69 found

Year:

  1. The Experiences of Pregnant Women in an Interventional Clinical Trial: Research In Pregnancy Ethics Study.Angela Ballantyne, Susan Pullon, Lindsay Macdonald, Christine Barthow, Kristen Wickens & Julian Crane - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):476-483.
    There is increasing global pressure to ensure that pregnant women are responsibly and safely included in clinical research in order to improve the evidence base that underpins healthcare delivery during pregnancy. One supposed barrier to inclusion is the assumption that pregnant women will be reluctant to participate in research. There is however very little empirical research investigating the views of pregnant women. Their perspective on the benefits, burdens and risks of research is a crucial component to ensuring effective recruitment. The (...)
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  2.  2
    ‘You Are Inferior!’ Revisiting the Expressivist Argument.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6).
    According to the expressivist argument the choice to use biotechnologies to prevent the birth of individuals with specific disabilities is an expression of disvalue for existing people with this disability. The argument has stirred a lively debate and has recently received renewed attention. This article starts with presenting the expressivist argument and its core elements. It then goes on to present and examine the counter-arguments before it addresses some aspects that have gained surprisingly little attention. The analysis demonstrates that the (...)
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  3.  5
    Is Consent Based on Trust Morally Inferior to Consent Based on Information?Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm & Klemens Kappel - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):432-442.
    Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent (...)
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  4.  6
    The Ethics of Clinical Trials Research in Severe Mood Disorders.Allison C. Nugent, Franklin G. Miller, Ioline D. Henter & Carlos A. Zarate - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):443-453.
    Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, are highly prevalent, frequently disabling, and sometimes deadly. Additional research and more effective medications are desperately needed, but clinical trials research in mood disorders is fraught with ethical issues. Although many authors have discussed these issues, most do so from a theoretical viewpoint. This manuscript uses available empirical data to inform a discussion of the primary ethical issues raised in mood disorders research. These include issues of consent and decision-making capacity, including (...)
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  5.  3
    Assisted Dying & Disability.Christopher A. Riddle - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):484-489.
    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in (...)
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  6.  2
    Tying Oneself to the Mast: One Necessary Cost to Morally Enhancing Oneself Biomedically.Benedict Rumbold - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6).
    In this article I seek to establish what, if anything, might be morally troubling about morally enhancing oneself through biomedical means. Building on arguments by Harris, while simultaneously acknowledging several valid counter-arguments that have been put forth by his critics, I argue that taking BMEs necessarily incurs at least one moral cost in the restrictions they impose on our freedom. This does not necessarily entail that the use of BMEs cannot be overall justified, nor that, in certain cases, their costs (...)
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  7.  3
    New Frontiers in End‐of‐Life Ethics : Scope, Advance Directives and Conscientious Objection.Udo Schuklenk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):422-423.
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  8. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.David M. Shaw - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (6):424-431.
    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate (...)
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  9.  3
    The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.Lorenzo del Savio - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):384-392.
    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies, especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a (...)
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  10.  1
    Neuroethics: Neuroscience's Contributions to Bioethics.Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J. Jox & Eric Racine - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):326-327.
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  11. Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement Neurotechnologies.Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):338-348.
    Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined. In (...)
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  12.  1
    Objection to Conscience: An Argument Against Conscience Exemptions in Healthcare.Alberto Giubilini - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):400-408.
    I argue that appeals to conscience do not constitute reasons for granting healthcare professionals exemptions from providing services they consider immoral. My argument is based on a comparison between a type of objection that many people think should be granted, i.e. to abortion, and one that most people think should not be granted, i.e. to antibiotics. I argue that there is no principled reason in favour of conscientious objection qua conscientious that allows to treat these two cases differently. Therefore, I (...)
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  13.  9
    Human Dignity and Human Enhancement: A Multidimensional Approach.David G. Kirchhoffer - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):375-383.
    In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of ‘dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals (...)
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  14.  1
    Respect for Autonomy in Light of Neuropsychiatry.Sabine Müller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):360-367.
    Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy. The thesis of this article (...)
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  15. The Voluntary Nature of Decision‐Making in Addiction: Static Metaphysical Views Versus Epistemologically Dynamic Views.Racine Eric & Rousseau‐Lesage Simon - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):349-359.
    The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with (...)
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  16.  16
    Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.Eric Racine, Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J. Jox, Bernard Baertschi, Julia F. Christensen, Michele Farisco, Fabrice Jotterand, Guy Kahane & Sabine Müller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):328-337.
    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an ‘ethics of neuroscience’ and a ‘neuroscience of ethics’. However, questions surface as to whether a ‘neuroscience of ethics’ is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. (...)
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  17.  1
    The Mitochondrial Replacement ‘Therapy’ Myth.Tina Rulli - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):368-374.
    This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer and pro-nuclear transfer, are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, ‘Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,’ by Wrigley, Wilkinson, (...)
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  18.  1
    Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):409-417.
    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term ‘human embryo’ to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a (...)
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  19. Alcohol Use Disorder, Liver Transplantation and Ethics.Gianni Testino - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):418-419.
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  20. What Outcomes Do Dutch Healthcare Professionals Perceive as Important Before Participation in Moral Case Deliberation?Janine de Snoo‐Trimp, Guy Widdershoven, Mia Svantesson, Riekie de Vet & Bert Molewijk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):246-257.
    Background There has been little attention paid to research on the outcomes of clinical ethics support or critical reflection on what constitutes a good CES outcome. Understanding how CES users perceive the importance of CES outcomes can contribute to a better understanding, use of and normative reflection on CES outcomes. Objective To describe the perceptions of Dutch healthcare professionals on important outcomes of moral case deliberation, prior to MCD participation, and to compare results between respondents. Methods This mixed-methods study used (...)
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  21. Discovering What Matters: Interrogating Clinician Responses to Ethics Consultation.Stuart G. Finder & Virginia L. Bartlett - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):267-276.
    Against the background assumptions that knowing what clinical ethics consultation represents to those with whom ethics consultants work most closely is a necessary component for being responsible in the practice of ethics consultation, and the complexities of soliciting and understanding colleague evaluations require another inherent responsibility for the methods by which ethics consultations are evaluated, in this article we report our experience soliciting, analyzing, and trying to understand retrospective evaluations of our Clinical Ethics Consultation Service. These evaluations were collected through (...)
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  22.  1
    Evaluating the Quality of the Deliberation in Moral Case Deliberations: A Coding Scheme.Hylke Jellema, Swanny Kremer, Anne‐Ruth Mackor & Bert Molewijk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):277-285.
    Moral Case Deliberation is an up and coming form of ethics support wherein clinical professionals deliberate about moral questions they face in their work. So far, it has been unclear what quality of deliberation in MCD is entailed and how to evaluate this quality. This article proposes a coding scheme that fits the theoretical background of MCD and allows researchers to evaluate the quality of the deliberation in MCDs. We consider deliberation in MCD to be of good quality when participants (...)
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  23.  1
    Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.Liberman Alida - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4).
    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several (...)
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  24.  9
    The Substance View: A Critique (Part 3).Rob Lovering - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):305-312.
    In my articles ‘The Substance View: A Critique’ and ‘The Substance View: A Critique,’ I raise objections to the substance view, a theory of intrinsic value and moral standing defended by a number of contemporary moral philosophers, including Robert P. George, Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Francis Beckwith. In part one of my critique of the substance view, I raise reductio-style objections to the substance view's conclusion that the standard human fetus has the same intrinsic value and moral standing as (...)
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  25. When is a Choice Not a Choice? ‘Sham Offers’ and the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal.Neil C. Manson - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):296-304.
    In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. Lawlor offers (...)
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  26.  30
    Is There a Right to the Death of the Foetus?Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):313-320.
    At some point in the future – perhaps within the next few decades – it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a (...)
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  27. Evaluating Clinical Ethics Support: A Participatory Approach.Suzanne Metselaar, Guy Widdershoven, Rouven Porz & Bert Molewijk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):258-266.
    The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what ‘good CESS’ should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be (...)
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  28.  1
    Integrating Theory and Data in Evaluating Clinical Ethics Support. Still a Long Way to Go.Bert Molewijk, Jan Schildmann & Anne Slowther - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):234-236.
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  29.  4
    Moral Hard‐Wiring and Moral Enhancement.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):286-295.
    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an ‘inclusivist anomaly’: humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that ‘exclusivist’ morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are (...)
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  30. Fair Resource Allocation to Health Research: Priority Topics for Bioethics Scholarship.Pratt Bridget & A. Hyder Adnan - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):454-466.
    This article draws attention to the limited amount of scholarship on what constitutes fairness and equity in resource allocation to health research by individual funders. It identifies three key decisions of ethical significance about resource allocation that research funders make regularly and calls for prioritizing scholarship on those topics – namely, how health resources should be fairly apportioned amongst public health and health care delivery versus health research, how health research resources should be fairly allocated between health problems experienced domestically (...)
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  31. Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.Efrat Ram-Tiktin - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):467-475.
    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the (...)
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  32. Methodological Reflections on the Contribution of Qualitative Research to the Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Support Services.Sebastian Wäscher, Sabine Salloch, Peter Ritter, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):237-245.
    This article describes a process of developing, implementing and evaluating a clinical ethics support service intervention with the goal of building up a context-sensitive structure of minimal clinical-ethics in an oncology department without prior clinical ethics structure. Scholars from different disciplines have called for an improvement in the evaluation of clinical ethics support services for different reasons over several decades. However, while a lot has been said about the concepts and methodological challenges of evaluating CESS up to the present time, (...)
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  33.  6
    The Human Genome as Public: Justifications and Implications.Michelle J. Bayefsky - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):209-219.
    Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome – its common nature – has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the (...)
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  34.  4
    The Human Genome as Public: Justifications and Implications.Michelle J. Bayefsky - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):209-219.
    Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome – its common nature – has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the (...)
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  35.  6
    Bioethics in a Post‐Truth Era.Ruth Chadwick - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):154-154.
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  36.  22
    Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):155-161.
    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases ; second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. (...)
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  37. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):155-161.
    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases ; second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. (...)
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  38.  2
    Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.Samia A. Hurst & Alex Mauron - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):199-208.
    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the ‘Swiss model’ for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the ‘Swiss model’ using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After (...)
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  39.  2
    Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.Samia A. Hurst & Alex Mauron - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):199-208.
    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the ‘Swiss model’ for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the ‘Swiss model’ using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After (...)
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  40. Bioethics, General Ethics and CAM.Brian Kaplan - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):231-231.
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  41.  1
    Bioethics, General Ethics and CAM.Brian Kaplan - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):231-231.
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  42.  5
    The Edge of Human? The Problem with the Posthuman as the ‘Beyond’.David R. Lawrence - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):171-179.
    This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The ‘posthuman’ is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term ‘Human’, (...)
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  43.  17
    The Edge of Human? The Problem with the Posthuman as the ‘Beyond’.David R. Lawrence - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):171-179.
    This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The ‘posthuman’ is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term ‘Human’, (...)
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  44.  2
    Permanence Can Be Defended.Andrew Mcgee & Dale Gardiner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):220-230.
    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death, the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981, a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is ‘irreversible’. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. (...)
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  45. Permanence Can Be Defended.Andrew McGee & Dale Gardiner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):220-230.
    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death, the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981, a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is ‘irreversible’. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. (...)
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  46.  13
    The Invisible Discrimination Before Our Eyes: A Bioethical Analysis.Francesca Minerva - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):180-189.
    The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order (...)
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  47.  4
    The Invisible Discrimination Before Our Eyes: A Bioethical Analysis.Francesca Minerva - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):180-189.
    The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order (...)
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  48.  2
    Doctors Have No Right to Refuse Medical Assistance in Dying, Abortion or Contraception.Julian Savulescu & Udo Schuklenk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):162-170.
    In an article in this journal, Christopher Cowley argues that we have ‘misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors’. We have not. It is Cowley who has misunderstood the role of personal values in the profession of medicine. We argue that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values and there should be more severe restrictions on the right to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying. We argue (...)
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  49.  4
    Doctors Have No Right to Refuse Medical Assistance in Dying, Abortion or Contraception.Julian Savulescu & Udo Schuklenk - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):162-170.
    In an article in this journal, Christopher Cowley argues that we have ‘misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors’. We have not. It is Cowley who has misunderstood the role of personal values in the profession of medicine. We argue that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values and there should be more severe restrictions on the right to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying. We argue (...)
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  50. Misplaced Paternalism and Other Mistakes in the Debate Over Kidney Sales.Luke Semrau - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):190-198.
    Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to ‘group soft paternalism’ requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to (...)
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  51. Misplaced Paternalism and Other Mistakes in the Debate Over Kidney Sales.Luke Semrau - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):190-198.
    Erik Malmqvist defends the prohibition on kidney sales as a justifiable measure to protect individuals from harms they have not autonomously chosen. This appeal to ‘group soft paternalism’ requires that three conditions be met. It must be shown that some vendors will be harmed, that some will be subject to undue pressure to vend, and that we cannot feasibly distinguish between the autonomous and the non-autonomous. I argue that Malmqvist fails to demonstrate that any of these conditions are likely to (...)
