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  1.  9
    Inductive Risk and OxyContin: The Ethics of Evidence and Post-Market Surveillance of Pharmaceuticals in Canada.Itai Bavli & Daniel Steel - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):300-313.
    The argument from inductive risk claims that judgments about the moral severity of errors are relevant to decisions about what should count as sufficient evidence for accepting claims. While this idea has been explored in connection with evidence required for the approval of pharmaceuticals, the role of inductive risk in the post-approval process has been largely neglected. In this article, we examine the ethics of inductive risk in connection with revisions to the product monograph for OxyContin in Canada, which understates (...)
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  2.  10
    Against the Public Goods Conception of Public Health.Justin Bernstein & Pierce Randall - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):225-233.
    Public health ethicists face two difficult questions. First, what makes something a matter of public health? While protecting citizens from outbreaks of communicable diseases is clearly a matter of public health, is the same true of policies that aim to reduce obesity, gun violence or political corruption? Second, what should the scope of the government’s authority be in promoting public health? May government enact public health policies some citizens reasonably object to or policies that are paternalistic? Recently, some theorists have (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Workplace Health Promotion.Eva Kuhn, Sebastian Müller, Ludger Heidbrink & Alena Buyx - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):234-246.
    Companies increasingly offer their employees the opportunity to participate in voluntary Workplace Health Promotion programmes. Although such programmes have come into focus through national and regional regulation throughout much of the Western world, their ethical implications remain largely unexamined. This article maps the territory of the ethical issues that have arisen in relation to voluntary health promotion in the workplace against the background of asymmetric relationships between employers and employees. It addresses questions of autonomy and voluntariness, discrimination and distributive justice, (...)
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  4.  2
    What High-Income States Should Do to Address Industrial Antibiotic Pollution.Erik Malmqvist & Christian Munthe - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):275-287.
    Antibiotic resistance is widely recognized as a major threat to public health and healthcare systems worldwide. Recent research suggests that pollution from antibiotics manufacturing is an important driver of resistance development. Using Sweden as an example, this article considers how industrial antibiotic pollution might be addressed by public actors who are in a position to influence the distribution and use of antibiotics in high-income countries with publicly funded health systems. We identify a number of opportunities for these actors to incentivize (...)
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  5.  3
    Demedicalizing the Ethics of PrEP as HIV Prevention: The Social Effects on MSM.Michael Montess - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):288-299.
    In order to demedicalize the ethics of pre-exposure prophylaxis as HIV prevention, I consider the social effects on men who have sex with men. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers MSM to be the highest risk group for contracting HIV in the USA. The ethics of using PrEP as HIV prevention among MSM, however, has both a medical dimension and a social dimension. While the medical dimension of the ethics of PrEP includes concerns about side effects, drug resistance (...)
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  6. Corrigendum: Scraping the Web for Public Health Gains: Ethical Considerations From a ‘Big Data’ Research Project on HIV and Incarceration.Stuart Rennie, Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein & Colleen Blue and David L. Rosen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):314-314.
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  7.  3
    The Devils in the DALY: Prevailing Evaluative Assumptions.Carl Tollef Solberg, Preben Sørheim, Karl Erik Müller, Espen Gamlund, Ole Frithjof Norheim & Mathias Barra - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):259-274.
    In recent years, it has become commonplace among the Global Burden of Disease study authors to regard the disability-adjusted life year primarily as a descriptive health metric. During the first phase of the GBD, it was widely acknowledged that the DALY had built-in evaluative assumptions. However, from the publication of the 2010 GBD and onwards, two central evaluative practices—time discounting and age-weighting—have been omitted from the DALY model. After this substantial revision, the emerging view now appears to be that the (...)
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  8.  6
    Health Equity’s Missing Substance: (Re)Engaging the Normative in Public Health Discourse and Knowledge Making.Adam Wildgen & Keith Denny - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):247-258.
    Since 1984, the idea of health equity has proliferated throughout public health discourse with little mainstream critique for its variability and distance from its original articulation signifying social transformation and a commitment to social justice. In the years since health equity’s emergence and proliferation, it has taken on a seemingly endless range of invocations and deployments, but it most often translates into proactive and apolitical discourse and practice. In Margaret Whitehead’s influential characterization, achieving health equity requires determining what is inequitable (...)
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  9.  3
    The Primacy of Duty and Its Efficacy in Combating COVID-19.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):179-189.
    Nyansa nye sika na w'akyekyere asie.. One critical factor that has contributed to the spread of the virus COVID-19 and resulting illnesses and deaths is both the conceptual and the ethical confusion between the prioritization of individual rights over social duties. The adherence to the belief in the priority of rights over duties has motivated some individuals to refrain from social distancing and, as a result, has placed themselves and other individuals at serious risk to health and life. My argument (...)
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  10.  6
    COVID-19 Capitalism: The Profit Motive Versus Public Health.Jennifer Cohen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):176-178.
    Market incentives in capitalist economies and public health requirements are contradictory. In the COVID-19 pandemic, market-rewarded self-interested behavior has been exposed as a source of mortality and morbidity. Profit-motivated behaviors can keep people from accessing necessities for health thereby harming individuals and possibly damaging population health. The profit motive can also undermine healthcare system capacity by maldistributing goods that are inputs to healthcare. Furthermore, because profit-seeking is economically rational in capitalism, capitalist imperatives may be incompatible with public health. The ways (...)
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  11.  12
    Key Ethical Concepts and Their Application to COVID-19 Research.Angus Dawson, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Michael Parker, Maxwell J. Smith & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):127-132.
    During the WHO-GloPID COVID-19 Global Research and Innovation Forum meeting held in Geneva on the 11th and 12th of February 2020 a number of different ethical concepts were used. This paper briefly states what a number of these concepts mean and how they might be applied to discussions about research during the COVID-19 pandemic and related outbreaks. This paper does not seek to be exhaustive and other ethical concepts are, of course, relevant and important.
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  12.  10
    Is There an Ethical Upper Limit on Risks to Study Participants?Nir Eyal - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):143-156.
    Are some risks to study participants too much, no matter how valuable the study is for society? This article answers in the negative.
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  13. Vaccinating for Whom? Distinguishing Between Self-Protective, Paternalistic, Altruistic and Indirect Vaccination.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):190-200.
    Preventive vaccination can protect not just vaccinated individuals, but also others, which is often a central point in discussions about vaccination. To date, there has been no systematic study of self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination. This article has two major goals: first, to examine and distinguish between self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination, especially with regard to vaccinating for the sake of third parties, and second, to explore some ways in which this approach can help to clarify and guide (...)
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  14.  14
    Vaccination Policies: Between Best and Basic Interests of the Child, Between Precaution and Proportionality.Roland Pierik - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):201-214.
    How should liberal-democratic governments deal with emerging vaccination hesitancy when that leads to the resurgence of diseases that for decades were under control? This article argues that vaccination policies should be justified in terms of a proper weighing of the rights of children to be protected against vaccine-preventable diseases and the rights of parents to raise their children in ways that they see fit. The argument starts from the concept of the ‘best interests of the child involved’. The concept is (...)
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  15.  13
    Jewish Ethics Regarding Vaccination.Tsuriel Rashi - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):215-223.
    In recent years, more and more religious communities have been refusing to vaccinate their children, and in so doing are allowing diseases to spread. These communities justify resistance to vaccination on various religious grounds and make common cause with nonreligious communities who oppose vaccination for their own reasons. Today this situation is reflected primarily in the spread of measles, and vaccine hesitancy was identified by the World Health Organization as 1 of the top 10 global health threats of 2019. The (...)
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  16.  5
    Public Health Ethics in a Pandemic.Marcel Verweij & Angus Dawson - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):125-126.
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  17.  11
    Ethical Advice for an Intensive Care Triage Protocol in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned From The Netherlands.Marcel Verweij, Suzanne van de Vathorst, Maartje Schermer, Dick Willems & Martine de Vries - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):157-165.
    At the height of the COVID-19 crisis in the Netherlands a shortness of intensive care beds was looming. Dutch professional medical organizations asked a group of ethicists for assistance in drafting guidelines and criteria for selection of patients for intensive care treatment in case of absolute scarcity, when medical selection criteria would no longer suffice. This article describes the Dutch context, the process of drafting the advice and reflects on the role of ethicists and lessons learned. We argue that timely (...)
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  18.  5
    Patient Isolation During Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Arguments for Physical Family Presence.Teck Chuan Voo, Zohar Lederman & Sharon Kaur - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):133-142.
    This article argues that outbreak preparedness and response should implement a ‘family presence’ policy for infected patients in isolation that includes the option of physical visits and care within the isolation facility under some conditions. While such a ‘physical family presence’ policy could increase infections during an outbreak and may raise moral dilemmas, we argue that it is ethically justified based on the least infringement principle and the need to minimize the harms and burdens of isolation as a restrictive measure. (...)
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  19.  13
    A Harm Reduction Approach to the Ethical Management of the COVID-19 Pandemic.Daniel Weinstock - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):166-175.
    The post-confinement phase of the COVID-19 pandemic will require that governments navigate more complex ethical questions than had occurred in the initial, ‘curve-flattening’ phase, and that will occur when the pandemic is in the past. By looking at the unavoidable harms involved in the confinement and quarantine methods employed during the initial phase of the pandemic, we can develop a harm reduction approach to managing the phase during which society will be gradually reopened in a context of managed risk. The (...)
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  20.  1
    Violence and the Chemicals Industry: Reframing Regulatory Obstructionism.Brett Aho - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):50-61.
    When government actors seek to restrict the sale of hazardous substances, industry actors tend to intervene, deploying coordinated strategies aimed at delaying, preventing or weakening attempts to regulate their products. In many cases, this has involved deliberate efforts to obfuscate science, mislead the public and manipulate political actors in order to ensure desired policy outcomes. Strategies of regulatory obstructionism have resulted in the prolonged dispersal of harmful chemical substances with tangible impacts on public health. This article proposes that this behavior (...)
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  21.  6
    The Future of Phage: Ethical Challenges of Using Phage Therapy to Treat Bacterial Infections.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):82-88.
    For over a century, scientists have run experiments using phage viruses to treat bacterial infections. Until recently, the results were inconclusive because the mechanisms viruses use to attack bacteria were poorly understood. With the development of molecular biology, scientists now have a better sense of how phage work, and how they can be used to target infections. As resistance to traditional antibiotics continues to spread around the world, there is a moral imperative to facilitate research into phage therapy as an (...)
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  22.  3
    Legal, Moral and Political Determinants Within the Social Determinants of Health: Approaching Transdisciplinary Challenges Through Intradisciplinary Reflection.John Coggon - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):41-47.
    This article provides a critical analysis of ‘the legal’ in the legal determinants of health, with reference to the Lancet–O’Neill report on that topic. The analysis shows how law is framed as a fluid and porous concept, with legal measures and instruments being conceived as sociopolitical phenomena. I argue that the way that laws are grounded practically as part of a broader concept of politics and evaluated normatively for their instrumental value has important implications for the study of law itself. (...)
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  23.  5
    Global Health with Justice: Controlling the Floodgates of the Upstream Determinants of Health Through Evidence-Based Law.John Coggon & Lawrence O. Gostin - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):4-9.
    This article introduces a special issue on the legal determinants of health, following the publication of the Lancet–O’Neill Institute of Georgetown University Commission’s report on the subject. We contextualize legal determinants as a significant and vital aspect of the social determinants of health, explain the work of the Lancet–O’Neill Commission and outline where consequent research will usefully be directed. We also introduce the papers that follow in the special issue, which together set out in greater detail the work of the (...)
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  24.  9
    Postscript: COVID-19 and the Legal Determinants of Health.John Coggon & Lawrence O. Gostin - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):48-49.
    This is a short postscript to the Public Health Ethics special issue on the legal determinants of health. We reflect briefly on emerging responses to COVID-19, and raise important questions of ethics and law that must be addressed; including through the lens of legal determinants, and with critical attention to what it means to protect health with justice.
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  25.  7
    The Complex Structure of Health Rights.Michael Da Silva - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):99-110.
    Research on how to understand legally recognized socio-economic rights produced many insights into the nature of rights. Legally recognized rights to health and, by extension, health care could contribute to health justice. Yet a tension remains between widespread international and transnational constitutional recognition of rights to health and health care and compelling normative conditions for rights recognition from both philosophers seeking to identify the scope and structure of the rights and policy scholars seeking to understand how to practically realize such (...)
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  26.  15
    Law, Ethics, and Politics in the Face of a Global Pandemic.Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):1-3.
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  27.  4
    One Health and Zoonotic Uncertainty in Singapore and Australia: Examining Different Regimes of Precaution in Outbreak Decision-Making.C. Degeling, G. L. Gilbert, P. Tambyah, J. Johnson & T. Lysaght - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):69-81.
    A One Health approach holds great promise for attenuating the risk and burdens of emerging infectious diseases in both human and animal populations. Because the course and costs of EID outbreaks are difficult to predict, One Health policies must deal with scientific uncertainty, whilst addressing the political, economic and ethical dimensions of communication and intervention strategies. Drawing on the outcomes of parallel Delphi surveys conducted with policymakers in Singapore and Australia, we explore the normative dimensions of two different precautionary approaches (...)
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  28.  2
    Characterizing ‘Civil Unrest’ Within Public Health: Implications for Public Health Research and Practice.Michael J. DiStefano - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):62-68.
    Following the death on April 19, 2015 of Freddie Gray from injuries sustained while unarmed and in police custody, many citizens of Baltimore took to the streets and the National Guard was called into the city. A 2017 article published in the American Journal of Public Health measured the effect of this civil unrest on maternal and child health. I argue that this research does not acknowledge the full range of motivations, behaviors, aims and values that may have been inherent (...)
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  29.  4
    Gender-Based Violence, Law, Justice and Health: Some Reflections.Geetanjali Gangoli - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):29-33.
    This article is a response to the Lancet Commission on the Legal Determinants of Health from gendered perspectives and focusing on gender-based violence and abuse. The Lancet Commission sees the role of law as positive, indeed central in providing justice in global contexts, and this contribution explores and unpacks this assertion, drawing on some examples from India and elsewhere. Some feminists have argued that law and justice are incompatible for women, and this is sometimes borne out when we look at (...)
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  30.  4
    Carina Fourie and Annette Rid, Eds. What is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice, and Health.Beatrijs Haverkamp - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):122-124.
    Carina Fourie and Annette Rid, eds. What is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice, and Health. New York, Oxford University Press, 2017. 336 p.
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  31.  7
    Socially Constructed Determinants of Health: The Case for Synergies to Arrive at Gendered Global Health Law.Sarah Hawkes & Kent Buse - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):16-28.
    Both gender and the law are significant determinants of health and well-being. Here, we put forward evidence to unpack the relationship between gender and outcomes in health and well-being, and explore how legal determinants interact and intersect with gender norms to amplify or reduce health inequities across populations. The paper explores the similarities between legal and health systems in their response to gender—both systems portray gender neutrality but would be better described as gender-blind. We conclude with a set of recommendations (...)
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  32.  6
    The Lancet–O’Neill Institute/Georgetown University Commission on Global Health and Law: The Power of Law to Advance the Right to Health.Jenny C. Kaldor, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan & Katie Gottschalk - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):9-15.
    The Lancet–O’Neill Institute/Georgetown University Commission on Global Health and Law published its report on the Legal Determinants of Health in 2019. The term ‘legal determinants of health’ draws attention to the power of law to influence upstream social and economic influences on population health. In this article, we introduce the Commission, including its background and rationale, set out its methodology, summarize its key findings and recommendations and reflect on its impact since publication. We also look to the future, making suggestions (...)
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  33.  4
    Legal Determinants of Health: Regulating Abortion Care.Sheelagh McGuinness & Jonathan Montgomery - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):34-40.
    In The legal determinants of health: Harnessing the power of law for global health and sustainable development, Gostin et al. provide a sustained account of how law can and should be used as an instrument of health promotion. We pick up on the themes of this report with a specific focus of the importance of abortion for women’s sexual and reproductive health and the impact that particular ways of framing abortion in law can have on the lives of women and (...)
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  34.  6
    Scraping the Web for Public Health Gains: Ethical Considerations From a ‘Big Data’ Research Project on HIV and Incarceration.Stuart Rennie, Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Colleen Blue & David L. Rosen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):111-121.
    Web scraping involves using computer programs for automated extraction and organization of data from the Web for the purpose of further data analysis and use. It is frequently used by commercial companies, but also has become a valuable tool in epidemiological research and public health planning. In this paper, we explore ethical issues in a project that “scrapes” public websites of U.S. county jails as part of an effort to develop a comprehensive database to enhance HIV surveillance and improve continuity (...)
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  35.  10
    Individual Responsibilities in Partial Compliance: Skilled Health Worker Emigration From Under-Served Regions.Yusuf Yuksekdag - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):89-98.
    One of the ways to address the effects of skilled worker emigration is to restrict the movement of skilled workers. However, even if skilled workers have responsibilities to assist their compatriots, what if other parties, such as affluent countries or source country governments, do not fulfil their fair share of responsibilities? This discussion raises an interesting problem about how to think of individual responsibilities under partial compliance where other agents do not fulfil their fair share of responsibilities. What is fair (...)
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  36. The Future of Phage: Ethical Challenges of Using Phage Viruses to Treat Bacterial Infections.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13.
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