cognition and the acquisition of culture; however, their interactions require greater (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  148.  10
    The Rationale of Rationalization.Walter Veit, Joe Dewhurst, Krzysztof Dołęga, Max Jones, Shaun Stanley, Keith Frankish & Daniel C. Dennett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    While we agree in broad strokes with the characterisation of rationalization as a “useful fiction,” we think that Fiery Cushman's claim remains ambiguous in two crucial respects: the reality of beliefs and desires, that is, the fictional status of folk-psychological entities and the degree to which they should be understood as useful. Our aim is to clarify both points and explicate the rationale of rationalization.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  149.  5
    Participating in a Musician's Stream of Consciousness.Björn Vickhoff - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Do we acquire culture through other minds, or do we get access to other minds through culture? Music culture is a practice as well as the people involved. Sounding music works as a script guiding action, as do, to varying degrees, many rituals and customs. Collective co-performance of the script enables inter-subjectivity, which arguably contributes to the formation of subcultures. Shared-emotional experiences give material to the narrative of who we are.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  150.  4
    A Challenge for Predictive Coding: Representational or Experiential Diversity?Martina G. Vilas & Lucia Melloni - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    To become a unifying theory of brain function, predictive processing must accommodate its rich representational diversity. Gilead et al. claim such diversity requires a multi-process theory, and thus is out of reach for PP, which postulates a universal canonical computation. We contend this argument and instead propose that PP fails to account for the experiential level of representations.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  151.  2
    The Role of Sleep in the Formation and Updating of Abstract Mental Representations.Antonino Visalli & Nicola Cellini - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    According to Gilead and colleagues, to be efficient abstraction requires a hierarchical organization of information into long-term memory. But, how and when are abstract representations consolidated into long-term memory and how are they integrated with pre-existing abstracta are questions not discussed by Gilead and colleagues. Here, we propose that these processes occur preferentially during offline periods such as sleep.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  152.  2
    Hard Domains, Biased Rationalizations, and Unanswered Empirical Questions.Stephen E. Weinberg & Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Cushman raises the intriguing possibility that rationalization accesses/constructs intuitions that are not otherwise cognitively available. However, he substantially over-reaches in arguing that rationalization is mostly right on average, based on claims that the process must have emerged adaptively. The adaptiveness of “bounded rationalization” is domain specific and is unlikely to be adaptive in a large number of important applications.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  153.  3
    Causal Learning in CTC: Adaptive and Collaborative.Netanel Weinstein & Dare Baldwin - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Osiurak and Reynaud highlight the critical role of technical-reasoning skills in the emergence of human cumulative technological culture, in contrast to previous accounts foregrounding social-reasoning skills as key to CTC. We question their analysis of the available evidence, yet for other reasons applaud the emphasis on causal understanding as central to the adaptive and collaborative dynamics of CTC.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  154.  3
    A Unified Account of Culture Should Accommodate Animal Cultures.Andrew Whiten - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Discoveries about social learning and culture in non-human animals have burgeoned this century, yet despite aspiring to offer a unified account of culture, the target article neglects these discoveries almost totally. I offer an overview of principal findings in this field including phylogenetic reach, intraspecies pervasiveness, stability, fidelity, and attentional funnelling in social learning. Can the authors’ approach accommodate these?
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  155.  2
    Refining Our Understanding of the “Elephant in the Room”.Andrew Whiten - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The authors do the field of cultural evolution a service by exploring the role of non-social cognition in human cumulative technological culture, truly neglected in comparison with socio-cognitive abilities frequently assumed to be the primary drivers. Some specifics of their delineation of the critical factors are problematic, however. I highlight recent chimpanzee–human comparative findings that should help refine such analyses.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  156.  6
    Integrating Models of Cognition and Culture Will Require a Bit More Math.Matthew R. Zefferman & Paul E. Smaldino - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    We support the goal to integrate models of culture and cognition. However, we are not convinced that the free energy principle and Thinking Through Other Minds will be useful in achieving it. There are long traditions of modeling both cultural evolution and cognition. Demonstrating that FEP or TTOM can integrate these models will require a bit more math.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  157.  1
    Successful Simulation Requires Bridging Levels of Abstraction.Zidong Zhao, Judith N. Mildner & Diana I. Tamir - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Although many simulations draw upon only one level of abstraction, the process for generating rich simulations requires a dynamic interplay between abstract and concrete knowledge. A complete model of simulation must account for a mind and brain that can bridge the perceptual with the conceptual, the episodic with the semantic, and the concrete with the abstract.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues