Year:

  1.  4
    Information‐Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah & Marcus Pearce - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners’ memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard (...)
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  2.  3
    Information‐Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah & Marcus Pearce - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners’ memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard (...)
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  3.  3
    Anthropocentric by Default? Attribution of Familiar and Novel Properties to Living Things.Melanie Arenson & John D. Coley - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Humans naturally and effortlessly use a set of cognitive tools to reason about biological entities and phenomena. Two such tools, essentialist thinking and teleological thinking, appear to be early developmental cognitive defaults, used extensively in childhood and under limited circumstances in adulthood, but prone to reemerge under time pressure or cognitive load. We examine the nature of another such tool: anthropocentric thinking. In four experiments, we examined patterns of property attribution to a wide range of living and non-living objects, manipulating (...)
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  4. Transitivity, Space, and Hand: The Spatial Grounding of Syntax.Timothy W. Boiteau & Amit Almor - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):848-891.
    Previous research has linked the concept of number and other ordinal series to space via a spatially oriented mental number line. In addition, it has been shown that in visual scene recognition and production, speakers of a language with a left-to-right orthography respond faster to and tend to draw images in which the agent of an action is located to the left of the patient. In this study, we aim to bridge these two lines of research by employing a novel (...)
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  5.  5
    The Cultural Evolution of Structured Languages in an Open‐Ended, Continuous World.W. Carr Jon, Smith Kenny, Cornish Hannah & Kirby Simon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):892-923.
    Language maps signals onto meanings through the use of two distinct types of structure. First, the space of meanings is discretized into categories that are shared by all users of the language. Second, the signals employed by the language are compositional: The meaning of the whole is a function of its parts and the way in which those parts are combined. In three iterated learning experiments using a vast, continuous, open-ended meaning space, we explore the conditions under which both structured (...)
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  6.  57
    Consistent Belief in a Good True Self in Misanthropes and Three Interdependent Cultures.Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco & Joshua Knobe - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this (...)
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  7.  1
    Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions.Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally inverse (...)
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  8.  1
    Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions.Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally inverse (...)
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  9.  2
    A Multi‐Factor Account of Degrees of Awareness.Peter Fazekas & Morten Overgaard - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    In this paper we argue that awareness comes in degrees, and we propose a novel multi-factor account that spans both subjective experiences and perceptual representations. At the subjective level, we argue that conscious experiences can be degraded by being fragmented, less salient, too generic, or flash-like. At the representational level, we identify corresponding features of perceptual representations—their availability for working memory, intensity, precision, and stability—and argue that the mechanisms that affect these features are what ultimately modulate the degree of awareness. (...)
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  10.  7
    The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity.Fisher Matthew, Knobe Joshua, Strickland Brent & C. Keil Frank - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1119-1134.
    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research (...)
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  11. An Actor's Knowledge and Intent Are More Important in Evaluating Moral Transgressions Than Conventional Transgressions.Carly Giffin & Tania Lombrozo - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    An actor's mental states—whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions—typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to (...)
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  12. Modeling Lag‐2 Revisits to Understand Trade‐Offs in Mixed Control of Fixation Termination During Visual Search.J. Godwin Hayward, D. Reichle Erik & Menneer Tamaryn - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):996-1019.
    An important question about eye-movement behavior is when the decision is made to terminate a fixation and program the following saccade. Different approaches have found converging evidence in favor of a mixed-control account, in which there is some overlap between processing information at fixation and planning the following saccade. We examined one interesting instance of mixed control in visual search: lag-2 revisits, during which observers fixate a stimulus, move to a different stimulus, and then revisit the first stimulus on the (...)
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  13. Social Media and Language Processing: How Facebook and Twitter Provide the Best Frequency Estimates for Studying Word Recognition.Herdağdelen Amaç & Marelli Marco - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):976-995.
    Corpus-based word frequencies are one of the most important predictors in language processing tasks. Frequencies based on conversational corpora are shown to better capture the variance in lexical decision tasks compared to traditional corpora. In this study, we show that frequencies computed from social media are currently the best frequency-based estimators of lexical decision reaction times. The results are robust and are still substantial when we control for corpus size.
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  14. Categorical Perception Beyond the Basic Level: The Case of Warm and Cool Colors.J. Holmes Kevin & Regier Terry - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1135-1147.
    Categories can affect our perception of the world, rendering between-category differences more salient than within-category ones. Across many studies, such categorical perception has been observed for the basic-level categories of one's native language. Other research points to categorical distinctions beyond the basic level, but it does not demonstrate CP for such distinctions. Here we provide such a demonstration. Specifically, we show CP in English speakers for the non-basic distinction between “warm” and “cool” colors, claimed to represent the earliest stage of (...)
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  15. Naïve and Robust: Class‐Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning.B. Jarecki Jana, Meder Björn & D. Nelson Jonathan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, (...)
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  16.  2
    Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.Kusev Petko, Schaik Paul, Tsaneva‐Atanasova Krasimira, Juliusson Asgeir & Chater Nick - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping. Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially, or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously, not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation (...)
