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  1.  3
    Kierkegaard’s Religious Understanding of “Subjectivity”.Mohammad Asghari & Neda Mohajel - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):1-21.
    This article tries to show that there is a religious understanding of “Subjectivity” in all writings of Soren Kierkegaard, especially, Concluding Unscientific Postscript and other works. He uses key concepts such as Christianity, truth, passion, God, faith for describing and explanation of “subjectivity”. For Kierkegaard, Christian faith is not a matter of regurgitating church dogma. It is a matter of individual subjective passion, which cannot be mediated by the clergy or by human artifacts. For example, he criticizes the current attitude (...)
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  2.  2
    Thomas Aquinas on Imperfect and Perfect Happiness and Seeing God.Hosein Hooshangi & Mansooreh Maleki - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):205-222.
    Happiness according to Thomas Aquinas is the perfect good which is obtained upon seeing God in after life. The happiness which Aquinas refers to is the perfect happiness against imperfect happiness. Imperfect happiness is obtained by depending on intellectual and moral virtues and is the pre-requisite to perfect happiness which flourishes by the mercy of God, theological virtues, charity, hope and faith. In order to explain the subject of happiness, he rejects other possible subjects of happiness such as wealth, fame, (...)
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  3.  3
    The Impact of Prayer on the Orderly Cosmos: A Comparative Study of Mortaza Mutahhari and Eleonore Stump.Omehani Jarrahi & Abd-al-Rasool Kashfi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):47-68.
    Among the different kinds of prayers, petitionary prayer faces most philosophical challenges. One of them is about the efficacy of this sort of prayer in a world having inclusive laws. The problem has two presumptions. First, the divine answer to petitionary prayer is granted, and secondly, there is no violation in natural laws. To consider this problem, we have examined two philosophers’ views, Mortaza Mutahhari and Eleonore Stump. Although Mutahhari does not address the problem explicitly, we can find the bases (...)
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  4.  2
    Analogical Theology or Gradational Theology.Aflatun Sadeghi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):69-89.
    There are attributes in the ordinary language that have been commonly attributed to God and His creatures. Ascribing these attributes to God and His creatures univocally or equivocally leads respectively to anthropomorphism and agnosticism. To solve this problem, some Islamic thinkers have appealed to the gradational meaning of these attributes. Mulla Sadra has presented a theory for this problem that based on his philosophical principles and can be called “gradational theology”. St. Tomas Aquinas has tried to cope with the problem (...)
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  5.  2
    Religious Realism Vs. Anti-Realism: Revisiting Don Cupitt, Paul Badham and D. Z. Phillips.Ali Sadeqi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):91-118.
    Realism/anti-realism controversy has always been crucial in the history of philosophy, so that it has affected all philosophical areas, including religious belief, in which admitting realistic/anti-realistic approach has a wide range of influences in all religious concepts. After shedding some lights on preliminary issues concerning the nature and kinds of formulation of realism/anti-realism controversy, the present study is aimed at analyzing and comparing two kinds of Anti-realism: Don Cupitt’s one which relies on his reading of modern philosophy, and D. Z. (...)
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  6.  2
    Invention of the Meaning in Sartre’s View and Criticism in Accordance with Cognitivism Principles.Davoud Sedighi & Amirabbas Alizamani - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):119-142.
    Invention and discovery of the meaning are two rival theories of the meaning of life. With explanation of being for itself and being in itself, Sartre, first of all, empties world from all the meanings and then, for the sake of self-transcendence and avoiding passiveness, is in search of invention of the meaning. So, Sartre can be called a subjectivist and non-cognitivist. Therefore, the defects of these schools can also be attributed to Sartre’s theory. One of the most important criticisms (...)
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  7.  2
    Optimistic Naturalism and the Meaning of Life.Masud Tusi Saeedi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):143-164.
    Theories of the meaning of life can be classified into naturalistic and not-naturalistic ones. One of the most popular objections to the naturalistic ones is that they have no way to escape from the problem of the Absurd. But the optimistic naturalism as an idea that can be claimed on the basis of scientific progress and technological achievements, and also with commitment to naturalism, was to get rid of the problem of the Absurd. In this paper, with respect to Leo (...)
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  8.  20
    فهم دینی کرکگور از «سوبژکتیویته».محمد اصغری & ندا محجل - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):1-21.
    در این مقاله سعی شده است فهم دینی کرکگور از «سوبژکتیویته» با استناد به گفته‌های او به ویژه در دست‌نوشته‌ها و سایر نوشته‌هایش تبیین شود. او مفاهیم کلیدی نظیر «مسیحیت»، «حقیقت»، «شور»، «خدا»، و «ایمان» را برای توصیف و تبیین «سوبژکتیویته» به کار می‌برد. برای مثال تلقی وی از مسیحیت به مثابۀ «سوبژکتیویته» با تلقی رایج و عمدتاً تاریخی از مسیحیت که عمدتاً درک ابژکتیو از آن دارند کاملاً متفاوت است. مسیحیت از نظر این متفکر عمدتاً در قالب آموزه‌ها مطرح (...)
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  9.  6
    الهیات تمثیلی یا الهیات تشکیکی.افلاطون صادقی - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):69-89.
    در زبان بشری الفاظی وجود دارد که در زبان دینی به نحو مشترک به خدا و مخلوقات نسبت داده می‌شود. نسبت این الفاظ به خدا و انسان به نحو مشترک لفظی و مشترک معنوی منجر به دیدگاه تشبیه و تعطیل می‌شود که از چالش‌های الهیاتی است. اندیشمندان اسلامی برای حل این چالش به معنا و مفاهیم تشکیکی این الفاظ متوسل شده‌اند. ملاصدرا، با مبانی فلسفی خود، برای حل این مسئله نظری را طرح کرده که می‌توان آن را الهیات تشکیکی نامید. (...)
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  10.  9
    جعل معنا از نگاه سارتر و نقد و بررسی آن بر اساس مبانی شناخت‌گرایی.داود صدیقی & امیر عباس علیزمانی - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):119-142.
    جعل و کشف معنا دو دیدگاه بنیادین در معنای زندگی هستند که هر کدام موافقان و مخالفانی را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. سارتر با تبیین وجودِ فی‌نفسه و وجودِ‌ لنفسه، و همچنین مفاهیمی همچون امکان ناضرور، آزادی و فردیت، ابتدا جهان را از هر معنایی تهی می‌کند و سپس برای استعلای خویش و همچنین عدم انفعال، در پی جعل معناست. بنابراین، در این حوزه، سارتر را می‌توان یک ناشناخت‌گرا و سوبژکتیویست خواند و از این رو انتقادات مربوط به این دو (...)
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  11.  6
    رابطۀ زبان دین و واقعیت از دیدگاه ملاصدرا.فخار نوغانی وحیده & حسینی شاهرودی سید مرتضی - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):165-182.
    پرسش از «رابطۀ زبان دین و واقعیت» از جمله مسائل مهم در حوزۀ زبان دین محسوب می‌شود. با توجه به اهمیت مبانی هستی‌شناخی ومعرفت‌شناختی در بررسی رابطۀ زبان دین و واقعیت، در این پژوهش تلاش شده است تا دیدگاه ملاصدرا در دو محور اساسی «رابطۀ زبان دین و واقعیت» و «کیفیت حکایتگری زبان دین از واقعیت» با توجه به مبانی یادشده بررسی شود. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از این است که در حکمت متعالیه، وجود شواهدی مانند انتقادات جدی ملاصدرا نسبت (...)
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  12.  8
    طبیعت‌گرایی خوش‌بینانه و معناداری زندگی.سیدمصطفی میرباباپور & یوسف دانشور نیلو - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):143-164.
    نظریه‌های معنای زندگی را در یک تقسیم‌بندی کلان و اجمالی می‌توان به دو دستۀ دیدگاه‌های طبیعت‌گرا و غیرطبیعت‌گرا افراز کرد. یکی از اشکالات همیشگی وارد بر دیدگاه‌های طبیعت‌گرا ناتوانی آنها در حل معضل پوچی است؛ طبیعت‌گرایی خوش‌بینانه عنوان ایده‌ای است که مدعی شده بر مبنای پیشرفت‌های علمی و دستاوردهای فناورانه می‌توان، در عین پای‌بندی به طبیعت‌گرایی، از معضل پوچی رهایی یافت. در این مقاله، با تأکید بر دیدگاه‌های لئو تولستوی و تامس نیگل دربارۀ معضل پوچی، طبیعت‌گرایی خوش‌بینانه، بر مبنای دیدگاه (...)
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  13.  13
    نقش تربیتی انبیا در سیر معرفتی انسان‌ها از دیدگاه غزالی.میترا پورسینا - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 14 (1):23-45.
    از دید غزالی، انبیا تأثیری بنیادین در رساندن سایر انسان‌ها به عالی‌ترین مرتبۀ معرفتی دارند. این تأثیر، علاوه بر این که در حوزۀ تعلیم حقایق به انجام می‌رسد، تأثیری تربیتی است که با ایجاد تغییر در ساحت‌های عاطفی‌ـ‌ارادی انسان‌ها ساحت معرفت را به مرتبۀ یقین و به سطح مکاشفه می‌رساند. نقش تربیتی انبیا هدایتگری «سفری» است که انسان در نفس خود به سوی حقیقت در پیش می‌گیرد تا «قابلیت» دریافت حقایق را بیابد. رسیدن به این قابلیت مستلزم «تسویه» و «اعتدال» (...)
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  14.  2
    Ashtiani’s Objections to Mudarres’s Theory of “Bodily Resurrection”.Mohammad Reza Ershadinia - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):1-27.
    Relying on the applicability of principles of Transcendent Philosophy for reconstructing religious beliefs, Aqa Ali Mudarres has tried to give a new explanation of “bodily resurrection”. He does this by appealing to the purely Sadraian philosophical principles as well as his method in which he begins by agreeing with popular beliefs and ends with a departure from them. Appealing to some Sadraian ontological principles as “substantial motion” as well as his principles of self-knowledge, Mudarres explains bodily resurrection to be the (...)
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  15.  2
    Religious Belief and Intellectual Autonomy.Amirhossein Khodaparast - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):91-112.
    Intellectual autonomy indicates how human being can preserve her epistemic agency and intellectually manage and regulate herself. This epistemic value is commonly proposed against intellectual heteronomy according to which the believer is not capable of applying her epistemic agency because of internal or external impediments. Since the early modern era, some philosophers and intellectuals have supposed, implicitly or explicitly, that religious belief violates intellectual autonomy. However, the responsibilist version of virtue epistemology shows that autonomy, as an intellectual virtue, is not (...)
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  16.  2
    Stace on Religious Language: The Epistemological Foundations.Mohammad Hosein Mahdavinejad & Maasome Salari - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):199-219.
    As an English analytic philosopher, Stace considers religion to be identical with mysticism and mystical experience to be its core. According to him, mystical experiences and thus religious propositions are ineffable. Existence consists of temporal and eternal realms each of which has its special language. While the temporal world is the realm of finite reason, religion belongs to the eternal level that can be perceived only by intuition. Religious language is symbolic. Symbolic proposition is not a report of reality, but (...)
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  17.  2
    The Hermeneutic Dialectical Between Reason and Religion: A New Approach to Their Relation.Jahangir Masoudi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):177-198.
    There are four main theories concerning the explanation of the relation between “reason and religion” including rationalism, traditionalism, primacy of reason, and primacy of revelation. In this article, after a review of these theories, I shall argue that none of them is satisfactory and thus, we should look for an alternative theory. I suggest that the dialectical hermeneutical approach to the relation between reason and religion can be such a satisfactory theory which avoids the difficulties with the aforementioned theories. I (...)
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  18.  3
    Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi on the Extent of Prophets’ Innocence.Alireza Parsa & Ali Parimi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):27-52.
    According to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, it is essential for the prophets to be infallible after the beginning of their prophetic mission. Yet he doesn’t authorize chastity before mission for the prophets and believes that although prophets do not commit sins intentionally, they may do unintentionally. In his view, the extent of prophets’ innocence includes four domains of belief, propagation and mission, laws and judgments as well as actions and behaviors. On the basis of some foundations such as determinism implied by (...)
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  19.  2
    The Frequentist Problem of Evil.Ghasem Porhasan & Ali Hatamian - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):53-72.
    The problem of evil is one of the most important topics in philosophy of religion. This article, based on original texts, analyses the frequency interpretation of probabilistic argument from evil and review some of its main critiques. This analysis based on the application of Bayes’ Theorem by Wesley Salmon. He uses the mathematical Probability to show that the possibility of the existence of God, based on the Bayes’ theorem is little. He called his method as “empirical atheism”. In this kind (...)
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  20.  2
    John Hick on the Role of Cosmic Optimism and Culture in the Meaning of Life.Ahmad Pourghasem, Reyhane Sadat Azimi & Amir Abbas Alizamani - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):73-90.
    The question of the “meaning of life” has always studied by philosophers like John Hick and led them to make an explanation regarding their philosophical bases about it. John Hick mentions “the meaning of life” in his work based on the concepts he borrows from Wittgenstein and Kant and states that the meaning of life depends on an interrelation between the human and the world. Thus, he inevitably talks about the world as a place in which the human experiences his (...)
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  21.  2
    Wainwright on Drug-Induced Religious Experience.Hossein Tousi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):155-176.
    Conducting experiments and investigations, some researchers have tried to prove that mystical and religious experiences can be created through drug injection. W. J. Wainwright distinguishes between theistic and monistic mystical experiences. Assessing research done by Clark, Pahnke-Houston and Masters, he believes that although psychedelic drugs can induce some kind of monistic mystical experience, they cannot produce theistic mystical experiences. There is no significant evidence in the research based on which one can attribute theistic mystical experience to drug injection. Analysis of (...)
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  22.  2
    Reconstruction of Four Believe in God Models in Al-Ghzzalis Thought.Khalid Zandsalimi & Hosein Hoshangi - 2016 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 13 (2):113-134.
    Al-Gazali is one of the thinkers who has tried to build a strong foundation for theism. In his theory of belief in God, he introduces four models which pertains to four different classes of people. This models include prophetic, saintlike, theological and the vulgar ones. Al-Gazali believes that the first model which is based on mystical experience is the strongest one. This model is similar to what we call belief in God on the basis of religious experience. Thus, it can (...)
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