39 found

Year:

  1.  20
    On Affect: Function and Phenomenology.Andreas Elpidorou - 2018 - Humana Mente 34:155-184.
    This paper explores the nature of emotions by considering what appear to be two differing, perhaps even conflicting, approaches to affectivity—an evolutionary functional account, on the one hand, and a phenomenological view, on the other. The paper argues for the centrality of the notion of function in both approaches, articulates key differences between them, and attempts to understand how such differences can be overcome.
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  2.  3
    Neurofeedback-Based Moral Enhancement and Traditional Moral Education.Koji Tachibana - 2018 - Humana Mente 33 (11):19-42.
    Scientific progress in recent neurofeedback research may bring about a new type of moral neuroenhancement, namely, neurofeedback-based moral enhancement; however, this has yet to be examined thoroughly. This paper presents an ethical analysis of the possibility of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement and demonstrates that this type of moral enhancement sheds new light on the moral enhancement debate. First, I survey this debate and extract the typical structural flow of its arguments. Second, by applying structure to the case of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement, (...)
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  3.  1
    Boosting Cooperation. The Beneficial Function of Positive Emotions in Dialogical Inquiry.Laura Candiotto - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    The aim of the paper is to discuss and evaluate the role of positive emotions for cooperation in dialogical inquiry. I analyse dialogical interactions as vehicles for inquiry, and the role of positive emotions in knowledge gain is illustrated in terms of a case study taken from Socratic Dialogue, a contemporary method used in education for fostering group knowledge. I proceed as follows. After having illustrated the case study, I analyse it through the conceptual tools of distributed cognition and character-based (...)
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  4.  3
    Motivation and Experience Versus Cognitive Psychological Explanation.Tom Feldges - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    The idea to utilise cognitive neuroscientific research for educational purposes is known as Mind-Brain Education or Educational Neuroscience. Despite some calls for an uncritical endorsement of such an agenda, a growing number of educational scholars argue that it must remain impossible to translate neurological descriptions into mental or educationally relevant descriptions. This paper takes these well-established arguments further by not only focusing upon these different levels of description but going beyond this issue to assess the theoretical foundations of cognitive science (...)
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  5. Theory and Practice in Art & Design Education and Dyslexia: The Emancipatory Potentials of a Neurodiversity Framework.Lynda Fitzwater - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    In the UK, Art and Design Higher Education currently faces multiple challenges regarding its validity, efficacy and cultural value. These challenges are tractable against a complex historical background of successive governmental agendas aimed at both widening social participation and increasing professionalization/standardization. A specific problematic in this context is the teaching of 'critical', 'theoretical', or 'cultural' studies components on undergraduate degrees especially where written outputs are viewed as separate to visual work. The complexity of equitable and effective instruction is increased by (...)
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  6. Could Neurolecturing Address the Limitations of Live and Recorded Lectures?David Gamez - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    Lectures are a common teaching method in higher education. However, they have many serious limitations, including boredom, attendance, short attention span, low knowledge transmission and the passivity of students. This paper suggests how a combination of electroencephalography and eye-tracking technology could address some of these limitations – an approach that I have called neurolecturing. Neurolecturing could measure students’ attention, learning and cognitive load and provide real time feedback to students and lecturers. It could also play a role in the flipped (...)
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  7.  2
    Concept Nativism and Transhumanism: Educating Future Minds.Byron Kaldis - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    This paper programmatically posits, argues for the relevance of, and briefly addresses the question whether innate conceptual repertoires, if admitted as plausible, should matter to transhumanist debates. The latter should turn their attention to analyzing the radically enhanced cognitive capacities with which such future human beings will be endowed. The answers eventually given to this puzzle will inevitably challenge received views on education, especially the kind of education appropriate for such future minds.
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  8. Hacking Our Brains for Learning.Alex Tillas - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    Observational learning is ubiquitous. We very often observe and pick up information about how others behave and subsequently replicate similar behaviours in one way or another. Focusing on observational learning, I investigate human imitation, the mechanisms that underpin it as well as the processes that complement it, in order to assess its contribution to learning and education. Furthermore, I construe emotion as a scaffold for observational learning and bring together evidence about its influence on selective attention. Finally, I flesh out (...)
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  9.  1
    The Learning Brain and the Classroom.Alex Tillas & Byron Kaldis - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
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  10.  1
    Economies of Learning & Paying Attention: A Case Study.Danai Tselenti - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33).
    This paper assesses the role of attention in learning by comparing the effects that different reading modalities and participation practices have in learning, and uses book clubs as venues of learning interactions. Specifically, this paper presents the basic findings of a case study conducted on a gender mixed crime fiction face-to-face book club in Athens. Based on grounded theory methodology, the results indicate that exchanges are framed in terms of an agonistic “gift economy” and circulate among two basic reading modalities (...)
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  11.  9
    Pluralism in Scientific Problem Solving. Why Inconsistency is No Big Deal.Diderik Batens - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    Pluralism has many meanings. An assessment of the need for logical pluralism with respect to scientific knowledge requires insights in its domain of application. So first a specific form of epistemic pluralism will be defended. Knowledge turns out a patchwork of knowledge chunks. These serve descriptive as well as evaluative functions, may have competitors within the knowledge system, interact with each other, and display a characteristic dynamics caused by new information as well as by mutual readjustment. Logics play a role (...)
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  12.  4
    Contradictions in Motion: Why They’Re Not Needed and Why They Wouldn’T Help.Emiliano Boccardi & Moisés Macías-Bustos - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    In this paper we discuss Priest’s account of change and motion, contrasting it with its more orthodox rival, the Russellian account. The paper is divided in two parts. In first one we take a stance that is more sympathetic to the Russellian view, arguing that Priest’s arguments against it are inconclusive. In the second part, instead, we take a more sympathetic attitude towards Priest’s objections. We argue, however, that if these objections pose insurmountable difficulties to the Russellian account, then they (...)
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  13.  8
    Paraconsistency, Pluralistic Models and Reasoning in Climate Science.Bryson Brown - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    Scientific inquiry is typically focused on particular questions about particular objects and properties. This leads to a multiplicity of models which, even when they draw on a single, consistent body of concepts and principles, often employ different methods and assumptions to model different systems. Pluralists have remarked on how scientists draw on different assumptions to model different systems, different aspects of systems and systems under different conditions and defended the value of distinct, incompatible models within science at any given time. (...)
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  14.  2
    Scientific Pluralism, Consistency Preservation, and Inconsistency Toleration.Otávio Bueno - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    Scientific pluralism is the view according to which there is a plurality of scientific domains and of scientific theories, and these theories are empirically adequate relative to their own respective domains. Scientific monism is the view according to which there is a single domain to which all scientific theories apply. How are these views impacted by the presence of inconsistent scientific theories? There are consistency-preservation strategies and inconsistency-toleration strategies. Among the former, two prominent strategies can be articulated: Compartmentalization and Information (...)
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  15.  5
    Inconsistency in Mathematics and Inconsistency in Chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    In this paper, I compare how it is that inconsistencies are handled in mathematics to how they are handled in chemistry. In mathematics, they are very precisely formulated and identified, unlike in chemistry. So the chemists can learn from the precision and the very well-worked out strategies developed by logicians and deployed by mathematicians to cope with inconsistency. Some lessons can also be learned by the mathematicians from the chemists. Mathematicians tend to be intolerant towards inconsistencies. There are some philosophers (...)
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  16. Investigating Consistencies, Inconsistencies, and the Meaning of the Ceteris Paribus Clause in Chemistry.Jean-Pierre Llored - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    Chemists do not aim at testing preconceptions or theoretical hypotheses only; they first and foremost produce and determine the object of chemical investigation: they learn through making. They never cease to create and stabilize heterogeneous devices, methods, models, and theories in order to act upon the world. Chemical bodies cannot be studied in isolation; their properties constitutively depend on what surrounds and acts upon them. Starting from the specificity of chemical practices, this paper investigates the meaning of consistency, inconsistency, and (...)
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  17.  1
    Holism, Inconsistency Toleration and Inconsistencies Between Theory and Observation.María del Rosario Martínez-Ordaz - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    It has recently been argued by Davey that inconsistency is never tolerated in science, but only discretely isolated. But when talking about inconsistencies in science, not much attention has been paid to the inconsistencies between theory and observation. Here I will argue that inconsistency toleration actually takes place in science, and that when we examine actual inconsistent theories, inconsistencies between theory and observation look anything but homogeneous. I will argue, appealing to certain properties of empirical theories, especially holism, that at (...)
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  18.  8
    Scientific Disagreement and Evidential Pluralism: Lessons From the Studies on Hypercholesterolemia.Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Federica Russo & Christian Wallmann - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    Inconsistencies between scientific theories have been studied, by and large, from the perspective of paraconsistent logic. This approach considered the formal properties of theories and the structure of inferences one can legitimately draw from theories. However, inconsistencies can be also analysed from the perspective of modelling practices, in particular how modelling practices may lead scientists to form opinions and attitudes that are different, but not necessarily inconsistent. In such cases, it is preferable to talk about disagreement, rather than inconsistency. Disagreement (...)
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  19.  6
    Scientific Pluralism and Inconsistency Toleration.Dunja Šešelja - 2018 - Humana Mente 10 (32).
    In this paper I examine the problem of inconsistency toleration in the context of scientific pluralism. I argue that, first of all, the notion of inconsistency toleration has to be qualified with respect to the evaluative attitude that one takes towards a given scientific theory or theories. Second, I show which types of inconsistency toleration are compatible with two major approaches to scientific pluralism, the so-called modest and the radical one. In view of this I suggest some points of demarcation (...)
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  20.  3
    Cognitive Enhancement and Personal Identity.Roberto Mordacci - 2018 - Humana Mente 7 (26).
    Enhancing cognition is a complex activity, for the sake of which humanity has developed a rich array of techniques and skills. We can distinguish between three categories: a) cognitive supports and education; b) neural cognitive enhancers: drugs and other ways to improve the functionality of cognitive neural networks; c) technological cognitive enhancers: implants, extended minds and technological supports variously integrated in the neural cognitive networks. Applying a version of the Parity Principle, I argue that there is no morally relevant difference (...)
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  21. Realism. A Critique of Brentano and Meinong by Gustav Bergmann. [REVIEW]Guido Bonino - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (25).
  22.  5
    And Now for Something Completely Different: Meinong’s Approach to Modality.Peter Simons - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (25).
    In the twentieth century three approaches to modality dominated. One denied its legitimacy. A second made language the source of modality. The third treats possible worlds as the source of truth for modal propositions Meinong’s account of modality is quite different from all of these. Like the last it has an ontological basis, but it eschews worlds in favour of a rich one-world ontology of objects and states of affairs, many of which notoriously fail to exist and some even more (...)
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  23. The Multiple Pathways Model of Visual System. A Review.Matteo Baccarini - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
    Although seeing is commonly experienced as a unitary activity, the scientific description of vision resists such an intuitive account. Both psychologists and neuroscientists are in agreement with the idea that the elaboration of visual information is distributed across several different routes provided with different functions. Importantly, these routes can be mapped onto well-identified anatomical subdivision of the visual system. Crucially, although originally based on the assumption that different visual information are elaborated via different neural channels, such a model is nowadays (...)
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  24. Pointing As An Instrumental Gesture: Gaze Representation Through Indication.Massimiliano Lorenzo Cappuccio, Mingyuan Chu & Sotaro Kita - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
    We call those gestures “instrumental” that can enhance certain thinking processes of an agent by offering him representational models of his actions in a virtual space of imaginary performative possibilities. We argue that pointing is an instrumental gesture in that it represents geometrical information on one’s own gaze direction, and provides a ritualized template for initiating gaze coordination and joint attention. We counter two possible objections, asserting respectively that the representational content of pointing is not constitutive, but derived from language, (...)
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  25. Symbolic, Indexical, and Iconic Communication with Domestic Dogs.Andrew M. Olney - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
    Recent studies in canine communication are reviewed using Deacon’s framework of iconic, indexical, and symbolic reference. The presented analysis examines these studies using Deacon’s notion of interpretant, taking into account the evolutionary and perceptual capacities of the dog. By taking these dispositions and capacities into account, the conclusions that have been drawn in current studies of canine communication with respect to Deacon’s framework are critically evaluated. The analysis proceeds by investigating clusters of studies that align with symbolic, indexical, or iconic (...)
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  26. A Cognitive Neuroscience View on Pointing: What is Special About Pointing with the Eyes and Hands?José Luis Ulloa & Nathalie George - 2018 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
    When interacting with others, we often use bodily signals to communicate. Among these signals, pointing, whether with the eyes or the hands, allows coordinating our attention with others, and the perception of pointing gestures implicates a range of social cognitive processes. Here, we review the brain mechanisms underpinning the perception and understanding of pointing, focusing on eye gaze perception and associated joint attention processes. We consider pointing gesture perception, but leave aside pointing gesture execution as it relates to a distinct (...)
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  27.  3
    Ontology and the Completeness of Sellars’s Two Images.Willem A. de Vries - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (21).
    Sellars claims completeness for both the “manifest” and the “scientific images” in a way that tempts one to assume that they are independent of each other, while, in fact, they must share at least one common element: the language of individual and community intentions. I argue that this significantly muddies the waters concerning his claim of ontological primacy for the scientific image, though not in favor of the ontological primacy of the manifest image. The lesson I draw is that we (...)
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  28.  5
    Of Time and the Two Images.Steven F. Savitt - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (21).
    In this paper I argue that the clash of the Sellars’ two images is particularly acute in the case of time. In Time and the World Order Sellars seems embarked on a quest to locate manifest time in Minkowski spacetime. I suggest that he should have argued for the replacement of manifest time with the local, path-dependent time of the “scientific image”, just as he suggests that manifest objects must be replaced by their scientific counterparts.
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  29.  4
    The Eyes Don’T Have It: Fracturing the Scientific and Manifest Images.P. Kyle Stanford - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (21).
    Wilfrid Sellars famously argued that we find ourselves simultaneously presented with the scientific and manifest images and that the primary aim of philosophy is to reconcile the competing conceptions of ourselves and our place in the world they offer. I first argue that Sellars’ own attempts at such a reconciliation must be judged a failure. I then go on to point out that Sellars has invited us to join him in idealizing and constructing the manifest and scientific images by conflating (...)
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  30.  6
    Normativity and the Realist Stance in Semantics.Giacomo Turbanti - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (21).
    Recent attempts to define and support realism in semantics seem to acknowledge, as the only defence from skeptical attacks to the notion of meaning, a flat acceptance of the existence of representational relations between language and things in the world. In this paper I reconsider part of the mistrust about the normative character of meaning, in order to show that some of the worries urging the realists to cling on representationalism actually rest on misconceptions. To the contrary, I suggest that (...)
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  31.  9
    Self-Deception, Delusion and the Boundaries of Folk Psychology.Lisa Bortolotti & Matteo Mameli - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (20).
    To what extent do self-deception and delusion overlap? In this paper we argue that both self-deception and delusions can be understood in folk-psychological terms. “Motivated” delusions, just like self-deception, can be described as beliefs driven by personal interests. If self-deception can be understood folk-psychologically because of its motivational component, so can motivated delusions. Non-motivated delusions also fit the folk-psychological notion of belief, since they can be described as hypotheses one endorses when attempting to make sense of unusual and powerful experiences. (...)