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  17.  1
    The Semantic Drift of Quotations in Blogspace: A Case Study in Short‐Term Cultural Evolution.Sébastien Lerique & Camille Roth - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of (...)
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  18.  1
    Relative Difficulty of Understanding Foreign Accents as a Marker of Proficiency.Lev-Ari Shiri, van Heugten Marieke & Peperkamp Sharon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1106-1118.
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  19. Relative Difficulty of Understanding Foreign Accents as a Marker of Proficiency.Lev‐Ari Shiri, Heugten Marieke & Peperkamp Sharon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1106-1118.
    Foreign-accented speech is generally harder to understand than native-accented speech. This difficulty is reduced for non-native listeners who share their first language with the non-native speaker. It is currently unclear, however, how non-native listeners deal with foreign-accented speech produced by speakers of a different language. We show that the process of language acquisition is associated with an increase in the relative difficulty of processing foreign-accented speech. Therefore, experiencing greater relative difficulty with foreign-accented speech compared with native speech is a marker (...)
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  20.  1
    Further Tests of a Dynamic‐Adjustment Account of Saccade Targeting During the Reading of Chinese.Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Dingguo Gao & Erik D. Reichle - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    There are two accounts of how readers of unspaced writing systems know where to move their eyes: saccades are directed toward default targets ; or saccade lengths are adjusted dynamically, as a function of ongoing parafoveal processing. This article reports an eye-movement experiment supporting the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that the slope of the relationship between the saccade launch site on word N and the subsequent fixation landing site on word N + 1 is > 1, suggesting that saccades are (...)
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  21.  1
    Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.Moscoso del Prado Martín Fermín - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):950-975.
    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure, and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases (...)
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  22. Blind Speakers Show Language‐Specific Patterns in Co‐Speech Gesture but Not Silent Gesture.Şeyda Özçalışkan, Ché Lucero & Susan Goldin‐Meadow - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech, not without speech. We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish to 80 sighted adult speakers as they described three-dimensional (...)
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  23. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.K. Perry Lynn & R. Saffran Jenny - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1090-1105.
    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored ; on other trials, colors were switched. On each trial, toddlers were directed to find (...)
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  24.  1
    Distinctiveness Benefits Novelty , but Only Up to a Limit: The Prior Knowledge Perspective.Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni & Anat Maril - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare. (...)
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  25. Non‐Arbitrariness in Mapping Word Form to Meaning: Cross‐Linguistic Formal Markers of Word Concreteness.Jamie Reilly, Jinyi Hung & Chris Westbury - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1071-1089.
    Arbitrary symbolism is a linguistic doctrine that predicts an orthogonal relationship between word forms and their corresponding meanings. Recent corpora analyses have demonstrated violations of arbitrary symbolism with respect to concreteness, a variable characterizing the sensorimotor salience of a word. In addition to qualitative semantic differences, abstract and concrete words are also marked by distinct morphophonological structures such as length and morphological complexity. Native English speakers show sensitivity to these markers in tasks such as auditory word recognition and naming. One (...)
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  26.  2
    Dealing with Big Numbers: Representation and Understanding of Magnitudes Outside of Human Experience.Resnick Ilyse, S. Newcombe Nora & F. Shipley Thomas - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1020-1041.
    Being able to estimate quantity is important in everyday life and for success in the STEM disciplines. However, people have difficulty reasoning about magnitudes outside of human perception. This study examines patterns of estimation errors across temporal and spatial magnitudes at large scales. We evaluated the effectiveness of hierarchical alignment in improving estimations, and transfer across dimensions. The activity was successful in increasing accuracy for temporal and spatial magnitudes, and learning transferred to the estimation of numeric magnitudes associated with events (...)
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  27.  2
    Forgetting of Foreign‐Language Skills: A Corpus‐Based Analysis of Online Tutoring Software.Ridgeway Karl, C. Mozer Michael & R. Bowles Anita - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):924-949.
    We explore the nature of forgetting in a corpus of 125,000 students learning Spanish using the Rosetta Stone® foreign-language instruction software across 48 lessons. Students are tested on a lesson after its initial study and are then retested after a variable time lag. We observe forgetting consistent with power function decay at a rate that varies across lessons but not across students. We find that lessons which are better learned initially are forgotten more slowly, a correlation which likely reflects a (...)
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  28.  1
    Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production: A Reply to MacDonald, Montag, and Gennari.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker & Evelina Fedorenko - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    In our article, “Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production”, we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local syntactic dependency. MacDonald et al. () have argued that the results of our investigation provide little new information on the topic. We disagree. Examining the production of subject versus object extractions in two constructions across two experimental paradigms—relative clauses in Experiment 1 and wh-questions in Experiment (...)
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  29.  3
    No Harm, Still Foul: Concerns About Reputation Drive Dislike of Harmless Plagiarizers.Ike Silver & Alex Shaw - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Across a variety of situations, people strongly condemn plagiarizers who steal credit for ideas, even when the theft in question does not appear to harm anyone. Why would people react negatively to relatively harmless acts of plagiarism? In six experiments, we predict and find that these negative reactions are driven by people's aversion toward agents who attempt to falsely improve their reputations. In Studies 1–3, participants condemn plagiarism cases that they agree are harmless. This effect is mediated by the extent (...)
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  30. Arranging Objects in Space: Measuring Task‐Relevant Organizational Behaviors During Goal Pursuit.J. F. Solman Grayden & Kingstone Alan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1042-1070.
    Human behavior unfolds primarily in built environments, where the arrangement of objects is a result of ongoing human decisions and actions, yet these organizational decisions have received limited experimental study. In two experiments, we introduce a novel paradigm designed to explore how individuals organize task-relevant objects in space. Participants completed goals by locating and accessing sequences of objects in a computer-based task, and they were free to rearrange the positions of objects at any time. We measure a variety of organization (...)
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  31.  2
    A New Measure of Hallucinatory States and a Discussion of REM Sleep Dreaming as a Virtual Laboratory for the Rehearsal of Embodied Cognition.Clemens Speth & Jana Speth - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory (...)
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  32.  1
    A Biologically Plausible Action Selection System for Cognitive Architectures: Implications of Basal Ganglia Anatomy for Learning and Decision‐Making Models.Andrea Stocco - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia—the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as (...)
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  33.  3
    The Interactive Origin of Iconicity.Tamariz Mónica, G. Roberts Seán, Martínez J. Isidro & Santiago Julio - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend (...)
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  34.  3
    Maternal Socioeconomic Status Influences the Range of Expectations During Language Comprehension in Adulthood.Melissa Troyer & Arielle Borovsky - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When sentences ended in highly plausible, expected target nouns, higher SES was associated with a greater likelihood of considering alternative endings related to the action of the sentence. Moreover, for unexpected sentence endings, individuals from higher SES (...)
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  35.  12
    Cultural Differences in Visual Search for Geometric Figures.Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S. Cramer, Ronald A. Rensink, David E. Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama & Jun Saiki - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice (...)
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  36.  2
    Functional Equivalence of Sleep Loss and Time on Task Effects in Sustained Attention.Bella Z. Veksler & Glenn Gunzelmann - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Research on sleep loss and vigilance both focus on declines in cognitive performance, but theoretical accounts have developed largely in parallel in these two areas. In addition, computational instantiations of theoretical accounts are rare. The current work uses computational modeling to explore whether the same mechanisms can account for the effects of both sleep loss and time on task on performance. A classic task used in the sleep deprivation literature, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test, was extended from the typical 10-min duration (...)
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  37.  1
    What Am I Looking At? Interpreting Dynamic and Static Gaze Displays.Margot Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield & Tamara Gog - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their (...)
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  38.  2
    Sensitivity to Shared Information in Social Learning.Whalen Andrew, L. Griffiths Thomas & Buchsbaum Daphna - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Social learning has been shown to be an evolutionarily adaptive strategy, but it can be implemented via many different cognitive mechanisms. The adaptive advantage of social learning depends crucially on the ability of each learner to obtain relevant and accurate information from informants. The source of informants’ knowledge is a particularly important cue for evaluating advice from multiple informants; if the informants share the source of their information or have obtained their information from each other, then their testimony is statistically (...)
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  39.  1
    Problem‐Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.J. Wiltshire Travis, E. Butner Jonathan & M. Fiore Stephen - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. (...)
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  40.  4
    Is the Lateralized Categorical Perception of Color a Situational Effect of Language on Color Perception?Weifang Zhong, You Li, Yulan Huang, He Li & Lei Mo - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4).
    This study investigated whether and how a person's varied series of lexical categories corresponding to different discriminatory characteristics of the same colors affect his or her perception of colors. In three experiments, Chinese participants were primed to categorize four graduated colors—specifically dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue—into green and blue; light color and dark color; and dark green, light green, light blue, and dark blue. The participants were then required to complete a visual search task. Reaction times (...)
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  41.  1
    Conditionals, Context, and the Suppression Effect.Fabrizio Cariani & Lance J. Rips - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):540-589.
    Modus ponens is the argument from premises of the form If A, then B and A to the conclusion B. Nearly all participants agree that the modus ponens conclusion logically follows when the argument appears in this Basic form. However, adding a further premise can lower participants’ rate of agreement—an effect called suppression. We propose a theory of suppression that draws on contemporary ideas about conditional sentences in linguistics and philosophy. Semantically, the theory assumes that people interpret an indicative conditional (...)
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  42.  1
    Uphill and Downhill in a Flat World: The Conceptual Topography of the Yupno House.Kensy Cooperrider, James Slotta & Rafael Núñez - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):768-799.
    Speakers of many languages around the world rely on body-based contrasts for spatial communication and cognition. Speakers of Yupno, a language of Papua New Guinea's mountainous interior, rely instead on an environment-based uphill/downhill contrast. Body-based contrasts are as easy to use indoors as outdoors, but environment-based contrasts may not be. Do Yupno speakers still use uphill/downhill contrasts indoors and, if so, how? We report three studies on spatial communication within the Yupno house. Even in this flat world, uphill/downhill contrasts are (...)
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  43.  11
    Measuring Graded Membership: The Case of Color.Igor Douven, Sylvia Wenmackers, Yasmina Jraissati & Lieven Decock - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):686-722.
    This paper considers Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership within a conceptual spaces framework and puts the account to the test in the domain of colors. Three experiments are reported that are meant to determine, on the one hand, the regions in color space where the typical instances of blue and green are located and, on the other hand, the degrees of blueness/greenness of various shades in the blue–green region as judged by human observers. From the locations of the (...)
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  44.  1
    Information-Theoretic Measures Predict the Human Judgment of Rhythm Complexity.Remi Fleurian, Tim Blackwell, Oded Ben‐Tal & Daniel Müllensiefen - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):800-813.
    To formalize the human judgment of rhythm complexity, we used five measures from information theory and algorithmic complexity to measure the complexity of 48 artificially generated rhythmic sequences. We compared these measurements to human prediction accuracy and easiness judgments obtained from a listening experiment, in which 32 participants guessed the last beat of each sequence. We also investigated the modulating effects of musical expertise and general pattern identification ability. Entropy rate and Kolmogorov complexity were correlated with prediction accuracy, and highly (...)
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  45.  1
    The Role of Moral Beliefs, Memories, and Preferences in Representations of Identity.Larisa Heiphetz, Nina Strohminger & Liane L. Young - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):744-767.
    People perceive that if their memories and moral beliefs changed, they would change. We investigated why individuals respond this way. In Study 1, participants judged that identity would change more after changes to memories and widely shared moral beliefs versus preferences and controversial moral beliefs. The extent to which participants judged that changes would affect their relationships predicted identity change and mediated the relationship between type of moral belief and perceived identity change. We discuss the role that social relationships play (...)
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  46.  4
    A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency and Context Effects in Word Learning.Kachergis George, Yu Chen & M. Shiffrin Richard - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):590-622.
    Prior research has shown that people can learn many nouns from a short series of ambiguous situations containing multiple words and objects. For successful cross-situational learning, people must approximately track which words and referents co-occur most frequently. This study investigates the effects of allowing some word-referent pairs to appear more frequently than others, as is true in real-world learning environments. Surprisingly, high-frequency pairs are not always learned better, but can also boost learning of other pairs. Using a recent associative model, (...)
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  47.  1
    Does Making Something Move Matter? Representations of Goals and Sources in Motion Events With Causal Sources.Laura Lakusta, Paul Muentener, Lauren Petrillo, Noelle Mullanaphy & Lauren Muniz - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):814-826.
    Previous studies have shown a robust bias to express the goal path over the source path when describing events. Motivated by linguistic theory, this study manipulated the causal structure of events and measured the extent to which adults and 3.5- to 4-year-old English-speaking children included the goal and source in their descriptions. We found that both children's and adults’ encoding of the source increased for events in which the source caused the motion of the figure compared to nearly identical events (...)
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  48.  2
    “Because It's Hers”: When Preschoolers Use Ownership in Their Explanations.Shaylene E. Nancekivell & Ori Friedman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):827-843.
    Young children show competence in reasoning about how ownership affects object use. In the present experiments, we investigate how influential ownership is for young children by examining their explanations. In three experiments, we asked 3- to 5-year-olds to explain why it was acceptable or unacceptable for a person to use an object. In Experiments 1 and 2, older preschoolers referenced ownership more than alternative considerations when explaining why it was acceptable or unacceptable for a person to use an object, even (...)
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  49.  1
    Abstract Conceptual Feature Ratings Predict Gaze Within Written Word Arrays: Evidence From a Visual Word Paradigm.Silvia Primativo, Jamie Reilly & Sebastian J. Crutch - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):659-685.
    TheConceptual Feature framework predicts that word meaning is represented within a high-dimensional semantic space bounded by weighted contributions of perceptual, affective, and encyclopedic information. The ACF, like latent semantic analysis, is amenable to distance metrics between any two words. We applied predictions of the ACF framework to abstract words using eyetracking via an adaptation of the classical “visual word paradigm”. Healthy adults selected the lexical item most related to a probe word in a 4-item written word array comprising the target (...)
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  50.  4
    A Priori True and False Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & Philip N. Johnson‐Laird - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):1003-1030.
    The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their (...)
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  51.  1
    Auditory Verbal Experience and Agency in Waking, Sleep Onset, REM, and Non-REM Sleep.Speth Jana, A. Harley Trevor & Speth Clemens - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):723-743.
    We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences and auditory verbal agency voices or characters”) in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants’ implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences and auditory verbal agencies, displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap (...)
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  52.  1
    Minimal Requirements for the Emergence of Learned Signaling.Matthew Spike, Kevin Stadler, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):623-658.
    The emergence of signaling systems has been observed in numerous experimental and real-world contexts, but there is no consensus on which shared mechanisms underlie such phenomena. A number of explanatory mechanisms have been proposed within several disciplines, all of which have been instantiated as credible working models. However, they are usually framed as being mutually incompatible. Using an exemplar-based framework, we replicate these models in a minimal configuration which allows us to directly compare them. This reveals that the development of (...)
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  53.  3
    Metaphorical Accounting: How Framing the Federal Budget Like a Household's Affects Voting Intentions.Paul H. Thibodeau & Stephen J. Flusberg - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):1168-1182.
    Political discourse is saturated with metaphor, but evidence for the persuasive power of this language has been hard to come by. We addressed this issue by investigating whether voting intentions were affected by implicit mappings suggested by a metaphorically framed message, drawing on a real-world example of political rhetoric about the federal budget. In the first experiment, the federal budget was framed as similar to or different from a household budget, though the information participants received was identical in both conditions. (...)
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  54.  4
    Experimental Philosophy of Explanation Rising: The Case for a Plurality of Concepts of Explanation.Matteo Colombo - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):503-517.
    This paper brings together results from the philosophy and the psychology of explanation to argue that there are multiple concepts of explanation in human psychology. Specifically, it is shown that pluralism about explanation coheres with the multiplicity of models of explanation available in the philosophy of science, and it is supported by evidence from the psychology of explanatory judgment. Focusing on the case of a norm of explanatory power, the paper concludes by responding to the worry that if there is (...)
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  55.  1
    Hand Gesture and Mathematics Learning: Lessons From an Avatar.Susan Wagner Cook, Howard S. Friedman, Katherine A. Duggan, Jian Cui & Voicu Popescu - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):518-535.
    A beneficial effect of gesture on learning has been demonstrated in multiple domains, including mathematics, science, and foreign language vocabulary. However, because gesture is known to co-vary with other non-verbal behaviors, including eye gaze and prosody along with face, lip, and body movements, it is possible the beneficial effect of gesture is instead attributable to these other behaviors. We used a computer-generated animated pedagogical agent to control both verbal and non-verbal behavior. Children viewed lessons on mathematical equivalence in which an (...)
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  56.  2
    Introduction to the Special Issue Honoring the 2014 David E. Rumelhart Prize Recipient, Ray Jackendoff.Peter W. Culicover - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2).
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  57.  2
    Ownership Dilemmas: The Case of Finders Versus Landowners.Peter DeScioli, Rachel Karpoff & Julian De Freitas - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2).
    People sometimes disagree about who owns which objects, and these ownership dilemmas can lead to costly disputes. We investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying people's judgments about finder versus landowner cases, in which a person finds an object on someone else's land. We test psychological hypotheses motivated directly by three major principles that govern these cases in the law. The results show that people are more likely to favor the finder when the object is in a public space compared to a (...)
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  58.  1
    The Role of Lexical Frequency in the Acceptability of Syntactic Variants: Evidence From That‐Clauses in Polish.Dagmar Divjak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):354-382.
    A number of studies report that frequency is a poor predictor of acceptability, in particular at the lower end of the frequency spectrum. Because acceptability judgments provide a substantial part of the empirical foundation of dominant linguistic traditions, understanding how acceptability relates to frequency, one of the most robust predictors of human performance, is crucial. The relation between low frequency and acceptability is investigated using corpus- and behavioral data on the distribution of infinitival and finite that-complements in Polish. Polish verbs (...)
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  59.  2
    Balancing Effort and Information Transmission During Language Acquisition: Evidence From Word Order and Case Marking.Maryia Fedzechkina, Elissa L. Newport & T. Florian Jaeger - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):416-446.
    Across languages of the world, some grammatical patterns have been argued to be more common than expected by chance. These are sometimes referred to as language universals. One such universal is the correlation between constituent order freedom and the presence of a case system in a language. Here, we explore whether this correlation can be explained by a bias to balance production effort and informativity of cues to grammatical function. Two groups of learners were presented with miniature artificial languages containing (...)
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  60.  2
    Learning the Structure of Social Influence.Samuel J. Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy & Hyowon Gweon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2).
    We routinely observe others’ choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals, such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities (...)
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  61.  1
    Perceptual Learning of Intonation Contour Categories in Adults and 9‐ to 11‐Year‐Old Children: Adults Are More Narrow‐Minded. [REVIEW]Vsevolod Kapatsinski, Paul Olejarczuk & Melissa A. Redford - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):383-415.
    We report on rapid perceptual learning of intonation contour categories in adults and 9- to 11-year-old children. Intonation contours are temporally extended patterns, whose perception requires temporal integration and therefore poses significant working memory challenges. Both children and adults form relatively abstract representations of intonation contours: Previously encountered and novel exemplars are categorized together equally often, as long as distance from the prototype is controlled. However, age-related differences in categorization performance also exist. Given the same experience, adults form narrower categories (...)
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  62.  7
    Categories of Large Numbers in Line Estimation.Landy David, Charlesworth Arthur & Ottmar Erin - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):326-353.
    How do people stretch their understanding of magnitude from the experiential range to the very large quantities and ranges important in science, geopolitics, and mathematics? This paper empirically evaluates how and whether people make use of numerical categories when estimating relative magnitudes of numbers across many orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that people use scale words—thousand, million, billion—to carve the large number line into categories, stretching linear responses across items within each category. If so, discontinuities in position and response time (...)
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  63.  5
    Effects of Manipulation on Attributions of Causation, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility.Dylan Murray & Tania Lombrozo - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):447-481.
    If someone brings about an outcome without intending to, is she causally and morally responsible for it? What if she acts intentionally, but as the result of manipulation by another agent? Previous research has shown that an agent's mental states can affect attributions of causal and moral responsibility to that agent, but little is known about what effect one agent's mental states can have on attributions to another agent. In Experiment 1, we replicate findings that manipulation lowers attributions of responsibility (...)
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  64.  4
    Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.David Rose, Wesley Buckwalter & Shaun Nichols - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):482-502.
    How might advanced neuroscience—in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible—interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free (...)
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  65.  2
    Mechanisms of Reference Frame Selection in Spatial Term Use: Computational and Empirical Studies.Holger Schultheis & Laura A. Carlson - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (2):276-325.
    Previous studies have shown that multiple reference frames are available and compete for selection during the use of spatial terms such as “above.” However, the mechanisms that underlie the selection process are poorly understood. In the current paper we present two experiments and a comparison of three computational models of selection to shed further light on the nature of reference frame selection. The three models are drawn from different areas of human cognition, and we assess whether they may be applied (...)
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  66.  1
    The Power of 2: How an Apparently Irregular Numeration System Facilitates Mental Arithmetic.Andrea Bender & Sieghard Beller - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):158-187.
    Mangarevan traditionally contained two numeration systems: a general one, which was highly regular, decimal, and extraordinarily extensive; and a specific one, which was restricted to specific objects, based on diverging counting units, and interspersed with binary steps. While most of these characteristics are shared by numeration systems in related languages in Oceania, the binary steps are unique. To account for these characteristics, this article draws on—and tries to integrate—insights from anthropology, archeology, linguistics, psychology, and cognitive science more generally. The analysis (...)
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  67.  2
    Automatic Mechanisms for Social Attention Are Culturally Penetrable.Adam S. Cohen, Joni Y. Sasaki, Tamsin C. German & Heejung S. Kim - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):242-258.
    Are mechanisms for social attention influenced by culture? Evidence that social attention is triggered automatically by bottom-up gaze cues and is uninfluenced by top-down verbal instructions may suggest it operates in the same way everywhere. Yet considerations from evolutionary and cultural psychology suggest that specific aspects of one's cultural background may have consequence for the way mechanisms for social attention develop and operate. In more interdependent cultures, the scope of social attention may be broader, focusing on more individuals and relations (...)
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  68.  3
    Modeling Statistical Insensitivity: Sources of Suboptimal Behavior.Annie Gagliardi, Naomi H. Feldman & Jeffrey Lidz - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):188-217.
    Children acquiring languages with noun classes have ample statistical information available that characterizes the distribution of nouns into these classes, but their use of this information to classify novel nouns differs from the predictions made by an optimal Bayesian classifier. We use rational analysis to investigate the hypothesis that children are classifying nouns optimally with respect to a distribution that does not match the surface distribution of statistical features in their input. We propose three ways in which children's apparent statistical (...)
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  69.  1
    Phonological Concept Learning.Moreton Elliott, Pater Joe & Pertsova Katya - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):4-69.
    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS, an implementation of the Configural Cue Model in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners (...)
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  70.  3
    Can We Forget What We Know in a False‐Belief Task? An Investigation of the True‐Belief Default.Paula Rubio‐Fernández - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):218-241.
    It has been generally assumed in the Theory of Mind literature of the past 30 years that young children fail standard false-belief tasks because they attribute their own knowledge to the protagonist. Contrary to the traditional view, we have recently proposed that the children's bias is task induced. This alternative view was supported by studies showing that 3 year olds are able to pass a false-belief task that allows them to focus on the protagonist, without drawing their attention to the (...)
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  71.  2
    Language Use and Coalition Formation in Multiparty Negotiations.Eyal Sagi & Daniel Diermeier - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):259-271.
    The alignment of bargaining positions is crucial to a successful negotiation. Prior research has shown that similarity in language use is indicative of the conceptual alignment of interlocutors. We use latent semantic analysis to explore how the similarity of language use between negotiating parties develops over the course of a three-party negotiation. Results show that parties that reach an agreement show a gradual increase in language similarity over the course of the negotiation. Furthermore, reaching the most financially efficient outcome is (...)
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  72.  1
    The P600 in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning.Susana Silva, Vasiliki Folia, Peter Hagoort & Karl Magnus Petersson - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):137-157.
    The suitability of the artificial grammar learning paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features rather than the underlying syntax structure. Therefore, in this study, we controlled for the surface characteristics of the test sequences and recorded the EEG before and after exposure (...)
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  73.  2
    Language Reflects “Core” Cognition: A New Theory About the Origin of Cross‐Linguistic Regularities.Brent Strickland - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):70-101.
    The underlying structures that are common to the world's languages bear an intriguing connection with early emerging forms of “core knowledge”, which are frequently studied by infant researchers. In particular, grammatical systems often incorporate distinctions that reflect those made in core knowledge. Here, I argue that this connection occurs because non-verbal core knowledge systematically biases processes of language evolution. This account potentially explains a wide range of cross-linguistic grammatical phenomena that currently lack an adequate explanation. Second, I suggest that developmental (...)
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  74.  2
    Spicy Adjectives and Nominal Donkeys: Capturing Semantic Deviance Using Compositionality in Distributional Spaces.Eva M. Vecchi, Marco Marelli, Roberto Zamparelli & Marco Baroni - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (1):102-136.
    Sophisticated senator and legislative onion. Whether or not you have ever heard of these things, we all have some intuition that one of them makes much less sense than the other. In this paper, we introduce a large dataset of human judgments about novel adjective-noun phrases. We use these data to test an approach to semantic deviance based on phrase representations derived with compositional distributional semantic methods, that is, methods that derive word meanings from contextual information, and approximate phrase meanings (...)
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  75.  1
    Learning During Processing: Word Learning Doesn't Wait for Word Recognition to Finish.S. Apfelbaum Keith & McMurray Bob - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):706-747.
    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed when, during the course of these dynamic recognition processes, learned representations are formed and updated. If learned representations are formed and updated while recognition is ongoing, the result of learning (...)
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  76.  1
    Preschoolers' Acquisition of Novel Verbs in the Double Object Dative.Sudha Arunachalam - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):831-854.
    Children have difficulty comprehending novel verbs in the double object dative as compared to the prepositional dative. We explored this pattern with 3 and 4 year olds. In Experiment 1, we replicated the documented difficulty with the double object frame, even though we provided more contextual support. In Experiment 2, we tested a novel hypothesis that children would comprehend novel verbs in, and generalize them to, the double object frame if they were first familiarized to the verbs in the prepositional (...)
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  77.  1
    Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases Through Attentional Shifting.Joseph M. Burling & Hanako Yoshida - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):96-119.
    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However, little is known how this learning effect itself emerges among children, whose memory and attention are much more limited compared to adults. Two experiments were conducted using (...)
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  78.  1
    Does Variability Across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?Jane B. Childers, Jae H. Paik, Melissa Flores, Gabrielle Lai & Megan Dolan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):808-830.
    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language. Children in the United States, China, Korea, and Singapore learned verbs linked to simple and complex events. Sets of events included one or three agents, and children were asked (...)
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  79.  2
    Not Only Size Matters: Early‐Talker and Late‐Talker Vocabularies Support Different Word‐Learning Biases in Babies and Networks.Eliana Colunga & Clare E. Sims - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):73-95.
    In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named—they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies. We present a computational model that accounts for the emergence of word-learning biases in children at both ends of the vocabulary spectrum based solely on vocabulary structure. The results of Experiment 1 (...)
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  80.  3
    Does the Body Survive Death? Cultural Variation in Beliefs About Life Everlasting.E. Watson-Jones Rachel, T. A. Busch Justin, L. Harris Paul & H. Legare Cristine - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41.
    Mounting evidence suggests that endorsement of psychological continuity and the afterlife increases with age. This developmental change raises questions about the cognitive biases, social representations, and cultural input that may support afterlife beliefs. To what extent is there similarity versus diversity across cultures in how people reason about what happens after death? The objective of this study was to compare beliefs about the continuation of biological and psychological functions after death in Tanna, Vanuatu, and the United States. Children, adolescents, and (...)
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  81.  2
    Why Are Verbs So Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns.L. Earles Julie & W. Kersten Alan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):780-807.
    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb, whereas changing the verb had little impact on noun recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that verbs exhibited context effects more similar to those shown by superordinate nouns rather (...)
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  82.  2
    Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition.Tomas Engelthaler & Thomas T. Hills - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):120-140.
    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge lengths computed using various distance measures. Feature distinctiveness was computed as a distance measure, showing how far an object in a network is from other objects based on (...)
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  83.  4
    Developmental Changes in Cross‐Situational Word Learning: The Inverse Effect of Initial Accuracy.Stanka A. Fitneva & Morten H. Christiansen - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):141-161.
    Intuitively, the accuracy of initial word-referent mappings should be positively correlated with the outcome of learning. Yet recent evidence suggests an inverse effect of initial accuracy in adults, whereby greater accuracy of initial mappings is associated with poorer outcomes in a cross-situational learning task. Here, we examine the impact of initial accuracy on 4-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults. For half of the participants most word-referent mappings were initially correct and for the other half most mappings were initially incorrect. Initial accuracy was (...)
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  84. One Among Many: Anaphoric One and Its Relationship With Numeral One.Adele E. Goldberg & Laura A. Michaelis - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:233-258.
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  85. Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models.Honda Hidehito, Matsuka Toshihiko & Ueda Kazuhiro - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:1093-1118.
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  86.  1
    When Absence of Evidence Is Evidence of Absence: Rational Inferences From Absent Data.Anne S. Hsu, Andy Horng, Thomas L. Griffiths & Nick Chater - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:1155-1167.
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  87.  1
    Containment and Support: Core and Complexity in Spatial Language Learning.Barbara Landau, Kristen Johannes, Dimitrios Skordos & Anna Papafragou - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):748-779.
    Containment and support have traditionally been assumed to represent universal conceptual foundations for spatial terms. This assumption can be challenged, however: English in and on are applied across a surprisingly broad range of exemplars, and comparable terms in other languages show significant variation in their application. We propose that the broad domains of both containment and support have internal structure that reflects different subtypes, that this structure is reflected in basic spatial term usage across languages, and that it constrains children's (...)
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  88.  6
    Multimodal Word Meaning Induction From Minimal Exposure to Natural Text.Lazaridou Angeliki, Marelli Marco & Baroni Marco - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):677-705.
    By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set (...)
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  89.  1
    Dimension‐Based Statistical Learning Affects Both Speech Perception and Production.Matthew Lehet & Lori L. Holt - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):885-912.
    Multiple acoustic dimensions signal speech categories. However, dimensions vary in their informativeness; some are more diagnostic of category membership than others. Speech categorization reflects these dimensional regularities such that diagnostic dimensions carry more “perceptual weight” and more effectively signal category membership to native listeners. Yet perceptual weights are malleable. When short-term experience deviates from long-term language norms, such as in a foreign accent, the perceptual weight of acoustic dimensions in signaling speech category membership rapidly adjusts. The present study investigated whether (...)
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  90.  1
    Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.Anthony F. Morse & Angelo Cangelosi - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):32-51.
    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to “switch” between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise (...)
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  91. Form and Function in the Evolution of Grammar.Frederick J. Newmeyer - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:259-276.
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  92.  1
    Semantic Coherence Facilitates Distributional Learning.Ouyang Long, Boroditsky Lera & C. Frank Michael - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):855-884.
    Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words’ linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that “postman” and “mailman” are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words. In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, (...)
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  93. Preadolescents Solve Natural Syllogisms Proficiently.Guy Politzer, Christelle Bosc-Miné & Emmanuel Sander - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:1031-1061.
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  94.  3
    Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.E. Potter Christine, Wang Tianlin & R. Saffran Jenny - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):913-927.
    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 (...)
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  95.  2
    Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.E. Potter Christine, Wang Tianlin & R. Saffran Jenny - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):913-927.
    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 (...)
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  96.  1
    Going Beyond Input Quantity: Wh‐Questions Matter for Toddlers' Language and Cognitive Development.Meredith L. Rowe, Kathryn A. Leech & Natasha Cabrera - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):162-179.
    There are clear associations between the overall quantity of input children are exposed to and their vocabulary acquisition. However, by uncovering specific features of the input that matter, we can better understand the mechanisms involved in vocabulary learning. We examine whether exposure to wh-questions, a challenging quality of the communicative input, is associated with toddlers' vocabulary and later verbal reasoning skills in a sample of low-income, African-American fathers and their 24-month-old children. Dyads were videotaped in free play sessions at home. (...)
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  97.  2
    Moving Word Learning to a Novel Space: A Dynamic Systems View of Referent Selection and Retention.K. Samuelson Larissa, C. Kucker Sarah & P. Spencer John - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):52-72.
    Theories of cognitive development must address both the issue of how children bring their knowledge to bear on behavior in-the-moment, and how knowledge changes over time. We argue that seeking answers to these questions requires an appreciation of the dynamic nature of the developing system in its full, reciprocal complexity. We illustrate this dynamic complexity with results from two lines of research on early word learning. The first demonstrates how the child's active engagement with objects and people supports referent selection (...)
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  98.  1
    Introduction to the Special Issue Honoring the 2013 David E. Rumelhart Prize Recipient Linda B. Smith.Larissa K. Samuelson - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):4-4.
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    Temporal Structure in Emerging Language: From Natural Data to Silent Gesture.Marieke Schouwstra - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):928-940.
    Many human languages have complex grammatical machinery devoted to temporality, but very little is known about how this came about. This paper investigates how people convey temporal information when they cannot use any conventional languages they know. In a laboratory experiment, adult participants were asked to convey information about simple events taking place at a given time, in spoken language and in silent gesture. It was shown that in spoken language, participants formed utterances according to the rules of their native (...)
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  100.  1
    Temporal Structure in Emerging Language: From Natural Data to Silent Gesture.Marieke Schouwstra - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):928-940.
    Many human languages have complex grammatical machinery devoted to temporality, but very little is known about how this came about. This paper investigates how people convey temporal information when they cannot use any conventional languages they know. In a laboratory experiment, adult participants were asked to convey information about simple events taking place at a given time, in spoken language and in silent gesture. It was shown that in spoken language, participants formed utterances according to the rules of their native (...)
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  101.  1
    The Pursuit of Word Meanings.Stevens Jon Scott, R. Gleitman Lila, C. Trueswell John & Yang Charles - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):638-676.
    We evaluate here the performance of four models of cross-situational word learning: two global models, which extract and retain multiple referential alternatives from each word occurrence; and two local models, which extract just a single referent from each occurrence. One of these local models, dubbed Pursuit, uses an associative learning mechanism to estimate word-referent probability but pursues and tests the best referent-meaning at any given time. Pursuit is found to perform as well as global models under many conditions extracted from (...)
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  102.  3
    Processing Conversational Implicatures: Alternatives and Counterfactual Reasoning.Bob van Tiel & Walter Schaeken - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41:1119-1154.
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  103.  3
    Multiple Sensory‐Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention.Chen Yu & Linda B. Smith - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):5-31.
    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that may underlie the establishment of joint attention between parents and toddlers. In an experimental task, parents and toddlers played together with multiple toys. We objectively measured joint attention—and the sensory-motor behaviors that (...)
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