Year:

  1.  3
    Is Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence From a Grammaticality Judgment Study of Indonesian.I. Nyoman Aryawibawa & Ben Ambridge - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3135-3148.
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  2.  1
    Adult Learning and Language Simplification.Mark Atkinson, Kenny Smith & Simon Kirby - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2818-2854.
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  3.  2
    More Than the Eye Can See: A Computational Model of Color Term Acquisition and Color Discrimination.Barend Beekhuizen & Suzanne Stevenson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2699-2734.
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  4.  5
    Coevolution of Lexical Meaning and Pragmatic Use.Thomas Brochhagen, Michael Franke & Robert van Rooij - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2757-2789.
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  5. A Mathematical Model of How People Solve Most Variants of the Number‐Line Task.Dale J. Cohen, Daryn Blanc‐Goldhammer & Philip T. Quinlan - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2621-2647.
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  6.  3
    Common Object Representations for Visual Production and Recognition.Judith E. Fan, Daniel L. K. Yamins & Nicholas B. Turk‐Browne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2670-2698.
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  7.  4
    Thinking About the Opposite of What Is Said: Counterfactual Conditionals and Symbolic or Alternate Simulations of Negation.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2459-2501.
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  8. Common Object Representations for Visual Production and Recognition.Judith E. Fan, Daniel L. K. Yamins & Nicholas B. Turk-Browne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2670-2698.
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  9.  3
    Visual Statistical Learning With Stimuli Presented Sequentially Across Space and Time in Deaf and Hearing Adults.Beatrice Giustolisi & Karen Emmorey - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3177-3190.
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  10.  3
    The Truth of Conditional Assertions.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & P. N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2502-2533.
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  11.  1
    The Outcome‐Representation Learning Model: A Novel Reinforcement Learning Model of the Iowa Gambling Task.Nathaniel Haines, Jasmin Vassileva & Woo‐Young Ahn - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2534-2561.
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  12.  1
    Decoding Gestural Iconicity.Julius Hassemer & Bodo Winter - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3034-3049.
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  13.  5
    Do Metaphors Move From Mind to Mouth? Evidence From a New System of Linguistic Metaphors for Time.Rose K. Hendricks, Benjamin K. Bergen & Tyler Marghetis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2950-2975.
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  14.  1
    Compound Words Reflect Cross‐Culturally Shared Bodily Metaphors.Kevin J. Holmes, Stephen J. Flusberg & Paul H. Thibodeau - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3071-3082.
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  15.  1
    Understanding Moment‐to‐Moment Processing of Visual Narratives.John P. Hutson, Joseph P. Magliano & Lester C. Loschky - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2999-3033.
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  16.  3
    The Influence of Globally Ungrammatical Local Syntactic Constraints on Real‐Time Sentence Comprehension: Evidence From the Visual World Paradigm and Reading.Yuki Kamide & Anuenue Kukona - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2976-2998.
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  17.  5
    The Cognitive Underpinnings of Option Generation in Everyday Life Decision‐Making: A Latent Variable Analysis.Johannes Leder, Jan A. Häusser, Stefan Krumm, Markus Germar, Alexander Schlemmer, Stefan Kaiser, Annemarie Kalis & Andreas Mojzisch - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2562-2591.
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  18.  2
    Social Network Limits Language Complexity.Matthew Lou‐Magnuson & Luca Onnis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2790-2817.
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  19.  2
    Word Forms Are Structured for Efficient Use.Kyle Mahowald, Isabelle Dautriche, Edward Gibson & Steven T. Piantadosi - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3116-3134.
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  20.  1
    The Effect of Social Network Size on Hashtag Adoption on Twitter.Iris Monster & Shiri Lev‐Ari - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3149-3158.
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  21.  9
    Unspoken Rules: Resolving Underdetermination With Closure Principles.Shaun Nichols & Jerry Gaus - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2735-2756.
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  22.  7
    Evaluating the Correspondence Between Deep Neural Networks and Human Representations.Joshua C. Peterson, Joshua T. Abbott & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2648-2669.
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  23.  1
    Under What Conditions Can Recursion Be Learned? Effects of Starting Small in Artificial Grammar Learning of Center‐Embedded Structure.Fenna H. Poletiek, Christopher M. Conway, Michelle R. Ellefson, Jun Lai, Bruno R. Bocanegra & Morten H. Christiansen - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2855-2889.
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  24.  4
    Modeling the Structure and Dynamics of Semantic Processing.Armand S. Rotaru, Gabriella Vigliocco & Stefan L. Frank - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2890-2917.
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  25. Generalization and Search in Risky Environments.Eric Schulz, Charley M. Wu, Quentin J. M. Huys, Andreas Krause & Maarten Speekenbrink - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2592-2620.
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  26. Eye’Ll Help You Out! How the Gaze Cue Reduces the Cognitive Load Required for Reference Processing.Mirjana Sekicki & Maria Staudte - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2418-2458.
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  27.  1
    Do Infants Learn Words From Statistics? Evidence From English‐Learning Infants Hearing Italian.Amber Shoaib, Tianlin Wang, Jessica F. Hay & Jill Lany - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3083-3099.
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  28.  2
    Statistical Learning Is Not Age‐Invariant During Childhood: Performance Improves With Age Across Modality.Amir Shufaniya & Inbal Arnon - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3100-3115.
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  29. Gaze and the Eye Pupil Adjust to Imagined Size and Distance.Unni Sulutvedt, Thea K. Mannix & Bruno Laeng - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3159-3176.
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  30. Cross‐Cultural Differences in the Influence of Peers on Exploration During Play.Shirlene Wade & Celeste Kidd - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):3050-3070.
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  31.  4
    Event Structures Drive Semantic Structural Priming, Not Thematic Roles: Evidence From Idioms and Light Verbs.Jayden Ziegler, Jesse Snedeker & Eva Wittenberg - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2918-2949.
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  32.  2
    Hand Position and Response Assignment Modulate the Activation of the Valence‐Space Conceptual Metaphor.Emilia Castaño, Elizabeth Gilboy, Sara Feijóo, Elisabet Serrat, Carles Rostan, Joseph Hilferty & Toni Cunillera - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2342-2363.
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  33.  4
    “Girls Are as Good as Boys at Math” Implies That Boys Are Probably Better: A Study of Expressions of Gender Equality.Eleanor K. Chestnut & Ellen M. Markman - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2229-2249.
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  34.  13
    Universal Principles of Human Communication: Preliminary Evidence From a Cross‐Cultural Communication Game.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Ichiro Umata, Takugo Fukaya, Yasuhiro Katagiri & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2397-2413.
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  35.  3
    Simple Co‐Occurrence Statistics Reproducibly Predict Association Ratings.Markus J. Hofmann, Chris Biemann, Chris Westbury, Mariam Murusidze, Markus Conrad & Arthur M. Jacobs - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2287-2312.
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  36.  4
    Inference in the Wild: A Framework for Human Situation Assessment and a Case Study of Air Combat.Ken McAnally, Catherine Davey, Daniel White, Murray Stimson, Steven Mascaro & Kevin Korb - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2181-2204.
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  37.  6
    When Extremists Win: Cultural Transmission Via Iterated Learning When Populations Are Heterogeneous.Danielle J. Navarro, Amy Perfors, Arthur Kary, Scott D. Brown & Chris Donkin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2108-2149.
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  38.  6
    Spatializing Emotion: No Evidence for a Domain‐General Magnitude System.Benjamin Pitt & Daniel Casasanto - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2150-2180.
    People implicitly associate different emotions with different locations in left-right space. Which aspects of emotion do they spatialize, and why? Across many studies people spatialize emotional valence, mapping positive emotions onto their dominant side of space and negative emotions onto their non-dominant side, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Yet other results suggest a conflicting mapping of emotional intensity, according to which people associate more intense emotions with the right and less intense emotions with the left — regardless of (...)
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  39.  6
    The Relation Between Factual and Counterfactual Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & P. N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2205-2228.
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  40.  1
    Cultural Effects Rather Than a Bilingual Advantage in Cognition: A Review and an Empirical Study.Steven Samuel, Karen Roehr‐Brackin, Hyensou Pak & Hyunji Kim - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2313-2341.
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  41.  4
    How Do Creative Experts Practice New Skills? Exploratory Practice in Breakdancers.Daichi Shimizu & Takeshi Okada - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2364-2396.
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  42.  9
    Typicality and Graded Membership in Dimensional Adjectives.Steven Verheyen & Paul Égré - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2250-2286.
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  43.  8
    Shades of Awareness on the Mechanisms Underlying the Quality of Conscious Representations: A Commentary to Fazekas and Overgaard ().Anna Anzulewicz & Michał Wierzchoń - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2095-2100.
    Fazekas and Overgaard () present a novel, multidimensional model that explains different ways in which conscious representations can be degraded. Moreover, the authors discuss possible mechanisms that underlie different kinds of degradation, primarily those related to attentional processing. In this letter, we argue that the proposed mechanisms are not sufficient. We propose that attentional mechanisms work differently at various processing stages; and factors that are independent of attentional ones, such as expectation, previous experience, and context, should be accounted for if (...)
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  44.  1
    Children's Understanding of the Natural Numbers’ Structure.Jennifer Asmuth, Emily M. Morson & Lance J. Rips - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1945-1973.
    When young children attempt to locate numbers along a number line, they show logarithmic (or other compressive) placement. For example, the distance between “5” and “10” is larger than the distance between “75” and “80.” This has often been explained by assuming that children have a logarithmically scaled mental representation of number (e.g., Berteletti, Lucangeli, Piazza, Dehaene, & Zorzi, 2010; Siegler & Opfer, 2003). However, several investigators have questioned this argument (e.g., Barth & Paladino, 2011; Cantlon, Cordes, Libertus, & Brannon, (...)
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  45.  6
    Translating the ICAP Theory of Cognitive Engagement Into Practice.Michelene T. H. Chi, Joshua Adams, Emily B. Bogusch, Christiana Bruchok, Seokmin Kang, Matthew Lancaster, Roy Levy, Na Li, Katherine L. McEldoon, Glenda S. Stump, Ruth Wylie, Dongchen Xu & David L. Yaghmourian - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1777-1832.
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  46.  5
    Modeling the Covariance Structure of Complex Datasets Using Cognitive Models: An Application to Individual Differences and the Heritability of Cognitive Ability.Nathan J. Evans, Mark Steyvers & Scott D. Brown - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1925-1944.
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  47.  9
    A Multi‐Factor Account of Degrees of Awareness.Peter Fazekas & Morten Overgaard - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1833-1859.
    In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations—their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability—and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of awareness. (...)
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  48.  3
    Multiple Factors and Multiple Mechanisms Determine the Quality of Conscious Experiences: A Reply to Anzulewicz and Wierzchoń.Peter Fazekas & Morten Overgaard - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2101-2103.
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  49.  9
    Awe as a Scientific Emotion.Sara Gottlieb, Dacher Keltner & Tania Lombrozo - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2081-2094.
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  50.  2
    Learning a Phonological Contrast Modulates the Auditory Grouping of Rhythm.H. Henny Yeung, Anjali Bhatara & Thierry Nazzi - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2000-2020.
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  51.  7
    Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
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  52.  3
    Why Choo‐Choo Is Better Than Train: The Role of Register‐Specific Words in Early Vocabulary Growth.Mitsuhiko Ota, Nicola Davies‐Jenkins & Barbora Skarabela - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1974-1999.
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  53.  3
    When Height Carries Weight: Communicating Hidden Object Properties for Joint Action.Laura Schmitz, Cordula Vesper, Natalie Sebanz & Günther Knoblich - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2021-2059.
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  54.  17
    Knowledge and Assertion in Korean.John Turri & YeounJun Park - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):2060-2080.
  55.  4
    The Recruitment of Shifting and Inhibition in On‐Line Science and Mathematics Tasks.Stella Vosniadou, Dimitrios Pnevmatikos, Nikos Makris, Despina Lepenioti, Kalliopi Eikospentaki, Anna Chountala & Giorgos Kyrianakis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1860-1886.
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  56.  5
    Spatial Semantics, Cognition, and Their Interaction: A Comparative Study of Spatial Categorization in English and Korean.Hongoak Yun & Soonja Choi - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1736-1776.
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  57.  1
    Probing Representations of Gymnastics Movements: A Visual Priming Study.Claire Calmels, Marc Elipot & Lionel Naccache - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1529-1551.
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  58.  4
    Compensating for an Inattentive Audience.Nicole N. Craycraft & Sarah Brown‐Schmidt - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1504-1528.
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  59.  14
    Generalized Information Theory Meets Human Cognition: Introducing a Unified Framework to Model Uncertainty and Information Search.Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D. Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani & Katya Tentori - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1410-1456.
    Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people’s goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the (...)
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  60.  12
    The Reference of Proper Names: Testing Usage and Intuitions.Michael Devitt & Nicolas Porot - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1552-1585.
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  61.  23
    Synergistic Information Processing Encrypts Strategic Reasoning in Poker.Seth Frey, Dominic K. Albino & Paul L. Williams - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1457-1476.
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  62.  3
    Human–Computer Interaction in Face Matching.Matthew C. Fysh & Markus Bindemann - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1714-1732.
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  63.  1
    Are Words Easier to Learn From Infant‐ Than Adult‐Directed Speech? A Quantitative Corpus‐Based Investigation.Adriana Guevara‐Rukoz, Alejandrina Cristia, Bogdan Ludusan, Roland Thiollière, Andrew Martin, Reiko Mazuka & Emmanuel Dupoux - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1586-1617.
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  64.  3
    Non‐Adjacent Dependencies Processing in Human and Non‐Human Primates.Raphaëlle Malassis, Arnaud Rey & Joël Fagot - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1677-1699.
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  65.  14
    Non‐Scientific Criteria for Belief Sustain Counter‐Scientific Beliefs.S. Emlen Metz, Deena S. Weisberg & Michael Weisberg - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1477-1503.
    Why is evolutionary theory controversial among members of the American public? We propose a novel explanation: allegiance to different criteria for belief. In one interview study, two online surveys, and one nationally representative phone poll, we found that evolutionists and creationists take different justifications for belief as legitimate. Those who accept evolution emphasize empirical evidence and scientific consensus. Creationists emphasize not only the Bible and religious authority, but also knowledge of the heart. These criteria for belief remain predictive of views (...)
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  66.  11
    Found in Translation: Late Bilinguals Do Automatically Activate Their Native Language When They Are Not Using It.Gary Oppenheim, Yan Jing Wu & Guillaume Thierry - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1700-1713.
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  67.  4
    How the Abstract Becomes Concrete: Irrational Numbers Are Understood Relative to Natural Numbers and Perfect Squares.Purav Patel & Sashank Varma - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1642-1676.
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  68.  1
    Lexical Learning May Contribute to Phonetic Learning in Infants: A Corpus Analysis of Maternal Spanish.Daniel Swingley & Claudia Alarcon - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1618-1641.
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  69.  3
    The Bursts and Lulls of Multimodal Interaction: Temporal Distributions of Behavior Reveal Differences Between Verbal and Non‐Verbal Communication.Drew H. Abney, Rick Dale, Max M. Louwerse & Christopher T. Kello - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1297-1316.
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  70.  12
    Bayesian Occam's Razor Is a Razor of the People.Thomas Blanchard, Tania Lombrozo & Shaun Nichols - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1345-1359.
    Occam's razor—the idea that all else being equal, we should pick the simpler hypothesis—plays a prominent role in ordinary and scientific inference. But why are simpler hypotheses better? One attractive hypothesis known as Bayesian Occam's razor is that more complex hypotheses tend to be more flexible—they can accommodate a wider range of possible data—and that flexibility is automatically penalized by Bayesian inference. In two experiments, we provide evidence that people's intuitive probabilistic and explanatory judgments follow the prescriptions of BOR. In (...)
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  71.  3
    Combinations of Simple Mechanisms Explain Diverse Strategies in the Freehand Writing of Memorized Sentences.Peter C.‐H. Cheng & Erlijn van Genuchten - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1070-1109.
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  72.  7
    The Preference for Pointing With the Hand Is Not Universal.Kensy Cooperrider, James Slotta & Rafael Núñez - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1375-1390.
    Pointing is a cornerstone of human communication, but does it take the same form in all cultures? Manual pointing with the index finger appears to be used universally, and it is often assumed to be universally preferred over other forms. Non-manual pointing with the head and face has also been widely attested, but it is usually considered of marginal significance, both empirically and theoretically. Here, we challenge this assumed marginality. Using a novel communication task, we investigated pointing preferences in the (...)
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  73.  4
    Cryptic Emotions and the Emergence of a Metatheory of Mind in Popular Filmmaking.James E. Cutting & Kacie L. Armstrong - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1317-1344.
    Hollywood movies can be deeply engaging and easy to understand. To succeed in this manner, feature-length movies employ many editing techniques with strong psychological underpinnings. We explore the origins and development of one of these, the reaction shot. This shot typically shows a single, unspeaking character with modest facial expression in response to an event or to the behavior or speech of another character. In a sample of movies from 1940 to 2010, we show that the prevalence of one type (...)
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  74.  8
    Representing, Running, and Revising Mental Models: A Computational Model.Scott Friedman, Kenneth Forbus & Bruce Sherin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1110-1145.
    People use commonsense science knowledge to flexibly explain, predict, and manipulate the world around them, yet we lack computational models of how this commonsense science knowledge is represented, acquired, utilized, and revised. This is an important challenge for cognitive science: Building higher order computational models in this area will help characterize one of the hallmarks of human reasoning, and it will allow us to build more robust reasoning systems. This paper presents a novel assembled coherence theory of human conceptual change, (...)
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  75.  1
    A Large‐Scale Analysis of Variance in Written Language.Brendan T. Johns & Randall K. Jamieson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1360-1374.
    The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language. The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience. But language experience is often treated agnostically. We report a distributional semantic analysis that shows written language in fiction books varies appreciably (...)
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  76.  5
    Mental Transformation Skill in Young Children: The Role of Concrete and Abstract Motor Training.Susan C. Levine, Susan Goldin‐Meadow, Matthew T. Carlson & Naureen Hemani‐Lopez - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1207-1228.
    We examined the effects of three different training conditions, all of which involve the motor system, on kindergarteners’ mental transformation skill. We focused on three main questions. First, we asked whether training that involves making a motor movement that is relevant to the mental transformation—either concretely through action or more abstractly through gestural movements that represent the action —resulted in greater gains than training using motor movements irrelevant to the mental transformation. We tested children prior to training, immediately after training, (...)
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  77.  16
    The Mental Representation of Human Action.Sydney Levine, Alan M. Leslie & John Mikhail - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1229-1264.
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  78.  4
    An Exception to Mental Simulation: No Evidence for Embodied Odor Language.Laura J. Speed & Asifa Majid - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1146-1178.
    Do we mentally simulate olfactory information? We investigated mental simulation of odors and sounds in two experiments. Participants retained a word while they smelled an odor or heard a sound, then rated odor/sound intensity and recalled the word. Later odor/sound recognition was also tested, and pleasantness and familiarity judgments were collected. Word recall was slower when the sound and sound-word mismatched. Sound recognition was higher when sounds were paired with a match or near-match word. This indicates sound-words are mentally simulated. (...)
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  79.  2
    Stable Causal Relationships Are Better Causal Relationships.Nadya Vasilyeva, Thomas Blanchard & Tania Lombrozo - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1265-1296.
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  80.  4
    The Development of Invariant Object Recognition Requires Visual Experience With Temporally Smooth Objects.Justin N. Wood & Samantha M. W. Wood - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1391-1406.
    How do newborns learn to recognize objects? According to temporal learning models in computational neuroscience, the brain constructs object representations by extracting smoothly changing features from the environment. To date, however, it is unknown whether newborns depend on smoothly changing features to build invariant object representations. Here, we used an automated controlled-rearing method to examine whether visual experience with smoothly changing features facilitates the development of view-invariant object recognition in a newborn animal model—the domestic chick. When newborn chicks were reared (...)
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  81.  5
    Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.Jiushu Xie, Him Cheung, Manqiong Shen & Ruiming Wang - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1179-1206.
    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded (...)
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  82.  4
    Dividing Attention Between Tasks: Testing Whether Explicit Payoff Functions Elicit Optimal Dual-Task Performance.George D. Farmer, Christian P. Janssen, Anh T. Nguyen & Duncan P. Brumby - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):820-849.
    We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score. This payoff function was varied between conditions to change the value of one task relative to the other. We found that participants adapted their strategy for interleaving the two tasks, by varying how long they spent on (...)
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  83.  6
    When Cars Hit Trucks and Girls Hug Boys: The Effect of Animacy on Word Order in Gestural Language Creation.Annemarie Kocab, Hannah Lam & Jesse Snedeker - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):918-938.
    A well-known typological observation is the dominance of subject-initial word orders, SOV and SVO, across the world's languages. Recent findings from gestural language creation paradigms offer possible explanations for the prevalence of SOV. When asked to gesture transitive events with an animate agent and inanimate patient, gesturers tend to produce SOV order, regardless of their native language biases. Interestingly, when the patient is animate, gesturers shift away from SOV to use of other orders, like SVO and OSV. Two competing hypotheses (...)
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  84.  14
    Karma or Immortality: Can Religion Influence Space-Time Mappings?Heng Li & Yu Cao - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1041-1056.
    People implicitly associate the “past” and “future” with “front” and “back” in their minds according to their cultural attitudes toward time. As the temporal focus hypothesis proposes, future-oriented people tend to think about time according to the future-in-front mapping, whereas past-oriented people tend to think about time according to the past-in-front mapping. Whereas previous studies have demonstrated that culture exerts an important influence on people's implicit spatializations of time, we focus specifically on religion, a prominent layer of culture, as potential (...)
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  85.  10
    Demons of Ecological Rationality.Maria Otworowska, Mark Blokpoel, Marieke Sweers, Todd Wareham & Iris van Rooij - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1057-1066.
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  86.  9
    Blind Speakers Show Language-Specific Patterns in Co-Speech Gesture but Not Silent Gesture.Şeyda Özçalışkan, Ché Lucero & Susan Goldin-Meadow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1001-1014.
    Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech, not without speech. We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish to 80 sighted adult speakers as they described three-dimensional (...)
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  87.  5
    A Computational Model of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis Based on the Dual-Route Cascaded Model of Reading.Stephen C. Pritchard, Max Coltheart, Eva Marinus & Anne Castles - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):722-770.
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  88.  10
    Wednesday's Meeting Really Is on Friday: A Meta-Analysis and Evaluation of Ambiguous Spatiotemporal Language.Elise Stickles & Tasha N. Lewis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1015-1025.
    Experimental work has shown that spatial experiences influence spatiotemporal metaphor use. In these studies, participants are asked a question that yields different responses depending on the metaphor participants use. It has been claimed that English speakers are equally likely to respond with either variant in the absence of priming. Related studies testing non-spatial experiences demonstrate varied results with a wide range of primes. Here, the effects of eye movement and stimuli presentation modality on comprehension of this question are investigated in (...)
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  89.  13
    How Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Grammaticalization of Future Time Reference Influence Intertemporal Choices.Dieter Thoma & Agnieszka E. Tytus - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):974-1000.
    According to Chen's Linguistic Savings Hypothesis, our native language affects our economic behavior. We present three studies investigating how cross-linguistic differences in the grammaticalization of future-time reference affect intertemporal choices. In a series of decision scenarios about finance and health issues, we let speakers of altogether five languages that represent FTR with increasing strength, that is, Chinese, German, Danish, Spanish, and English, choose between hypothetical sooner-smaller and later-larger reward options. While the LSH predicts a present-bias that increases with FTR-strength, our (...)
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  90.  12
    Coherence in the Visual Imagination.Michael O. Vertolli, Matthew A. Kelly & Jim Davies - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):885-917.
    An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word are present in the same visualization. We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence. We also show that (...)
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  91.  16
    Using Statistical Models of Morphology in the Search for Optimal Units of Representation in the Human Mental Lexicon.Sami Virpioja, Minna Lehtonen, Annika Hultén, Henna Kivikari, Riitta Salmelin & Krista Lagus - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):939-973.
    Determining optimal units of representing morphologically complex words in the mental lexicon is a central question in psycholinguistics. Here, we utilize advances in computational sciences to study human morphological processing using statistical models of morphology, particularly the unsupervised Morfessor model that works on the principle of optimization. The aim was to see what kind of model structure corresponds best to human word recognition costs for multimorphemic Finnish nouns: a model incorporating units resembling linguistically defined morphemes, a whole-word model, or a (...)
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  92.  12
    Rational Inference of Beliefs and Desires From Emotional Expressions.Yang Wu, Chris L. Baker, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):850-884.
    We investigated people's ability to infer others’ mental states from their emotional reactions, manipulating whether agents wanted, expected, and caused an outcome. Participants recovered agents’ desires throughout. When the agent observed, but did not cause the outcome, participants’ ability to recover the agent's beliefs depended on the evidence they got. When the agent caused the event, participants’ judgments also depended on the probability of the action ; when actions were improbable given the mental states, people failed to recover the agent's (...)
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  93.  36
    Both Earlier Times and the Future Are “Front”: The Distinction Between Time- and Ego-Reference-Points in Mandarin Speakers’ Temporal Representation.Chengli Xiao, Mengya Zhao & Lei Chen - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1026-1040.
    Mandarin speakers, like most other language speakers around the world, use spatial terms to talk about time. However, the direction of their mental temporal representation along the front-back axis remains controversial because they use the spatial term “front” to refer to both earlier times and the future. Although the linguistic distinction between time- and ego-reference-point spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin suggests a promising clarification of the above controversy, there is little empirical evidence verifying this distinction. In this study, Mandarin speakers’ time- (...)
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  94.  8
    Reading Emotion From Mouse Cursor Motions: Affective Computing Approach.Takashi Yamauchi & Kunchen Xiao - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):771-819.
    Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16–26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, (...)
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  95.  13
    No Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Effects and the Vigilance Decrement Are Functionally Equivalent: Comment on Veksler and Gunzelmann.Erik M. Altmann - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):708-711.
    Veksler and Gunzelmann make an extraordinary claim, which is that sleep deprivation effects and the vigilance decrement are functionally equivalent. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, which is missing from Veksler and Gunzelmann's study. Their behavioral data offer only weak theoretical constraint, and to the extent their modeling exercise supports any position, it is that these two performance impairments involve functionally distinct underlying mechanisms.
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  96.  7
    The Role of Gesture in Supporting Mental Representations: The Case of Mental Abacus Arithmetic.Neon B. Brooks, David Barner, Michael Frank & Susan Goldin‐Meadow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):554-575.
    People frequently gesture when problem-solving, particularly on tasks that require spatial transformation. Gesture often facilitates task performance by interacting with internal mental representations, but how this process works is not well understood. We investigated this question by exploring the case of mental abacus, a technique in which users not only imagine moving beads on an abacus to compute sums, but also produce movements in gestures that accompany the calculations. Because the content of MA is transparent and readily manipulated, the task (...)
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  97.  7
    The Role of Gesture in Supporting Mental Representations: The Case of Mental Abacus Arithmetic.Neon B. Brooks, David Barner, Michael Frank & Susan Goldin‐Meadow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):554-575.
    People frequently gesture when problem-solving, particularly on tasks that require spatial transformation. Gesture often facilitates task performance by interacting with internal mental representations, but how this process works is not well understood. We investigated this question by exploring the case of mental abacus, a technique in which users not only imagine moving beads on an abacus to compute sums, but also produce movements in gestures that accompany the calculations. Because the content of MA is transparent and readily manipulated, the task (...)
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  98.  4
    Sculptors, Architects, and Painters Conceive of Depicted Spaces Differently.Claudia Cialone, Thora Tenbrink & Hugo J. Spiers - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):524-553.
    Sculptors, architects, and painters are three professional groups that require a comprehensive understanding of how to manipulate spatial structures. While it has been speculated that they may differ in the way they conceive of space due to the different professional demands, this has not been empirically tested. To achieve this, we asked architects, painters, sculptors, and a control group questions about spatially complex pictures. Verbalizations elicited were examined using cognitive discourse analysis. We found significant differences between each group. Only painters (...)
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  99.  5
    Further Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Effects and the Vigilance Decrement Are Functionally Equivalent: Comment on Altmann.Glenn Gunzelmann & Bella Veksler - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):712-717.
    Veksler and Gunzelmann argue that the vigilance decrement and the deleterious effects of sleep loss reflect functionally equivalent degradations in cognitive processing and performance. Our account is implemented in a cognitive architecture, where these factors produce breakdowns in goal-directed cognitive processing that we refer to as microlapses. Altmann raises a number of challenges to microlapses as a unified account of these deficits. Under scrutiny, however, the challenges do little to discredit the theory or conclusions in the original paper. In our (...)
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  100.  9
    Abstraction and the Language Familiarity Effect.Elizabeth K. Johnson, Laurence Bruggeman & Anne Cutler - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):633-645.
    Talkers are recognized more accurately if they are speaking the listeners’ native language rather than an unfamiliar language. This “language familiarity effect” has been shown not to depend upon comprehension and must instead involve language sound patterns. We further examine the level of sound-pattern processing involved, by comparing talker recognition in foreign languages versus two varieties of English, by English speakers of one variety, English speakers of the other variety, and non-native listeners. All listener groups performed better with native than (...)
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  101.  6
    Knowing When Help Is Needed: A Developing Sense of Causal Complexity.Jonathan F. Kominsky, Anna P. Zamm & Frank C. Keil - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):491-523.
    Research on the division of cognitive labor has found that adults and children as young as age 5 are able to find appropriate experts for different causal systems. However, little work has explored how children and adults decide when to seek out expert knowledge in the first place. We propose that children and adults rely on “mechanism metadata,” information about mechanism information. We argue that mechanism metadata is relatively consistent across individuals exposed to similar amounts of mechanism information, and it (...)
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  102.  5
    Stereotype Threat Effects on Learning From a Cognitively Demanding Mathematics Lesson.Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N. Begolli & Lindsey E. Richland - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):678-690.
    Stereotype threat—a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype—is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability. We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction. Predominantly African American fifth-grade students provided either their race or the date before a videotaped, (...)
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  103.  4
    Spontaneous Emergence of Legibility in Writing Systems: The Case of Orientation Anisotropy.Olivier Morin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):664-677.
    Cultural forms are constrained by cognitive biases, and writing is thought to have evolved to fit basic visual preferences, but little is known about the history and mechanisms of that evolution. Cognitive constraints have been documented for the topology of script features, but not for their orientation. Orientation anisotropy in human vision, as revealed by the oblique effect, suggests that cardinal orientations, being easier to process, should be overrepresented in letters. As this study of 116 scripts shows, the orientation of (...)
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  104.  9
    Recombinant Enaction: Manipulatives Generate New Procedures in the Imagination, by Extending and Recombining Action Spaces.Jeenath Rahaman, Harshit Agrawal, Nisheeth Srivastava & Sanjay Chandrasekharan - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):370-415.
    Manipulation of physical models such as tangrams and tiles is a popular approach to teaching early mathematics concepts. This pedagogical approach is extended by new computational media, where mathematical entities such as equations and vectors can be virtually manipulated. The cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting such manipulation-based learning—particularly how actions generate new internal structures that support problem-solving—are not understood. We develop a model of the way manipulations generate internal traces embedding actions, and how these action-traces recombine during problem-solving. This model (...)
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  105.  17
    Real Objects Can Impede Conditional Reasoning but Augmented Objects Do Not.Yuri Sato, Yutaro Sugimoto & Kazuhiro Ueda - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):691-707.
    In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's visual impedance hypothesis is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences, they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects. Our results showed that real objects impeded conditional (...)
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  106.  21
    A Biologically Plausible Action Selection System for Cognitive Architectures: Implications of Basal Ganglia Anatomy for Learning and Decision‐Making Models.Andrea Stocco - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):457-490.
    Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia—the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as (...)
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  107.  6
    Linguistic and Perceptual Mapping in Spatial Representations: An Attentional Account.Berenice Valdés‐Conroy, José A. Hinojosa, Francisco J. Román & Verónica Romero‐Ferreiro - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):646-663.
    Building on evidence for embodied representations, we investigated whether Spanish spatial terms map onto the NEAR/FAR perceptual division of space. Using a long horizontal display, we measured congruency effects during the processing of spatial terms presented in NEAR or FAR space. Across three experiments, we manipulated the task demands in order to investigate the role of endogenous attention in linguistic and perceptual space mapping. We predicted congruency effects only when spatial properties were relevant for the task but not when attention (...)
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  108.  9
    Functional Equivalence of Sleep Loss and Time on Task Effects in Sustained Attention.Bella Z. Veksler & Glenn Gunzelmann - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):600-632.
    Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test, was extended from the typical 10-min duration (...)
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  109.  8
    Semantic Information and the Syntax of Propositional Attitude Verbs.Aaron S. White, Valentine Hacquard & Jeffrey Lidz - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):416-456.
    Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want, have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. This paper explores the granularity with which these verbs’ semantic and pragmatic properties are recoverable from their syntactic distributions, using three behavioral experiments aimed at explicitly quantifying the relationship between these two sets of properties. Experiment 1 gathers a measure of 30 (...)
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  110.  14
    Information‐Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah & Marcus Pearce - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):43-76.
    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners’ memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard (...)
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  111.  12
    Information‐Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah & Marcus Pearce - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):43-76.
    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners’ memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard (...)
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  112.  10
    Anthropocentric by Default? Attribution of Familiar and Novel Properties to Living Things.Melanie Arenson & John D. Coley - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):253-285.
    Humans naturally and effortlessly use a set of cognitive tools to reason about biological entities and phenomena. Two such tools, essentialist thinking and teleological thinking, appear to be early developmental cognitive defaults, used extensively in childhood and under limited circumstances in adulthood, but prone to reemerge under time pressure or cognitive load. We examine the nature of another such tool: anthropocentric thinking. In four experiments, we examined patterns of property attribution to a wide range of living and non-living objects, manipulating (...)
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  113.  2
    Corrigendum For: Do Bilinguals Automatically Activate Their Native Language When They Are Not Using It?Albert Costa, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco & Martin J. Pickering - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):365-365.
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  114.  16
    Naïve and Robust: Class‐Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning.Jana B. Jarecki, Björn Meder & Jonathan D. Nelson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):4-42.
    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, (...)
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  115.  9
    Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.Petko Kusev, Paul Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva‐Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson & Nick Chater - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):77-102.
    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping. Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially, or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously, not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation (...)
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  116.  4
    Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.Petko Kusev, Paul Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva‐Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson & Nick Chater - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):77-102.
    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping. Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially, or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously, not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation (...)
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  117.  7
    Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson & Nick Chater - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):77-102.
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  118.  7
    The Semantic Drift of Quotations in Blogspace: A Case Study in Short‐Term Cultural Evolution.Sébastien Lerique & Camille Roth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):188-219.
    We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of (...)
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  119.  18
    Distinctiveness Benefits Novelty , but Only Up to a Limit: The Prior Knowledge Perspective.Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni & Anat Maril - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):103-128.
    Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare. (...)
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  120.  8
    A New Measure of Hallucinatory States and a Discussion of REM Sleep Dreaming as a Virtual Laboratory for the Rehearsal of Embodied Cognition.Clemens Speth & Jana Speth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):311-333.
    Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory (...)
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  121.  15
    The Interactive Origin of Iconicity.Mónica Tamariz, Seán G. Roberts, J. Isidro Martínez & Julio Santiago - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):334-349.
    We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend (...)
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  122.  27
    Cultural Differences in Visual Search for Geometric Figures.Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S. Cramer, Ronald A. Rensink, David E. Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama & Jun Saiki - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):286-310.
    While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice (...)
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  123.  5
    What Am I Looking At? Interpreting Dynamic and Static Gaze Displays.Margot van Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield & Tamara van Gog - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):220-252.
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  124.  4
    What Am I Looking At? Interpreting Dynamic and Static Gaze Displays.Margot Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield & Tamara Gog - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):220-252.
    Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their (...)
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  125.  13
    Sensitivity to Shared Information in Social Learning.Andrew Whalen, Thomas L. Griffiths & Daphna Buchsbaum - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):168-187.
    Social learning has been shown to be an evolutionarily adaptive strategy, but it can be implemented via many different cognitive mechanisms. The adaptive advantage of social learning depends crucially on the ability of each learner to obtain relevant and accurate information from informants. The source of informants’ knowledge is a particularly important cue for evaluating advice from multiple informants; if the informants share the source of their information or have obtained their information from each other, then their testimony is statistically (...)
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  126.  5
    Problem‐Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.Travis J. Wiltshire, Jonathan E. Butner & Stephen M. Fiore - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):129-167.
    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. (...)
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  127.  14
    Is the Lateralized Categorical Perception of Color a Situational Effect of Language on Color Perception?Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li & Lei Mo - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):350-364.
    This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors—specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue—into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task. Reaction times (...)
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  128.  19
    Children's Acquisition of the English Past‐Tense: Evidence for a Single‐Route Account From Novel Verb Production Data.Ryan P. Blything, Ben Ambridge & Elena V. M. Lieven - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):621-639.
    This study adjudicates between two opposing accounts of morphological productivity, using English past-tense as its test case. The single-route model posits that both regular and irregular past-tense forms are generated by analogy across stored exemplars in associative memory. In contrast, the dual-route model posits that regular inflection requires use of a formal “add -ed” rule that does not require analogy across regular past-tense forms. Children saw animations of an animal performing a novel action described with a novel verb. Past-tense forms (...)
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  129.  3
    The Changing Role of Sound‐Symbolism for Small Versus Large Vocabularies.James Brand, Padraic Monaghan & Peter Walker - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):578-590.
    Natural language contains many examples of sound-symbolism, where the form of the word carries information about its meaning. Such systematicity is more prevalent in the words children acquire first, but arbitrariness dominates during later vocabulary development. Furthermore, systematicity appears to promote learning category distinctions, which may become more important as the vocabulary grows. In this study, we tested the relative costs and benefits of sound-symbolism for word learning as vocabulary size varies. Participants learned form-meaning mappings for words which were either (...)
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  130.  22
    Two Models of Moral Judgment.Shane Bretz & Ron Sun - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):4-37.
    This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory. Simulations based on the theory capture and explain a range of relevant human (...)
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  131.  4
    Compression in Working Memory and Its Relationship With Fluid Intelligence.Mustapha Chekaf, Nicolas Gauvrit, Alessandro Guida & Fabien Mathy - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):904-922.
    Working memory has been shown to be strongly related to fluid intelligence; however, our goal is to shed further light on the process of information compression in working memory as a determining factor of fluid intelligence. Our main hypothesis was that compression in working memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between working-memory capacity and fluid intelligence because both depend on the optimization of storage capacity. Compressibility of memoranda was estimated using an algorithmic complexity metric. The results showed (...)
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  132.  8
    Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross‐Situational Statistics.Chi-Hsin Chen, Yayun Zhang & Chen Yu - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):591-605.
    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels. This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual (...)
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  133.  3
    A Model-Based Approach to the Wisdom of the Crowd in Category Learning.Irina Danileiko & Michael D. Lee - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):861-883.
    We apply the “wisdom of the crowd” idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts (...)
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  134.  6
    Once a French Speaker, Always a French Speaker? Bilingual Children's Thinking About the Stability of Language.Jocelyn B. Dautel & Katherine D. Kinzler - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):287-302.
    Despite early emerging and impressive linguistic abilities, young children demonstrate ostensibly puzzling beliefs about the nature of language. In some circumstances monolingual children even express the belief that an individual's language is more stable than her race. The present research investigated bilingual children's thinking about the relative stability of language and race. Five-to six-year-old bilingual children were asked to judge whether a target child who varied in race and language would grow up to be an adult who maintained the target (...)
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  135. Consistent Belief in a Good True Self in Misanthropes and Three Interdependent Cultures.Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George E. Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco & Joshua Knobe - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):134-160.
    People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this (...)
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  136.  8
    Predictive Movements and Human Reinforcement Learning of Sequential Action.Roy de Kleijn, George Kachergis & Bernhard Hommel - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):783-808.
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  137.  6
    Left‐Corner Parsing With Distributed Associative Memory Produces Surprisal and Locality Effects.Nathan E. Rasmussen & William Schuler - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1009-1042.
    This article describes a left-corner parser implemented within a cognitively and neurologically motivated distributed model of memory. This parser's approach to syntactic ambiguity points toward a tidy account both of surprisal effects and of locality effects, such as the parsing breakdowns caused by center embedding. The model provides an algorithmic-level account of these breakdowns: The structure of the parser's memory and the nature of incremental parsing produce a smooth degradation of processing accuracy for longer center embeddings, and a steeper degradation (...)
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  138.  9
    All the Right Noises: Background Variability Helps Early Word Learning.Katherine E. Twomey, Lizhi Ma & Gert Westermann - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):413-438.
    Variability is prevalent in early language acquisition, but, whether it supports or hinders learning is unclear; while target variability has been shown to facilitate word learning, variability in competitor items has been shown to make the task harder. Here, we tested whether background variability could boost learning in a referent selection task. Two groups of 2-year-old children saw arrays of one novel and two known objects on a screen, and they heard a novel or known label. Stimuli were identical across (...)
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  139.  3
    Due Process in Dual Process: Model‐Recovery Simulations of Decision‐Bound Strategy Analysis in Category Learning.Charlotte E. R. Edmunds, Fraser Milton & Andy J. Wills - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):833-860.
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  140.  6
    Visual Complexity and Its Effects on Referring Expression Generation.Micha Elsner, Alasdair Clarke & Hannah Rohde - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):940-973.
    Speakers’ perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it—which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which (...)
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  141.  10
    How to Create Shared Symbols.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):241-269.
    Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language. Individual-level learning, via observation and cognitive bias, was sufficient (...)
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  142.  12
    An Actor's Knowledge and Intent Are More Important in Evaluating Moral Transgressions Than Conventional Transgressions.Carly Giffin & Tania Lombrozo - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):105-133.
    An actor's mental states—whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions—typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to (...)
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  143.  6
    Social Beliefs and Visual Attention: How the Social Relevance of a Cue Influences Spatial Orienting.Matthias S. Gobel, Miles R. A. Tufft & Daniel C. Richardson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):161-185.
    We are highly tuned to each other's visual attention. Perceiving the eye or hand movements of another person can influence the timing of a saccade or the reach of our own. However, the explanation for such spatial orienting in interpersonal contexts remains disputed. Is it due to the social appearance of the cue—a hand or an eye—or due to its social relevance—a cue that is connected to another person with attentional and intentional states? We developed an interpersonal version of the (...)
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  144.  13
    Symbol Grounding Without Direct Experience: Do Words Inherit Sensorimotor Activation From Purely Linguistic Context?Fritz Günther, Carolin Dudschig & Barbara Kaup - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):336-374.
    Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space. This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that (...)
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  145.  6
    The Power of a “Maverick” in Collaborative Problem Solving: An Experimental Investigation of Individual Perspective‐Taking Within a Group.Yugo Hayashi - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):69-104.
    Integrating different perspectives is a sophisticated strategy for developing constructive interactions in collaborative problem solving. However, cognitive aspects such as individuals’ knowledge and bias often obscure group consensus and produce conflict. This study investigated collaborative problem solving, focusing on a group member interacting with another member having a different perspective. It was predicted that mavericks might mitigate disadvantages and facilitate perspective taking during problem solving. Thus, 344 university students participated in two laboratory-based experiments by engaging in a simple rule-discovery task (...)
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  146.  4
    Context and Perceptual Salience Influence the Formation of Novel Stereotypes Via Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J. Cunningham, Gillian Slessor, James Urquhart, Kenny Smith & Douglas Martin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):186-212.