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  32.  57
    Practical Self-Deception.Eric Funkhouser - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (20).
    Philosophical accounts of self-deception almost invariably treat it as a phenomenon concerning belief. But this article argues that, in the very same sense that we can be self-deceived about belief, we can be self-deceived about matters that concern our practical identities — e.g., our desires, emotions, values, and lifestyles. Given that our practical identities are at least as important to us as are our beliefs, philosophical accounts of self-deception should accommodate such practical self-deception.
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  33.  6
    What Does the Self-Deceiver Want?Patrizia Pedrini - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (20).
    According to a recent theory of the motivational content of self-deception, the self-deceiver wants to be in a state of mind of belief that p, upon which her want that p be true would be merely contingent. While I agree with Funkhouser that the self-deceiver is considerably moved by an interest in believing that p, which makes it possible for her to relate to reality in a highly prejudiced way, I will argue that it is unlikely that the self-deceiver’s primary (...)
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  34.  5
    Can You Succeed in Intentionally Deceiving Yourself?Dion Scott-Kakures - 2018 - Humana Mente 5 (20):17-40.
    According to intentionalists, self-deceivers exercise the sort of control over their belief-forming processes that, in standard cases of interpersonal deception, the deceiver exercises over the deceived’s belief forming processes — they intentionally deceive themselves. I’ll argue here that interpersonal deception is not an available model for the sort of putatively distinctive control the self-deceiver exercises over her belief-forming processes and beliefs. I concentrate attention on a kind of case in which an agent allegedly intentionally causes herself to come to have (...)
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  35.  3
    Four Theses on the Alleged Innocence of Mereology.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (19).
    In Parts of Classes David Lewis attempts to draw a sharp contrast between mereology and set theory and he tries to assimilate mereology to logic. For him, like logic but unlike set theory, mereology is “ontologically innocent”. In mereology, given certain objects, no further ontological commitment is required for the existence of their sum. On the contrary, by accepting set theory, given certain objects, a further commitment is required for the existence of the set of them. The latter – unlike (...)
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  36.  16
    The Large-Scale Joints of the World.Ned Hall - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (19).
    What is the compositional structure of reality? That question divides naturally into these two: What is the compositional structure of the particulars that populate reality? And what is the structure of the properties and relations that fix what these entities are like? David Lewis‘s work in ontology and mereology provides the materials for an extraordinarily clean answer to the first question. First, among the particulars1 that populate reality are mereological simples: entities that have no proper parts. Second, every collection of (...)
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  37.  3
    Counterfactual Fallacies.Andrea Iacona - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (19).
    A widely accepted claim about counterfactuals is that they differ from strict conditionals, that is, there is no adequate representation of them as sentences of the form   . To justify this claim, Stalnaker and Lewis have argued that some fallacious inferences would turn out valid if counterfactuals were so represented. However, their argument has a flaw, as it rests on a questionable assumption about the relation between surface grammar and logical form. Without that assumption, no consequence of the (...)
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  38.  4
    Any Sum of Parts Which Are Water is Water.Henry Laycock - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (19).
    Mereological entities often seem to violate ‘ordinary’ ideas of what a concrete object can be like, behaving more like sets than like Aristotelian substances. However, the mereological notions of ‘part’, ‘composition’, and ‘sum’ or ‘fusion’ appear to find concrete realisation in the actual semantics of mass nouns. Quine notes that ‘any sum of parts which are water is water’; and the wine from a single barrel can be distributed around the globe without affecting its identity. Is there here, as some (...)
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  39. The Modal Dimension.Giluano Torrengo - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (19).
    Space and time are two obvious candidates as dimensions of reality. Yet, are they the only two dimensions of reality? Famously, David Lewis maintained the doctrine of ―modal realism‖, the thesis that possible worlds exist and are entities as concrete as the actual world that we live in. In this paper, I will explore the idea that modality can be construed as a dimension along with space and time. However, although Lewis‘ modal realism is the main source of inspiration for (...)
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