44 found

Year:

  1.  5
    The Human Genome as Public: Justifications and Implications.Michelle J. Bayefsky - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):209-219.
    Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome – its common nature – has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the (...)
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  2.  4
    The Human Genome as Public: Justifications and Implications.Michelle J. Bayefsky - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):209-219.
    Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome – its common nature – has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the (...)
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  3.  4
    Bioethics in a Post‐Truth Era.Ruth Chadwick - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):154-154.
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  4.  7
    Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):155-161.
    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases ; second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. (...)
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  5. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):155-161.
    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases ; second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. (...)
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  6.  2
    The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.Lorenzo del Savio - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies, especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a (...)
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  7.  1
    Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.Samia A. Hurst & Alex Mauron - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):199-208.
    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the ‘Swiss model’ for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the ‘Swiss model’ using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After (...)
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  8.  2
    Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.Samia A. Hurst & Alex Mauron - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):199-208.
    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the ‘Swiss model’ for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the ‘Swiss model’ using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After (...)
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  9. Bioethics, General Ethics and CAM.Brian Kaplan - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):231-231.
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  10. Bioethics, General Ethics and CAM.Brian Kaplan - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):231-231.
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  11.  6
    Human Dignity and Human Enhancement: A Multidimensional Approach.David G. Kirchhoffer - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of ‘dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals (...)
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  12.  5
    Is Consent Based on Trust Morally Inferior to Consent Based on Information?Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm & Klemens Kappel - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent (...)
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  13.  4
    The Edge of Human? The Problem with the Posthuman as the ‘Beyond’.David R. Lawrence - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):171-179.
    This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The ‘posthuman’ is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term ‘Human’, (...)
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  14.  16
    The Edge of Human? The Problem with the Posthuman as the ‘Beyond’.David R. Lawrence - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):171-179.
    This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The ‘posthuman’ is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term ‘Human’, (...)
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  15.  11
    Is There a Right to the Death of the Foetus?Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    At some point in the future – perhaps within the next few decades – it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a (...)
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  16.  2
    Permanence Can Be Defended.Andrew Mcgee & Dale Gardiner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):220-230.
    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death, the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981, a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is ‘irreversible’. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. (...)
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  17. Permanence Can Be Defended.Andrew McGee & Dale Gardiner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):220-230.
    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death, the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981, a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is ‘irreversible’. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. (...)
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  18.  11
    The Invisible Discrimination Before Our Eyes: A Bioethical Analysis.Francesca Minerva - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):180-189.
    The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order (...)
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  19.  4
    The Invisible Discrimination Before Our Eyes: A Bioethical Analysis.Francesca Minerva - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):180-189.
    The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order (...)
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  20.  2
    Moral Hard‐Wiring and Moral Enhancement.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an ‘inclusivist anomaly’: humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that ‘exclusivist’ morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are (...)
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  21.  2
    Doctors Have No Right to Refuse Medical Assistance in Dying, Abortion or Contraception.Julian Savulescu & Udo Schuklenk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):162-170.
    In an article in this journal, Christopher Cowley argues that we have ‘misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors’. We have not. It is Cowley who has misunderstood the role of personal values in the profession of medicine. We argue that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values and there should be more severe restrictions on the right to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying. We argue (...)
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  22.  3
    Doctors Have No Right to Refuse Medical Assistance in Dying, Abortion or Contraception.Julian Savulescu & Udo Schuklenk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):162-170.
    In an article in this journal, Christopher Cowley argues that we have ‘misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors’. We have not. It is Cowley who has misunderstood the role of personal values in the profession of medicine. We argue that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values and there should be more severe restrictions on the right to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying. We argue (...)
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  23. Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term ‘human embryo’ to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a (...)
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  24. Misplaced Paternalism and Other Mistakes in the Debate Over Kidney Sales.Luke Semrau - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):190-198.
    Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to ‘group soft paternalism’ requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to (...)
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  25. Misplaced Paternalism and Other Mistakes in the Debate Over Kidney Sales.Luke Semrau - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):190-198.
    Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to ‘group soft paternalism’ requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to (...)
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  26. Alcohol Use Disorder, Liver Transplantation and Ethics.Gianni Testino - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3).
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  27.  3
    Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.Tineke A. Abma, Yolande Voskes & Guy Widdershoven - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):144-152.
