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  1.  1
    Lifting Health Professionals’ Morale During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Moderating Emotions to Support Ethical Decisions.Pablo Blasco, Maria Auxiliadora C. De Benedetto, Marcelo R. Levites & Graziela Moreto - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    The current COVID-19 pandemic creates a difficult and unprecedented time. With each passing day, the care of the health team itself is essential; and not only physical care, but also for mental health. The authors describe their experience in disseminating recommendations through short videos to help professionals maintain an objective view of the reality they are experiencing. Thus, knowing how to tabulate daily the evolution of the patients that each professional has been entrusted to care for – the hospitalized, the (...)
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  2.  1
    Medical Machines: The Expanding Role of Ethics in Technology-Driven Healthcare.Connor T. A. Brenna - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence are actively revolutionizing the healthcare industry. While there is widespread concern that these advances will displace human practitioners within the healthcare sector, there are several tasks – including original and nuanced ethical decision making – that they cannot replace. Further, the implementation of artificial intelligence in clinical practice can be anticipated to drive the production of novel ethical tensions surrounding its use, even while eliminating some of the technical tasks which currently compete with ethical (...)
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  3.  1
    Conceptualizing Ethical Issues of Humanitarian Work: Results From a Critical Literature Review.Louis Pierre Côté & Marie-Josée Drolet - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    This article presents results of a critical review of the literature discussing the ethical issues arising in humanitarian work, following the method proposed by McCullough, Coverdale and Chervenak. Our aim was primarily to focus on how the ethical issues arising in humanitarian work are conceptualized within the literature we reviewed. We think that properly conceptualizing the ethical issues which humanitarian workers may face can provide avenues to better respond to them. We analysed 61 documents, as part of a literature review, (...)
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  4.  1
    Social Justice Theories as the Basis for Public Policy on Psychopharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.Astrid Maria Elfferich - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Psychopharmacological cognitive enhancements could lead to a higher quality of life of healthy individuals with lower cognitive capacities, but the current regulatory framework does not seem to enable access to this group. This article discusses why Sen’s Capability Approach could open up such access, while two other modern social justice theories – utilitarianism and Rawls’ Justice as Fairness – could not. In short, the utilitarian approach is proven to be inadequate, due to practical reasons and having a low chance of (...)
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  5.  3
    Accessing Indigenous Long-Term Care.Danielle Gionnas, Andria Bianchi, Leonard Benoit & Kevin Rodrigues - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    The purpose of this commentary is to present and respond to the gap that currently exists in providing culturally inclusive residential long-term care options for Indigenous peoples in Ontario. After presenting statistics regarding the Indigenous population and long-term care options, we argue that we have an ethical responsibility to offer more culturally inclusive long-term care.
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  6.  1
    Assistive Care Robots and Older Adults: Employing a Care Ethics Lens.Rachel Hewitt - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    To date, ethical critiques of the use of assistive healthcare robotics have not closely examined the purported care relationship between such robots and their users. Drawing upon the work of care ethics scholars, I argue that authentic care relies upon capacities inherently reciprocal and responsive in nature, which ultimately precludes socially assistive robots from being useful caring tools.
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  7.  1
    Into the Grey Zone: Retired Nurses’ Reflections on Ethics in Canadian Nursing Practice.Kristen Jones-Bonofiglio & Manal Alzghoul - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Context: Nurses are often hesitant to talk about ethical issues in their practice for many unique and valid reasons. What if the burden of risk was lifted upon retirement, even if just slightly? The purpose of this study was to explore retired nurses’ reflections on their experiences of ethical issues and decision making in various nursing practice settings throughout their careers and to glean recommendations for ethics in contemporary nursing practice. Methods: Data were collected via in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews. Guided (...)
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  8.  2
    Should Institutional Conscientious Objection to Assisted Dying Be Accommodated?Jeffrey Kirby - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    The contentious, topical debate about whether faith-based health care organizations should be granted accommodation on the basis of institutional conscientious objection to medical assistance is dying is addressed through a comparative analysis of arguments on both sides of the issue that references such relevant considerations as: claimed ‘moral-authority’, competing rights-based claims, obligations arising from patient welfare principles, formal justice, dissimilarity in consequences, and two illustrative arguments from analogy. The analysis leads to the conclusion that nonconditional accommodation on the basis of (...)
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  9.  2
    Adverse Health and Psychosocial Repercussions in Retirees From Sports Involving Head Trauma: Looking to Tomorrow for Ideas Today.Joseph Lee - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Academic scholarship has steadily reported unfavourable clinical findings on the sport of boxing, and national medical bodies have issued calls for restrictions on the sport. Yet, the positions taken on boxing by medical bodies have been subject to serious discussions. Beyond the medical and legal writings, there is also literature referring to the social and cultural features of boxing as ethically significant. However, what is missing in the bioethical literature is an understanding of the boxers themselves. This is apart from (...)
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  10.  1
    Documenting Clinical Ethics Consultation.Amanda Porter - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    This short perspective piece is about the documentation of clinical ethics consultation in Canada. It is written at a time when the Canadian Association of Practicing Health Care Ethicists is endeavoring to develop standards of practice for clinical ethics in Canada. This brief commentary is informed by my experience working in clinical ethics in three different provinces, but it is primarily an attempt to draw attention to the normative questions: How much and what kinds of information should be included in (...)
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  11.  1
    AI Bias in Healthcare: Using ImpactPro as a Case Study for Healthcare Practitioners’ Duties to Engage in Anti-Bias Measures.Samantha Lynne Sargent - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    The introduction of ImpactPro to identify patients with complex health needs suggests that current bias and impacts of bias in healthcare AIs stem from historically biased practices leading to biased datasets, a lack of oversight, as well as bias in practitioners who are overseeing AIs. In order to improve these outcomes, healthcare practitioners need to engage in current best practices for anti-bias training.
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  12.  3
    “As Long As I’M Me”: From Personhood to Personal Identity in Dementia and Decisionmaking.James Toomey - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    As older people begin to develop dementia, we confront ethical questions about when and how to intervene in their increasingly compromised decision-making. The prevailing approach in bioethics to tackling this challenge has been to develop theories of “decision-making capacity” based on the same characteristics that entitle the decisions of moral persons to respect in general. This article argues that this way of thinking about the problem has missed the point. Because the disposition of property is an identity-dependent right, what matters (...)
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  13.  1
    What Kind of Artificial Intelligence Should We Want for Use in Healthcare Decision-Making Applications?Jordan Joseph Wadden - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    The prospect of including artificial intelligence in clinical decision-making is an exciting next step for some areas of healthcare. This article provides an analysis of the available kinds of AI systems, focusing on macro-level characteristics. This includes examining the strengths and weaknesses of opaque systems and fully explainable systems. Ultimately, the article argues that “grey box” systems, which include some combination of opacity and transparency, ought to be used in healthcare settings.
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  14.  2
    When Hanging on at All Costs is the Only Option.Laura Walther-Broussard, Tiffany Meyer & Nico Nortjé - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Having hope that a terminally ill patient may recover is not an unfamiliar sight in intensive care units across the globe. However, cultural heritage may make it even tougher. This fictional case study, which is a collection of years of experience, addresses decision-making within the Chinese Immigrant culture and focusses on how this may influence the care team. A new initiative, the Goals of Care team, is also described.
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