    We use a transmission chain method to establish how context and category salience influence the formation of novel stereotypes through cumulative cultural evolution. We created novel alien targets by combining features from three category dimensions—color, movement, and shape—thereby creating social targets that were individually unique but that also shared category membership with other aliens. At the start of the transmission chains each alien was randomly assigned attributes that described it. Participants were given training on the alien-attribute assignments and were then (...)
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  147.  12
    Influence of Social Perception and Social Monitoring on Structural Priming.Heeju Hwang & Eunjin Chun - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):303-313.
    Although structural priming has been considered to be an independent cognitive process, recent evidence suggests that structural priming is modulated by sociocognitive factors such as social perception; speakers are more likely to mimic the sentence structure of a socially desirable interlocutor than the structure of a less desirable interlocutor. This study aims to further address the role of sociocognitive factors in language use by investigating how individual differences in social perception and tendency to align with others modulate same-verb structural priming. (...)
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  148.  10
    Input and Age‐Dependent Variation in Second Language Learning: A Connectionist Account.Marius Janciauskas & Franklin Chang - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):519-554.
    Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure. One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, (...)
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  149.  4
    Sensitivity to the Sampling Process Emerges From the Principle of Efficiency.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Felix Sun, Laura Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):270-286.
    Humans can seamlessly infer other people's preferences, based on what they do. Broadly, two types of accounts have been proposed to explain different aspects of this ability. The first account focuses on spatial information: Agents' efficient navigation in space reveals what they like. The second account focuses on statistical information: Uncommon choices reveal stronger preferences. Together, these two lines of research suggest that we have two distinct capacities for inferring preferences. Here we propose that this is not the case, and (...)
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  150.  3
    Linguistic Constraints on Statistical Word Segmentation: The Role of Consonants in Arabic and English.Itamar Kastner & Frans Adriaans - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):494-518.
    Statistical learning is often taken to lie at the heart of many cognitive tasks, including the acquisition of language. One particular task in which probabilistic models have achieved considerable success is the segmentation of speech into words. However, these models have mostly been tested against English data, and as a result little is known about how a statistical learning mechanism copes with input regularities that arise from the structural properties of different languages. This study focuses on statistical word segmentation in (...)
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  151.  1
    “Economies of Experience”-Disambiguation of Degraded Stimuli Leads to a Decreased Dispersion of Eye-Movement Patterns.Magdalena Ewa Król & Michał Król - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):728-756.
    We demonstrate “economies of experience” in eye-movement patterns—that is, optimization of eye-movement patterns aimed at more efficient and less costly visual processing, similar to the priming-induced formation of sparser cortical representations or reduced reaction times. Participants looked at Mooney-type, degraded stimuli that were difficult to recognize without prior experience, but easily recognizable after exposure to their undegraded versions. As predicted, eye-movement dispersion, velocity, and the number of fixations decreased with each stimulus presentation. Further analyses showed that this effect was contingent (...)
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  152.  5
    Too Much of a Good Thing: How Novelty Biases and Vocabulary Influence Known and Novel Referent Selection in 18-Month-Old Children and Associative Learning Models.Sarah C. Kucker, Bob McMurray & Larissa K. Samuelson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):463-493.
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  153.  5
    The Emergence of Organizing Structure in Conceptual Representation.Brenden M. Lake, Neil D. Lawrence & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):809-832.
    Both scientists and children make important structural discoveries, yet their computational underpinnings are not well understood. Structure discovery has previously been formalized as probabilistic inference about the right structural form—where form could be a tree, ring, chain, grid, etc.. Although this approach can learn intuitive organizations, including a tree for animals and a ring for the color circle, it assumes a strong inductive bias that considers only these particular forms, and each form is explicitly provided as initial knowledge. Here we (...)
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  154.  9
    Developmental Differences Between Children and Adults in the Use of Visual Cues for Segmentation.Ori Lavi-Rotbain & Inbal Arnon - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):606-620.
    Recent work asked if visual cues facilitate word segmentation in adults and infants. While adults showed better word segmentation when presented with a regular visual cue, infants did not. This difference was attributed to infants' lack of understanding that objects have labels. Alternatively, infants’ performance could reflect their difficulty with tracking and integrating multiple multimodal cues. We contrasted these two accounts by looking at the effect of visual cues on word segmentation in adults and across childhood. We found that older (...)
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  155.  3
    Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects of Surprisal and Entropy Reduction.Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira & John M. Henderson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1166-1183.
    What are the effects of word-by-word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large-scale cumulative cloze task to collect word-by-word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal (...)
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  156.  25
    Quantity and Diversity: Simulating Early Word Learning Environments.Jessica L. Montag, Michael N. Jones & Linda B. Smith - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):375-412.
    The words in children's language learning environments are strongly predictive of cognitive development and school achievement. But how do we measure language environments and do so at the scale of the many words that children hear day in, day out? The quantity and quality of words in a child's input are typically measured in terms of total amount of talk and the lexical diversity in that talk. There are disagreements in the literature whether amount or diversity is the more critical (...)
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  157.  3
    Modeling Reference Production as the Probabilistic Combination of Multiple Perspectives.Mindaugas Mozuraitis, Suzanne Stevenson & Daphna Heller - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):974-1008.
    While speakers have been shown to adapt to the knowledge state of their addressee in choosing referring expressions, they often also show some egocentric tendencies. The current paper aims to provide an explanation for this “mixed” behavior by presenting a model that derives such patterns from the probabilistic combination of both the speaker's and the addressee's perspectives. To test our model, we conducted a language production experiment, in which participants had to refer to objects in a context that also included (...)
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  158.  4
    Exploratory and Confirmatory Analyses in Sentence Processing: A Case Study of Number Interference in German.Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann & Katja Suckow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1075-1100.
    Given the replication crisis in cognitive science, it is important to consider what researchers need to do in order to report results that are reliable. We consider three changes in current practice that have the potential to deliver more realistic and robust claims. First, the planned experiment should be divided into two stages, an exploratory stage and a confirmatory stage. This clear separation allows the researcher to check whether any results found in the exploratory stage are robust. The second change (...)
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  159.  34
    Death and the Self.Shaun Nichols, Nina Strohminger, Arun Rai & Jay Garfield - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):314-332.
    It is an old philosophical idea that if the future self is literally different from the current self, one should be less concerned with the death of the future self. This paper examines the relation between attitudes about death and the self among Hindus, Westerners, and three Buddhist populations. Compared with other groups, monastic Tibetans gave particularly strong denials of the continuity of self, across several measures. We predicted that the denial of self would be associated with a lower fear (...)
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  160.  2
    Models of Chinese Reading: Review and Analysis.Erik D. Reichle & Lili Yu - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1154-1165.
    Our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in reading has been advanced by computational models that simulate those processes. Unfortunately, most of these models have been developed to explain the reading of English and other alphabetic languages, with relatively fewer efforts to examine whether or not the assumptions of these models also explain what has been learned from other languages and, in particular, non-alphabetic writing systems like Chinese. In this article, we will review those computational models that have been developed (...)
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  161.  17
    Intuitive Probabilities and the Limitation of Moral Imagination.Arseny A. Ryazanov, Jonathan Knutzen, Samuel C. Rickless, Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld & Dana Kay Nelkin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):38-68.
    There is a vast literature that seeks to uncover features underlying moral judgment by eliciting reactions to hypothetical scenarios such as trolley problems. These thought experiments assume that participants accept the outcomes stipulated in the scenarios. Across seven studies, we demonstrate that intuition overrides stipulated outcomes even when participants are explicitly told that an action will result in a particular outcome. Participants instead substitute their own estimates of the probability of outcomes for stipulated outcomes, and these probability estimates in turn (...)
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  162.  18
    Redefining “Learning” in Statistical Learning: What Does an Online Measure Reveal About the Assimilation of Visual Regularities?Noam Siegelman, Louisa Bogaerts, Ofer Kronenfeld & Ram Frost - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):692-727.
    From a theoretical perspective, most discussions of statistical learning have focused on the possible “statistical” properties that are the object of learning. Much less attention has been given to defining what “learning” is in the context of “statistical learning.” One major difficulty is that SL research has been monitoring participants’ performance in laboratory settings with a strikingly narrow set of tasks, where learning is typically assessed offline, through a set of two-alternative-forced-choice questions, which follow a brief visual or auditory familiarization (...)
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  163.  11
    No Harm, Still Foul: Concerns About Reputation Drive Dislike of Harmless Plagiarizers.Ike Silver & Alex Shaw - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):213-240.
    Across a variety of situations, people strongly condemn plagiarizers who steal credit for ideas, even when the theft in question does not appear to harm anyone. Why would people react negatively to relatively harmless acts of plagiarism? In six experiments, we predict and find that these negative reactions are driven by people's aversion toward agents who attempt to falsely improve their reputations. In Studies 1–3, participants condemn plagiarism cases that they agree are harmless. This effect is mediated by the extent (...)
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  164.  3
    A Self‐Organizing Approach to Subject–Verb Number Agreement.Garrett Smith, Julie Franck & Whitney Tabor - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1043-1074.
    We present a self-organizing approach to sentence processing that sheds new light on notional plurality effects in agreement attraction, using pseudopartitive subject noun phrases. We first show that notional plurality ratings predict verb agreement choices in pseudopartitives, in line with the “Marking” component of the Marking and Morphing theory of agreement processing. However, no account to date has derived notional plurality values from independently needed principles of language processing. We argue on the basis of new experimental evidence and a dynamical (...)
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  165.  8
    The Role of Design and Training in Artifact Expertise: The Case of the Abacus and Visual Attention.Mahesh Srinivasan, Katie Wagner, Michael C. Frank & David Barner - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):757-782.
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  166.  6
    Disentangling Effects of Input Frequency and Morphophonological Complexity on Children's Acquisition of Verb Inflection: An Elicited Production Study of Japanese.Tomoko Tatsumi, Ben Ambridge & Julian M. Pine - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):555-577.
    This study aims to disentangle the often-confounded effects of input frequency and morphophonological complexity in the acquisition of inflection, by focusing on simple and complex verb forms in Japanese. Study 1 tested 28 children aged 3;3–4;3 on stative and simple past forms, and Study 2 tested 30 children aged 3;5–5;3 on completive and simple past forms, with both studies using a production priming paradigm. Mixed effects models for children's responses were built to test the prediction that children's verb use is (...)
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  167.  5
    First Direct Evidence of Cue Integration in Reorientation: A New Paradigm.Alexandra D. Twyman, Mark P. Holden & Nora S. Newcombe - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):923-936.
    There are several models of the use of geometric and feature cues in reorientation. The adaptive combination approach posits that people integrate cues with weights that depend on cue salience and learning, or, when discrepancies are large, they choose between cues based on these variables. In a new paradigm designed to evaluate integration and choice, disoriented participants attempted to return to a heading direction, in a trapezoidal enclosure in which feature and geometric cues both unambiguously specified a heading, but later (...)
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  168.  4
    Evaluating the Theoretic Adequacy and Applied Potential of Computational Models of the Spacing Effect.Matthew M. Walsh, Kevin A. Gluck, Glenn Gunzelmann, Tiffany Jastrzembski & Michael Krusmark - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):644-691.
    The spacing effect is among the most widely replicated empirical phenomena in the learning sciences, and its relevance to education and training is readily apparent. Yet successful applications of spacing effect research to education and training is rare. Computational modeling can provide the crucial link between a century of accumulated experimental data on the spacing effect and the emerging interest in using that research to enable adaptive instruction. In this paper, we review relevant literature and identify 10 criteria for rigorously (...)
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  169.  3
    Effects of Early Cues on the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for Experience‐Based Theories.Fuyun Wu, Elsi Kaiser & Shravan Vasishth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1101-1133.
    We used Chinese prenominal relative clauses to test the predictions of two competing accounts of sentence comprehension difficulty: the experience-based account of Levy () and the Dependency Locality Theory. Given that in Chinese RCs, a classifier and/or a passive marker BEI can be added to the sentence-initial position, we manipulated the presence/absence of classifiers and the presence/absence of BEI, such that BEI sentences were passivized subject-extracted RCs, and no-BEI sentences were standard object-extracted RCs. We conducted two self-paced reading experiments, using (...)
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  170.  10
    Context Effects and Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese: An Eye‐Tracking Study.Michael C. W. Yip & Mingjun Zhai - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1134-1153.
    This study examined the time-course of context effects on spoken word recognition during Chinese sentence processing. We recruited 60 native Mandarin listeners to participate in an eye-tracking experiment. In this eye-tracking experiment, listeners were told to listen to a sentence carefully, which ended with a Chinese homophone, and look at different visual probes presented concurrently on the computer screen naturally. Different types of context and probe types were manipulated in the experiment. The results showed that preceding sentence context had an (...)
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  171.  6
    Effects of 30 Years of Disuse on Exceptional Memory Performance.Jong‐Sung Yoon, K. Anders Ericsson & Dario Donatelli - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):884-903.
    In the mid-1980s, Dario Donatelli participated in a laboratory study of the effects of around 800 h of practice on digit-span and increased his digit-span from 8 to 104 digits. This study assessed changes in the structure of his memory skill after around 30 years of essentially no practice on the digit-span task. On the first day of testing, his estimated span was only 10 digits, but over the following 3 days of testing it increased to 19 digits. Further analyses (...)
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  172.  3
    Bayesian Word Learning in Multiple Language Environments.Benjamin D. Zinszer, Sebi V. Rolotti, Fan Li & Ping Li - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):439-462.
    Infant language learners are faced with the difficult inductive problem of determining how new words map to novel or known objects in their environment. Bayesian inference models have been successful at using the sparse information available in natural child-directed speech to build candidate lexicons and infer speakers’ referential intentions. We begin by asking how a Bayesian model optimized for monolingual input generalizes to new monolingual or bilingual corpora and find that, especially in the case of the bilingual input, the model (...)
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  173.  2
    Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross-Situational Statistics.Chen Chi-Hsin, Zhang Yayun & Yu Chen - 2018 - Cognitive Science:591-605.
    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels. This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual (...)
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  174.  7
    Grounding by Attention Simulation in Peripersonal Space: Pupils Dilate to Pinch Grip But Not Big Size Nominal Classifier.Marit Lobben & Agata Bochynska - 2018 - Cognitive Science:1-24.
    Grammatical categories represent implicit knowledge, and it is not known if such abstract linguistic knowledge can be continuously grounded in real-life experiences, nor is it known what types of mental states can be simulated. A former study showed that attention bias in peripersonal space affects reaction times in grammatical congruency judgments of nominal classifiers, suggesting that simulated semantics may include reenactment of attention. In this study, we contrasted a Chinese nominal classifier used with nouns denoting pinch grip objects with a (...)
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