    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored (...)
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  28.  13
    The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals (...)
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  29. Reconfiguring Social Value in Health Research Through the Lens of Liminality.Agomoni Ganguli‐Mitra, Edward S. Dove, Graeme T. Laurie & Samuel Taylor‐Alexander - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):87-96.
    Despite the growing importance of ‘social value’ as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure its variegated approaches. (...)
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  30. The Social Value of Pragmatic Trials.Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee & Johannes van Delden - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):136-143.
    Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called ‘real world data’ from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their (...)
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  31.  1
    Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research‐Active Province of South Africa.Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack & Douglas Wassenaar - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):128-135.
    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, (...)
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  32.  1
    Should Social Value Obligations Be Local or Global?Rahul Nayak & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):116-127.
    According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor. To the extent the social value requirement has been (...)
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  33.  1
    Substantiating the Social Value Requirement for Research: An Introduction.Annette Rid & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):72-76.
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  34.  1
    Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.Adam James Roberts - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2).
    In ‘Professional Hubris and its Consequences’, Eric Vogelstein claims that ‘that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics’. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion – that professional organisations (...)
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  35.  14
    In Defense of Artificial Replacement.Derek Shiller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2).
    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should (...)
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  36. In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.David Wendler & Annette Rid - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):77-86.
    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this (...)
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  37.  1
    The Social Value of Knowledge and the Responsiveness Requirement for International Research.Danielle M. Wenner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):97-104.
    Ethicists have long recognized that two necessary features of ethical research are scientific validity and social value. Yet despite a significant literature surrounding the validity component of this dictate, until recently there has been little attention paid to unpacking what the social value component might require. This article introduces a framework for assessing the social value of research, and in particular, for determining whether a given research program is likely to have significant social value of the kind necessary to fulfill (...)
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  38. The Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement.John B. Appleby, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):2-6.
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  39.  4
    Human Nuclear Genome Transfer : Clearing the Underbrush.Françoise Baylis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):7-19.
    In this article, I argue that there is no compelling therapeutic ‘need’ for human nuclear genome transfer to prevent mitochondrial diseases caused by mtDNA mutations. At most there is a strong interest in this technology on the part of some women and couples at risk of having children with mitochondrial disease, and perhaps also a ‘want’ on the part of some researchers who see the technology as a useful precedent – one that provides them with ‘a quiet way station’ in (...)
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  40. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Who Are the Potential Users and Will They Benefit?Cathy Herbrand - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):46-54.
    In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques, which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the ‘eradication’ of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child. However, many questions (...)
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  41.  1
    Do Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques Affect Qualitative or Numerical Identity?S. Matthew Liao - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):20-26.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques, known in the popular media as 'three-parent' or 'three-person' IVFs, have the potential to enable women with mitochondrial diseases to have children who are genetically related to them but without such diseases. In the debate regarding whether MRTs should be made available, an issue that has garnered considerable attention is whether MRTs affect the characteristics of an existing individual or whether they result in the creation of a new individual, given that MRTs involve the genetic manipulation of (...)
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  42.  6
    Is Mitochondrial Donation Germ‐Line Gene Therapy? Classifications and Ethical Implications.J. Newson Ainsley & Wrigley Anthony - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):55-67.
    The classification of techniques used in mitochondrial donation, including their role as purported germ-line gene therapies, is far from clear. These techniques exhibit characteristics typical of a variety of classifications that have been used in both scientific and bioethics scholarship. This raises two connected questions, which we address in this paper: how should we classify mitochondrial donation techniques?; and what ethical implications surround such a classification? First, we outline how methods of genetic intervention, such as germ-line gene therapy, are typically (...)
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  43. Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: A Habermasian Perspective.César Palacios‐González - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):27-36.
    Jürgen Habermas is regarded as a central bioconservative commentator in the debate on the ethics of human prenatal genetic manipulations. While his main work on this topic, The Future of Human Nature, has been widely examined in regard to his position on prenatal genetic enhancement, his arguments regarding prenatal genetic therapeutic interventions have for the most part been overlooked. In this work I do two things. First, I present the three necessary conditions that Habermas establishes for a prenatal genetic manipulation (...)
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  44.  1
    A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.Jackie Leach Scully - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):37-45.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (...)
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