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  1.  2
    The Homunculus Brain and Categorical Logic.Steve Awodey & Michał Heller - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:253-280.
    The interaction between syntax and its semantics is one which has been well studied in categorical logic. The results of this particular study are employed to understand how the brain is able to create meanings. To emphasize the toy character of the proposed model, we prefer to speak of the homunculus brain rather than the brain per se. The homunculus brain consists of neurons, each of which is modeled by a category, and axons between neurons, which are modeled by functors (...)
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  2.  5
    “Is Logic a Physical Variable?” Introduction to the Special Issue.Michał Eckstein & Bartłomiej Skowron - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:7-13.
    “Is logic a physical variable?” This thought-provoking question was put forward by Michael Heller during the public lecture “Category Theory and Mathematical Structures of the Universe” delivered on 30th March 2017 at the National Quantum Information Center in Sopot. It touches upon the intimate relationship between the foundations of physics, mathematics and philosophy. To address this question one needs a conceptual framework, which is on the one hand rigorous and, on the other hand capacious enough to grasp the diversity of (...)
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  3.  2
    Contemporary Polish Ontology. Where It is and Where It is Going.Roman Krzanowski - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:294-298.
    Book review: Contemporary Polish Ontology. Skowron, B., Philosophical Analysis, 82. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2020. pp.320.
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  4.  3
    No-Signaling in Topos Formulation and a Common Ontological Basis for Classical and Non-Classical Physical Theories.Marek Kuś - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:129-143.
    Starting from logical structures of classical and quantum mechanics we reconstruct the logic of so-called no-signaling theories, where the correlations among subsystems of a composite system are restricted only by a simplest form of causality forbidding an instantaneous communication. Although such theories are, as it seems, irrelevant for the description of physical reality, they are helpful in understanding the relevance of quantum mechanics. The logical structure of each theory has an epistemological flavor, as it is based on analysis of possible (...)
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  5.  7
    Information and Physics.Radosław Kycia & Agnieszka Niemczynowicz - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:237-252.
    This is an overview article that contains the discussion of the connection between information and physics at the elementary level. We present a derivation of Lindauer’s bound for heat emission during irreversible logical operation. In this computation the Szilard’s version of Maxwell’s demon paradox is used as a model to design thermodynamic implementation of a single bit of computer memory. Lindauer’s principle also motivates the discussion on the practical and emergent nature of the information. Apart from physics, the principle has (...)
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  6.  2
    Quantum Geometry, Logic and Probability.Shahn Majid - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:191-236.
    Quantum geometry on a discrete set means a directed graph with a weight associated to each arrow defining the quantum metric. However, these ‘lattice spacing’ weights do not have to be independent of the direction of the arrow. We use this greater freedom to give a quantum geometric interpretation of discrete Markov processes with transition probabilities as arrow weights, namely taking the diffusion form ∂+f = f for the graph Laplacian Δθ, potential functions q, p built from the probabilities, and (...)
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  7.  17
    Abstract Logical Structuralism.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:67-110.
    Structuralism has recently moved center stage in philosophy of mathematics. One of the issues discussed is the underlying logic of mathematical structuralism. In this paper, I want to look at the dual question, namely the underlying structures of logic. Indeed, from a mathematical structuralist standpoint, it makes perfect sense to try to identify the abstract structures underlying logic. We claim that one answer to this question is provided by categorical logic. In fact, we claim that the latter can be seen—and (...)
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  8.  4
    Mathematics as a Love of Wisdom: Saunders Mac Lane as Philosopher.Colin McLarty - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:17-32.
    This note describes Saunders Mac Lane as a philosopher, and indeed as a paragon naturalist philosopher. He approaches philosophy as a mathematician. But, more than that, he learned philosophy from David Hilbert’s lectures on it, and by discussing it with Hermann Weyl, as much as he did by studying it with the mathematically informed Göttingen Philosophy professor Moritz Geiger.
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  9.  3
    Creating New Concepts in Mathematics: Freedom and Limitations. The Case of Category Theory.Zbigniew Semadeni - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:33-65.
    In the paper we discuss the problem of limitations of freedom in mathematics and search for criteria which would differentiate the new concepts stemming from the historical ones from the new concepts that have opened unexpected ways of thinking and reasoning. We also investigate the emergence of category theory and its origins. In particular we explore the origins of the term functor and present the strong evidence that Eilenberg and Carnap could have learned the term from Kotarbiński and Tarski.
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  10.  2
    Category Theory in the Hands of Physicists, Mathematicians, and Philosophers.Mariusz Stopa - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:283-293.
    Book review: Category Theory in Physics, Mathematics, and Philosophy, Kuś M., Skowron B., Springer Proc. Phys. 235, 2019, pp.xii+134.
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  11.  4
    On the Validity of the Definition of a Complement-Classifier.Mariusz Stopa - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:111-128.
    It is well-established that topos theory is inherently connected with intuitionistic logic. In recent times several works appeared concerning so-called complement-toposes, which are allegedly connected to the dual to intuitionistic logic. In this paper I present this new notion, some of the motivations for it, and some of its consequences. Then, I argue that, assuming equivalence of certain two definitions of a topos, the concept of a complement-classifier is, at least in general and within the conceptual framework of category theory, (...)
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  12.  4
    Quantum Contextuality as a Topological Property, and the Ontology of Potentiality.Marek Woszczek - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 69:145-189.
    Quantum contextuality and its ontological meaning are very controversial issues, and they relate to other problems concerning the foundations of quantum theory. I address this controversy and stress the fact that contextuality is a universal topological property of quantum processes, which conflicts with the basic metaphysical assumption of the definiteness of being. I discuss the consequences of this fact and argue that generic quantum potentiality as a real physical indefiniteness has nothing in common with the classical notions of possibility and (...)
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  13.  3
    How Much Truth is in Stereotypes?Szymon Czarnik - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:243-279.
    Stereotype accuracy is a contentious topic. Part of the problem is that typically stereotypes are generic statements whose truth status is unclear due to the fact that they are ill-defined quantitatively. The article focuses on the epistemic aspect of stereotypical beliefs. In the ongoing debate, I side with those who argue against stereotypes being wrong or inaccurate by virtue of definition alone. I propose that, when possible, stereotype accuracy should be assessed in probabilistic terms by inspecting how likely a generic (...)
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  14.  1
    Maxime Bôcher's Concept of Complementary Philosophy of Mathematics.Jerzy Dadaczyński & Robert Piechowicz - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:9-36.
    The main purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate that as early as 1904 pre-eminent American mathematician Maxime Bôcher was an adherent to the presently relevant argument of reasonableness, or even necessity of parallel development of two philosophical methods of reflection on mathematics, so that its essence could be more fully comprehended. The goal of the research gives rise to the question: what two types of philosophical deliberation on mathematics were proposed by Bôcher?
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  15. The Process of microRNAs Discovery.Paweł Kawalec - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:219-242.
    The widespread particularist account of the onset of molecular biology that identifies it with the discovery of the DNA structure in 1953 has been recently contested. The paper contributes to this debate by focusing on a more recent discovery of small noncoding RNAs. First, it outlines a particularist account of the microRNAs discovery and the origins of the particularist predilection of the modern scientometric studies of science dynamics. Next, it discusses its limitations and proposes an alternative, modified processualist account of (...)
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  16.  3
    Why Can Information Not Be Defined as Being Purely Epistemic?Roman Krzanowski - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:37-62.
    The concept of information can be viewed from two perspectives, namely epistemic and ontological. In the epistemic view, information is associated with meaning, semantics, and knowledge, while in the ontological view, it is understood as structures and forms of objects. Information is most often perceived as epistemic information, yet a closer look at epistemic information reveals that this concept does not account for ontological information. This paper poses the following question: Should we select epistemic or ontological information as our primary (...)
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  17.  3
    Józefa Życińskiego koncepcja racjonalizmu umiarkowanego: epistemologiczna i doxalogiczna funkcja podmiotowego commitment.Zbigniew Liana - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:117-184.
    One of the main problems of modern rationalistic theories of science is the non-eliminability of the subjective factor in the development of science. Temperate rationalism of Newton-Smith was an attempt to solve this problem. J. Życiński developed his own version of temperate rationalism in which the subjective factor played much more substantial role. In the article I am presenting his specific idea of the personal _commitment_ as a necessary condition for rationalism and science. In the first section I proceed to (...)
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  18.  1
    Eter, stara teoria kwantów, filozofia przyrody i problematyka ciągłości w ujęciu Bogdana Szyszkowskiego.Łukasz Mścisławski - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:185-216.
    The aim of this paper is to present the views of one of prominent Polish chemists, namely Bohdan Szyszkowski. Presented views are concerning the relation of the concepts of aether, continuity and causality in the context of revolution in physics that took place at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The issues particularly concern his thoughts related to the old quantum theory and special relativity. In particular, this article presents the role of these concepts in the foundations of physics (...)
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  19. Formal Reconstruction of Notions of Belief, Utterance and Trust.Robert Piechowicz - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:63-77.
    Problem of epistemic activity and their relationship with language is very well known in philosophy. Undertaking this challenge in this article we shall present some logical constructions apparent in these issues. More precisely we want to describe some difficulties of formal reconstruction of the notion of belief and utterance and try to find broader perspective appointed by notion of trust. To realize this goals article shows how non-formal assumption about doxa affects on its formal construction. Then, logic of utterances—mainly based (...)
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  20.  1
    Przedmioty wirtualne – składnik naszego świata.Paweł Jan Polak - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:306-310.
    Review of book: Bondecka-Krzykowska I., Brzeziński K.M., Bulińska-Stangrecka H., et al., Przedmioty wirtualne, P. Stacewicz, B. Skowron, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, Warszawa 2019, pp. 135.
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  21.  4
    Some Remarks on the First Image of a Black Hole.Sebastian Jan Szybka - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:281-294.
    On the 10th of April, 2019 the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration presented the first image of the black hole. The image was obtained with a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes. The observation relied on a technique called very long base interferometry which synchronises telescope facilities around the world. The image of a black hole together with the recent detections of gravitational waves confirms one of the most intriguing predictions of Einstein’s gravity theory, namely, the existence of black holes. (...)
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  22. Czy fizyczne teorie efektywne są wiarygodną strategią osiągnięcia teorii finalnej?Marek Szydłowski & Paweł Tambor - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:79-116.
    The paper presents the methodology of effective theories as a strategy used in the process of development of modern physics to reach a final theory. We present the definition and characteristic features of an effective theory, as well as the answer to the question of whether and what kind of scenario of reaching a final theory is realized by contemporary physics. We argue that the process of development of physics in the direction of a final theory is potentially final, i.e. (...)
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  23.  2
    The Hidden Theological and Philosophical Presuppositions Motivating the Modern Cosmological Discussion.Michael Dominic Taylor - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:297-299.
    Book review: David Alcalde, Cosmology Without God?: The Problematic Theology Inherent in Modern Cosmology, Cascade, Eugene 2019, pp.226.
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  24.  2
    Wokół myśli Józefa Życińskiego.Kamil Piotr Trombik - 2020 - Philosophical Problems in Science 68:300-305.
    Recenzja książki: _Media – kultura – dialog. W piątą rocznicę śmierci arcybiskupa Józefa Życińskiego_, red. R. Nęcek, W. Misztal, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Papieskiego Jana Pawła II w Krakowie, Kraków 2017, ss. 343.
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