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  52.  3
    Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.Tineke A. Abma, Yolande Voskes & Guy Widdershoven - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):144-152.
    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored (...)
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  53.  31
    The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals (...)
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  54.  2
    Reconfiguring Social Value in Health Research Through the Lens of Liminality.Agomoni Ganguli‐Mitra, Edward S. Dove, Graeme T. Laurie & Samuel Taylor‐Alexander - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):87-96.
    Despite the growing importance of ‘social value’ as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure its variegated approaches. (...)
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  55.  1
    The Social Value of Pragmatic Trials.Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee & Johannes van Delden - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):136-143.
    Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called ‘real world data’ from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their (...)
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  56.  1
    Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research‐Active Province of South Africa.Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack & Douglas Wassenaar - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):128-135.
    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, (...)
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  57.  1
    Should Social Value Obligations Be Local or Global?Rahul Nayak & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):116-127.
    According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor. To the extent the social value requirement has been (...)
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  58.  1
    Substantiating the Social Value Requirement for Research: An Introduction.Annette Rid & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):72-76.
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  59.  1
    Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.Adam James Roberts - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):321-324.
    In ‘Professional Hubris and its Consequences’, Eric Vogelstein claims that ‘that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics’. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion – that professional organisations (...)
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  60.  16
    In Defense of Artificial Replacement.Derek Shiller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):393-399.
    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should (...)
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  61.  1
    In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.David Wendler & Annette Rid - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):77-86.
    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this (...)
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  62.  2
    The Social Value of Knowledge and the Responsiveness Requirement for International Research.Danielle M. Wenner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):97-104.
    Ethicists have long recognized that two necessary features of ethical research are scientific validity and social value. Yet despite a significant literature surrounding the validity component of this dictate, until recently there has been little attention paid to unpacking what the social value component might require. This article introduces a framework for assessing the social value of research, and in particular, for determining whether a given research program is likely to have significant social value of the kind necessary to fulfill (...)
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  63. The Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement.John B. Appleby, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):2-6.
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  64.  4
    Human Nuclear Genome Transfer : Clearing the Underbrush.Françoise Baylis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):7-19.
    In this article, I argue that there is no compelling therapeutic ‘need’ for human nuclear genome transfer to prevent mitochondrial diseases caused by mtDNA mutations. At most there is a strong interest in this technology on the part of some women and couples at risk of having children with mitochondrial disease, and perhaps also a ‘want’ on the part of some researchers who see the technology as a useful precedent – one that provides them with ‘a quiet way station’ in (...)
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  65. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Who Are the Potential Users and Will They Benefit?Cathy Herbrand - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):46-54.
    In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques, which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the ‘eradication’ of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child. However, many questions (...)
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  66.  1
    Do Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques Affect Qualitative or Numerical Identity?S. Matthew Liao - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):20-26.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques, known in the popular media as 'three-parent' or 'three-person' IVFs, have the potential to enable women with mitochondrial diseases to have children who are genetically related to them but without such diseases. In the debate regarding whether MRTs should be made available, an issue that has garnered considerable attention is whether MRTs affect the characteristics of an existing individual or whether they result in the creation of a new individual, given that MRTs involve the genetic manipulation of (...)
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  67.  10
    Is Mitochondrial Donation Germ‐Line Gene Therapy? Classifications and Ethical Implications.J. Newson Ainsley & Wrigley Anthony - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):55-67.
    The classification of techniques used in mitochondrial donation, including their role as purported germ-line gene therapies, is far from clear. These techniques exhibit characteristics typical of a variety of classifications that have been used in both scientific and bioethics scholarship. This raises two connected questions, which we address in this paper: how should we classify mitochondrial donation techniques?; and what ethical implications surround such a classification? First, we outline how methods of genetic intervention, such as germ-line gene therapy, are typically (...)
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  68. Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: A Habermasian Perspective.César Palacios‐González - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):27-36.
    Jürgen Habermas is regarded as a central bioconservative commentator in the debate on the ethics of human prenatal genetic manipulations. While his main work on this topic, The Future of Human Nature, has been widely examined in regard to his position on prenatal genetic enhancement, his arguments regarding prenatal genetic therapeutic interventions have for the most part been overlooked. In this work I do two things. First, I present the three necessary conditions that Habermas establishes for a prenatal genetic manipulation (...)
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  69.  1
    A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.Jackie Leach Scully - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):37-45.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (...)
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