23 found

Year:

  1.  1
    The Scientific Research Output of U.S. Research Universities, 1980–2010: Continuing Dispersion, Increasing Concentration, or Stable Inequality? [REVIEW]Brint Steven & E. Carr Cynthia - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):435-457.
    Extending and expanding Geiger and Feller’s analysis of increasing dispersion in R&D expenditures during the 1980s, the paper analyzes publication and citation counts as well as R&D expenditures for 194 top producers using Web of Science data. We find high and stable levels of inequality in the 1990s and 2000s, combined with robust growth both in the system and on individual campuses, considerable opportunities for short-range mobility and very limited opportunities for long-range mobility. Initial investments in research, private control, and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2.  1
    Mapping the Power of Law Professors: The Role of Scientific and Social Capital.Felix Bühlmann, Pierre Benz, André Mach & Thierry Rossier - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):509-531.
    As a scientific discipline and profession, law has been for centuries at the heart of social and political power of many Western societies. Professors of law, as influential representatives of the profession, are important powerbrokers between academia, politics and the corporate world. Their influence is based on scientific reputation, institutional mandates inside and outside academia or privileged network connections with people in powerful positions. In this study, based on a full sample of all Swiss law professors in the years 1957, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  2
    From Eminent Men to Excellent Universities: University Rankings as Calculative Devices.Björn Hammarfelt, Sarah de Rijcke & Paul Wouters - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):391-411.
    Global university rankings have become increasingly important ‘calculative devices’ for assessing the ‘quality’ of higher education and research. Their ability to make characteristics of universities ‘calculable’ is here exemplified by the first proper university ranking ever, produced as early as 1910 by the American psychologist James McKeen Cattell. Our paper links the epistemological rationales behind the construction of this ranking to the sociopolitical context in which Cattell operated: an era in which psychology became institutionalized against the backdrop of the eugenics (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  1
    The Heterogeneity of the Academic Profession: The Effect of Occupational Variables on University Scientists’ Participation in Research Commercialization.Adam Novotny - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):485-508.
    Do academics who commercialize their inventions have a different professional character than those who do not? The author conducted a nationwide survey in Hungary including 1,562 academics of hard sciences from 14 universities. According to the cluster analysis based on their participation in research commercialization, university scholars can be divided into three distinct groups: ‘traditional faculty’, ‘market-oriented faculty’, and ‘academic entrepreneurs’. Traditional faculty members typically do not participate in RC, while, within the framework of the university, market-oriented academics are engaged (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5.  1
    Science Production in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg: Comparing the Contributions of Research Universities and Institutes to Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health.J. W. Powell Justin & Dusdal Jennifer - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):413-434.
    Charting significant growth in science production over the 20th century in four European Union member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe’s position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the policy goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison neither the level of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6.  3
    Gender Differences in Publication Productivity Among Academic Scientists and Engineers in the U.S. And China: Similarities and Differences.Tao Yu, Hong Wei & Ma Ying - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):459-484.
    Gender differences in science and engineering have been studied in various countries. Most of these studies find that women are underrepresented in the S&E workforce and publish less than their male peers. The factors that contribute to gender differences in experience and performance in S&E careers can vary from one country to another, yet they remain underexplored. This paper is among the first to systematically compare gender differences in the publication productivity of academic scientists and engineers with doctoral degrees in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7.  3
    The Evolution of a National Research Funding System: Transformative Change Through Layering and Displacement.Kaare Aagaard - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):279-297.
    This article outlines the evolution of a national research funding system over a timespan of more than 40 years and analyzes the development from a rather stable Humboldt-inspired floor funding model to a complex multi-tiered system where new mechanisms continually have been added on top of the system. Based on recent contributions to Historical Institutionalism it is shown how layering and displacement processes gradually have changed the funding system along a number of dimensions and thus how a series of minor (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  3
    Examining Interprofessional Education Through the Lens of Interdisciplinarity: Power, Knowledge and New Ontological Subjects.Rebecca E. Olson & Caragh Brosnan - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):299-319.
    Interprofessional education – students of different professions learning together, from and about each other – is increasingly common in health professional degrees. Despite its explicit aims of transforming identities, practices and relationships within/across health professions, IPE remains under-theorised sociologically, with most IPE scholarship focussed on evaluating specific interventions. In particular, the significance of a shared knowledge base for shaping professional power and subjectivity in IPE has been overlooked. In this paper we begin to develop a framework for theorising IPE in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  4
    Epistemic Cultures in Conflict: The Case of Astronomy and High Energy Physics.Heidler Richard - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):249-277.
    The article presents an in-depth analysis of epistemic cultures in conflict by exemplifying the epistemic conflict between high energy physics and astronomy which emerged after the discovery of “dark energy” and the accelerating expansion of the universe. It suggests a theoretical framework combining Knorr-Cetina’s concept of epistemic cultures with Whitley’s theory of dependencies in the sciences system, which explains that epistemic conflicts occur, if the strategic and functional dependency of two incommensurable epistemic cultures is suddenly growing. The pre-history of the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  1
    How Do National Career Systems Promote or Hinder the Emergence of New Research Lines?Grit Laudel - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):341-369.
    Early career researchers are faced with the expectation of their scientific communities to conduct independent research, which is reflected in the development of independent new research lines. This change must take place under conditions that vary between national career systems. Case studies for a chair system and two tenure systems, one with strong hierarchies and one with flat hierarchies were conducted. The career conditions created by universities and funding agencies during this transition phase towards independence are systematically compared for two (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  3
    The Gender Perspective in Nursing Research: A Theoretical Treasure Chest or a ‘Thorn’ in the Side?Pia Vuolanto & Anne Laiho - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):371-390.
    This article contributes to the current discussion on interdisciplinarity in the health research field. It focuses on the relationship between nursing research and gender research. Nursing research is a ‘health sciences’ field which draws from the social sciences, the humanities, and biomedicine. Previous research shows the difficulties that social scientists face in their efforts to integrate with biomedical scientists. The aim of this article is to analyse nursing researchers’ views about one potential collaboration partner in the social sciences and humanities: (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  1
    Visualising the Interdisciplinary Research Field: The Life Cycle of Economic History in Australia.Wright Claire & Ville Simon - 2017 - Minerva 55 (3):321-340.
    Interdisciplinary research is frequently viewed as an important component of the research landscape through its innovative ability to integrate knowledge from different areas. However, support for interdisciplinary research is often strategic rhetoric, with policy-makers and universities frequently adopting practices that favour disciplinary performance. We argue that disciplinary and interdisciplinary research are complementary, and we develop a simple framework that demonstrates this for a semi-permanent interdisciplinary research field. We argue that the presence of communicating infrastructures fosters communication and integration between disciplines (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  6
    Opening the Regulatory Black Box of Clinical Cancer Research: Transnational Expertise Networks and “Disruptive” Technologies.Cambrosio Alberto, Bourret Pascale, Keating Peter & Nelson Nicole - 2017 - Minerva 55 (2):161-185.
    Building on previous work on “regulatory objectivity,” the paper examines recent translational research and cancer genomics to explore the bundle of scientific and regulatory activities that generate and manage the platforms at the core of clinical trials, the “gold standard” of clinical research and evidence-based medicine. In particular, the paper explores the activities of a chain of mediators within a seamless regulatory web characterized by the interaction of endogenous and hybrid regulatory activities that are neither hierarchical nor linear. We contend (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  14.  2
    Expertise, Regulatory Science and the Evaluation of Technology and Risk: Introduction to the Special Issue.David Demortain - 2017 - Minerva 55 (2):139-159.
    Regulating technologies, innovations and risks is an activity that, as much as scientific research needs proofs and evidence. It is the site of development of a distinct kind of science, regulatory science. This special issue addresses the question of the standards of knowledge governing how we test, assess and monitor technologies and their effects. This topic is relevant and timely in the light of problematics of regulation of innovation, regulatory failure and capture. Given the enormous decisions and stakes regulatory science (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  15.  1
    The Aviation Paradox: Why We Can ‘Know’ Jetliners But Not Reactors.John Downer - 2017 - Minerva 55 (2):229-248.
    Publics and policymakers increasingly have to contend with the risks of complex, safety-critical technologies, such as airframes and reactors. As such, ‘technological risk’ has become an important object of modern governance, with state regulators as core agents, and ‘reliability assessment’ as the most essential metric. The Science and Technology Studies literature casts doubt on whether or not we should place our faith in these assessments because predictively calculating the ultra-high reliability required of such systems poses seemingly insurmountable epistemological problems. This (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  16. Stretching and Challenging the Boundaries of Law: Varieties of Knowledge in Biotechnologies Regulation.Faulkner Alex & Poort Lonneke - 2017 - Minerva 55 (2):209-228.
    The paper addresses the question of adaptation of existing regulatory frameworks in the face of innovation in biotechnologies, and specifically the roles played in this by various expert knowledge practices. We identify two overlapping ideal types of adaptation: first, the stretching and maintenance of a pre-existing legal framework, and second, a breaking of existing classifications and establishment of a novel regime. We approach this issue by focusing on varieties of regulatory knowledge which, contributing to and parting of political legitimacy, in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  17.  1
    From Regulatory Knowledge to Regulatory Decisions: The European Evaluation of Medicines.Hauray Boris - 2017 - Minerva 55 (2):187-208.
    Medicines regulators have generally adopted a scientistic view of medicines evaluation, which they present as an exercise that should—and indeed can—be purely “objective,” based only on knowledge produced through validated research protocols. The growing body of social science literature analyzing the regulation of medicines has questioned this pretense of objectivity and underlined the socio-political construction of evidence on the risks and benefits of medicines. But while the European Medicines Agency has become the dominant regulatory body in Europe and a key (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  18.  5
    The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies.Reiner Grundmann - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):25-48.
    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be discussed with regard to influential theoretical frameworks, such as laboratory studies, regulatory science, lay expertise, post-normal science, and honest brokers. An alternative framework of expertise is introduced, showing (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  19.  2
    Conceptualizing Fraudulent Studies as Viruses: New Models for Handling Retractions.Kathleen Montgomery & Amalya L. Oliver - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):49-64.
    This paper addresses the growing problem of retractions in the scientific literature of publications that contain bad data, also called “false science.” While the problem is particularly acute in the biomedical literature because of the life-threatening implications when treatment recommendations and decisions are based on false science, it is relevant for any knowledge domain, including the social sciences, law, and education. Yet current practices for handling retractions are seen as inadequate. We use the metaphor of a virus to illustrate how (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  96
    Knowledge, Democracy, and the Internet.Nicola Mößner & Philip Kitcher - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):1-24.
    The internet has considerably changed epistemic practices in science as well as in everyday life. Apparently, this technology allows more and more people to get access to a huge amount of information. Some people even claim that the internet leads to a democratization of knowledge. In the following text, we will analyze this statement. In particular, we will focus on a potential change in epistemic structure. Does the internet change our common epistemic practice to rely on expert opinions? Does it (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  6
    The Climate of Science-Art and the Art-Science of the Climate: Meeting Points, Boundary Objects and Boundary Work.Simone Rödder - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):93-116.
    This paper reports experiences from an art-science project set up in an educational context as well as in the tradition of placing artists in labs. It documents artists’ and scientists’ imaginations of their encounter and analyses them drawing on the concepts of “boundary object” and “boundary work”. Conceptually, the paper argues to broaden the idea of boundary objects to include inhibitory boundary objects that hinder rather than facilitate communication across boundaries. This focus on failures to link social worlds brings the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Protecting the Purity of Pure Research: Organizational Boundary-Work at an Institute of Basic Research.Adi Sapir - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):65-91.
    Research institutions and universities are positioned in a state of inherent struggle to reconcile the pressures and demands of the external environment with those of the scientific community. This paper is focused on one contested area, the division between basic and applied research, and explores how universities work to balance organizational legitimacy and scientific reputation. Building on an in-depth case study of the Weizmann Institute of Science, established as an institute of basic research in the context of the new Israeli (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  1
    Who is the Scientist-Subject? A Critique of the Neo-Kantian Scientist-Subject in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison’s Objectivity.Esha Shah - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):117-138.
    The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison’s book Objectivity, and Daston’s later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan’s work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues