70 found

Year:

  1.  7
    Helen A'Loy and Other Tales of Female Automata: A Gendered Reading of the Narratives of Hopes and Fears of Intelligent Machines and Artificial Intelligence.Rachel Adams - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):569-579.
    The imaginative context in which artificial intelligence is embedded remains a crucial touchstone from which to understand and critique both the histories and prospective futures of an AI-driven world. A recent article from Cave and Dihal sets out a narrative schema of four hopes and four corresponding fears associated with intelligent machines and AI. This article seeks to respond to the work of Cave and Dihal by presenting a gendered reading of this schema of hopes and fears. I offer a (...)
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  2.  33
    In AI We Trust? Perceptions About Automated Decision-Making by Artificial Intelligence.Theo Araujo, Natali Helberger, Sanne Kruikemeier & Claes H. De Vreese - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):611-623.
    Fueled by ever-growing amounts of data and advances in artificial intelligence, decision-making in contemporary societies is increasingly delegated to automated processes. Drawing from social science theories and from the emerging body of research about algorithmic appreciation and algorithmic perceptions, the current study explores the extent to which personal characteristics can be linked to perceptions of automated decision-making by AI, and the boundary conditions of these perceptions, namely the extent to which such perceptions differ across media, health, and judicial contexts. Data (...)
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  3.  29
    Technoperformances: Using Metaphors From the Performance Arts for a Postphenomenology and Posthermeneutics of Technology Use.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):557-568.
    Postphenomenology and posthermeneutics as initiated by Ihde have made important contributions to conceptualizing understanding human–technology relations. However, their focus on individual perception, artifacts, and static embodiment has its limitations when it comes to understanding the embodied use of technology as involving bodily movement, social, and taking place within, and configuring, a temporal horizon. To account for these dimensions of experience, action, and existence with technology, this paper proposes to use a conceptual framework based on performance metaphors. Drawing on metaphors from (...)
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  4.  8
    Hand rehabilitation assessment system using leap motion controller.Miri Weiss Cohen & Daniele Regazzoni - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):581-594.
    This paper presents an approach for monitoring exercises of hand rehabilitation for post stroke patients. The developed solution uses a leap motion controller as hand-tracking device and embeds a supervised machine learning. The K-nearest neighbor methodology is adopted for automatically characterizing the physiotherapist or helper hand movement resulting a unique movement pattern that constitutes the basis of the rehabilitation process. In the second stage, an evaluation of the patients rehabilitation exercises results is compared to the movement pattern of the patient (...)
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  5.  11
    On social machines for algorithmic regulation.Nello Cristianini & Teresa Scantamburlo - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):645-662.
    Autonomous mechanisms have been proposed to regulate certain aspects of society and are already being used to regulate business organisations. We take seriously recent proposals for algorithmic regulation of society, and we identify the existing technologies that can be used to implement them, most of them originally introduced in business contexts. We build on the notion of ‘social machine’ and we connect it to various ongoing trends and ideas, including crowdsourced task-work, social compiler, mechanism design, reputation management systems, and social (...)
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  6.  11
    Artificial Intelligence Assistants and Risk: Framing a Connectivity Risk Narrative.Martin Cunneen, Martin Mullins & Finbarr Murphy - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):625-634.
  7.  17
    Anthropomorphizing AlphaGo: A Content Analysis of the Framing of Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo in the Chinese and American Press.Nathaniel Ming Curran, Jingyi Sun & Joo-Wha Hong - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):727-735.
    This article conducts a mixed-method content analysis of Chinese and American news media coverage of Google DeepMind’s Go playing computer program, AlphaGo. Drawing on humanistic approaches to artificial intelligence, combined with an empirically rigorous content analysis, it examines the differences and overlap in coverage by the Chinese and American press in their accounts of AlphaGo, and its historic match with Korea’s Lee Sedol in March, 2016. The event was not only followed intensely in China, but also made the front page (...)
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  8.  9
    Automation for the artisanal economy: enhancing the economic and environmental sustainability of crafting professions with human–machine collaboration.Ron Eglash, Lionel Robert, Audrey Bennett, Kwame Porter Robinson, Michael Lachney & William Babbitt - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):595-609.
    Artificial intelligence is poised to eliminate millions of jobs, from finance to truck driving. But artisanal products are valued precisely because of their human origins, and thus have some inherent “immunity” from AI job loss. At the same time, artisanal labor, combined with technology, could potentially help to democratize the economy, allowing independent, small-scale businesses to flourish. Could AI, robotics and related automation technologies enhance the economic viability and environmental sustainability of these beloved crafting professions, perhaps even expanding their niche (...)
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  9.  8
    Sabanci University launches Industrial PhD programme in Action Research.Richard Ennals - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):773-773.
  10.  17
    Smith, Brian Cantwell (2019). The Promise of Artificial Intelligence: Reckoning and Judgment. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. ISBN 9780262043045. [REVIEW]Karamjit S. Gill - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):769-770.
  11.  20
    Pearl, Judea and Mackenzie, Dana: The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect.Karamjit S. Gill - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):767-768.
  12.  5
    Prediction Paradigm: The Human Price of Instrumentalism.Karamjit S. Gill - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):509-517.
  13.  5
    Community Protocols for Researchers: Using Sketches to Communicate Interaction Guidelines.Naska Goagoses, Heike Winschiers-Theophilus & Tariq Zaman - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):675-687.
  14.  20
    Algorithms and values in justice and security.Paul Hayes, Ibo van de Poel & Marc Steen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):533-555.
    This article presents a conceptual investigation into the value impacts and relations of algorithms in the domain of justice and security. As a conceptual investigation, it represents one step in a value sensitive design based methodology. Here, we explicate and analyse the expression of values of accuracy, privacy, fairness and equality, property and ownership, and accountability and transparency in this context. We find that values are sensitive to disvalue if algorithms are designed, implemented or deployed inappropriately or without sufficient consideration (...)
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  15.  10
    Decentered Ethics in the Machine Era and Guidance for AI Regulation.Christian Hugo Hoffmann & Benjamin Hahn - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):635-644.
    Recent advancements in AI have prompted a large number of AI ethics guidelines published by governments and nonprofits. While many of these papers propose concrete or seemingly applicable ideas, few philosophically sound proposals are made. In particular, we observe that the line of questioning has often not been examined critically and underlying conceptual problems not always dealt with at the root. In this paper, we investigate the nature of ethical AI systems and what their moral status might be by first (...)
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  16.  14
    How Software Developers Can Fix Part of GDPR’s Problem of Click-Through Consents.Björn Lundgren - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):759-760.
    It is argued that GDPR suffer from a practical problem of click-through consents, which developers of web browsers should resolve.
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  17.  37
    The new AI spring: a deflationary view.Jocelyn Maclure - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):747-750.
  18.  19
    Artificial Intelligence Vs COVID-19: Limitations, Constraints and Pitfalls.Wim Naudé - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):761-765.
    This paper provides an early evaluation of Artificial Intelligence against COVID-19. The main areas where AI can contribute to the fight against COVID-19 are discussed. It is concluded that AI has not yet been impactful against COVID-19. Its use is hampered by a lack of data, and by too much data. Overcoming these constraints will require a careful balance between data privacy and public health, and rigorous human-AI interaction. It is unlikely that these will be addressed in time to be (...)
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  19.  12
    The Role of Experts in the Public Perception of Risk of Artificial Intelligence.Hugo Neri & Fabio Cozman - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):663-673.
    The goal of this paper is to describe the mechanism of the public perception of risk of artificial intelligence. For that we apply the social amplification of risk framework to the public perception of artificial intelligence using data collected from Twitter from 2007 to 2018. We analyzed when and how there appeared a significant representation of the association between risk and artificial intelligence in the public awareness of artificial intelligence. A significant finding is that the image of the risk of (...)
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  20.  19
    A possibility of inappropriate use of gender studies in human-robot Interaction.Tatsuya Nomura - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):751-754.
  21.  11
    Kai-Fu-Lee (2019): AI Superpowers—China, Silicon Valley and the New World Order.Bárbara Jennifer Paz - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):771-772.
  22.  38
    Behavioural Artificial Intelligence: An Agenda for Systematic Empirical Studies of Artificial Inference.Tore Pedersen & Christian Johansen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):519-532.
    Artificial intelligence receives attention in media as well as in academe and business. In media coverage and reporting, AI is predominantly described in contrasted terms, either as the ultimate solution to all human problems or the ultimate threat to all human existence. In academe, the focus of computer scientists is on developing systems that function, whereas philosophy scholars theorize about the implications of this functionality for human life. In the interface between technology and philosophy there is, however, one imperative aspect (...)
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  23.  16
    “Intelligent” Finance and Treasury Management: What We Can Expect.Petr Polak, Christof Nelischer, Haochen Guo & David C. Robertson - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):715-726.
  24.  8
    Culture Codes of Scientific Concepts in Global Scientific Online Discourse.Dina I. Spicheva & Ekaterina V. Polyanskaya - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):699-714.
    This paper utilizes Rapaille’s concept of culture codes and Hall’s encoding and decoding model of communication to identify the culture codes of scientific concepts in global scientific online discourse. As an example, we attempted to identify the culture codes of the concept of “image”, because this concept can be interpreted in different ways in Russian and international scientific discourse. To identify these codes, we analyzed the interpretations of the concept of “image” in scientific online discourse in Russia and abroad. We (...)
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  25.  11
    Indowordnet’s Help in Indian Language Machine Translation.S. Sreelekha & Pushpak Bhattacharyya - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):689-698.
    Languages with insufficient digitally available resources, such as, Indian–Indian and English–Indian language Machine Translation system developments, faces the difficulty to translate various lexical phenomena. In this paper, we present our work on a comparative study of 440 phrase-based statistical trained models for 110 language pairs across 11 Indian languages. We have developed 110 baseline statistical machine translation systems. Then, we have augmented the training corpus with Indowordnet synset word entries of lexical database and further trained 110 models on top of (...)
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  26.  16
    The Revelation of Superintelligence.Konrad Szocik, Bartłomiej Tkacz & Patryk Gulczyński - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):755-758.
    The idea of superintelligence is a source of mainly philosophical and ethical considerations. Those considerations are rooted in the idea that an entity which is more intelligent than humans, may evolve in some point in the future. For obvious reasons, the superintelligence is considered as a kind of existential threat for humanity. In this essay, we discuss two ideas. One of them is the putative nature of future superintelligence which does not necessary need to be harmful for humanity. Our key (...)
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  27.  6
    Hand Rehabilitation Assessment System Using Leap Motion Controller.Miri Weiss Cohen & Daniele Regazzoni - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):581-594.
    This paper presents an approach for monitoring exercises of hand rehabilitation for post stroke patients. The developed solution uses a leap motion controller as hand-tracking device and embeds a supervised machine learning. The K-nearest neighbor methodology is adopted for automatically characterizing the physiotherapist or helper hand movement resulting a unique movement pattern that constitutes the basis of the rehabilitation process. In the second stage, an evaluation of the patients rehabilitation exercises results is compared to the movement pattern of the patient (...)
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  28.  7
    Correction To: Interperforming in AI: Question of ‘Natural’ in Machine Learning and Recurrent Neural Networks.Tolga Yalur - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):775-775.
  29.  9
    Interperforming in AI: question of ‘natural’ in machine learning and recurrent neural networks.Tolga Yalur - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):737-745.
    This article offers a critical inquiry of contemporary neural network models as an instance of machine learning, from an interdisciplinary perspective of AI studies and performativity. It shows the limits on the architecture of these network systems due to the misemployment of ‘natural’ performance, and it offers ‘context’ as a variable from a performative approach, instead of a constant. The article begins with a brief review of machine learning-based natural language processing systems and continues with a concentration on the relevant (...)
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  30.  25
    Culture, the process of knowledge, perception of the world and emergence of AI.Badrudin Amershi - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):417-430.
    Considering the technological development today, we are facing an emerging crisis. We are in the midst of a scientific revolution, which promises to radically change not only the way we live and work—but beyond that challenge the stability of the very foundations of our civilization and the international political order. All our attention and effort is thus focused on cushioning its impacts on life and society. Looking back in history, it would be pertinent to ask whether this process is a (...)
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  31.  14
    Why Friendly AIs Won’T Be That Friendly: A Friendly Reply to Muehlhauser and Bostrom.Robert James M. Boyles & Jeremiah Joven Joaquin - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):505-507.
    In “Why We Need Friendly AI”, Luke Muehlhauser and Nick Bostrom propose that for our species to survive the impending rise of superintelligent AIs, we need to ensure that they would be human-friendly. This discussion note offers a more natural but bleaker outlook: that in the end, if these AIs do arise, they won’t be that friendly.
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  32.  18
    Risk Management Standards and the Active Management of Malicious Intent in Artificial Superintelligence.Patrick Bradley - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):319-328.
    The likely near future creation of artificial superintelligence carries significant risks to humanity. These risks are difficult to conceptualise and quantify, but malicious use of existing artificial intelligence by criminals and state actors is already occurring and poses risks to digital security, physical security and integrity of political systems. These risks will increase as artificial intelligence moves closer to superintelligence. While there is little research on risk management tools used in artificial intelligence development, the current global standard for risk management, (...)
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  33.  48
    Black-Box Artificial Intelligence: An Epistemological and Critical Analysis.Manuel Carabantes - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):309-317.
    The artificial intelligence models with machine learning that exhibit the best predictive accuracy, and therefore, the most powerful ones, are, paradoxically, those with the most opaque black-box architectures. At the same time, the unstoppable computerization of advanced industrial societies demands the use of these machines in a growing number of domains. The conjunction of both phenomena gives rise to a control problem on AI that in this paper we analyze by dividing the issue into two. First, we carry out an (...)
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  34.  23
    Smart Sankey Picturization for Energy Management Systems in India.Anant Chandra & Satyajit Ghosh - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):401-407.
    India’s energy demand is predicted to rise by 135% within a span of 20 years. Coping up with surging energy demands requires several reforms in both renewable and non-renewable sectors. Factors such as rising population, reduction in the cost of renewable energy technology and their effect on the nation’s GDP, can make policy making a herculean task and the justification for such policies, quite opaque to the public. Artificial Intelligence technology can help decision makers to quickly draw conclusions from voluminous (...)
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  35.  16
    The greatest epistemological externalisation: reflecting on the puzzling direction we are heading to through algorithmic automatisation.Simona Chiodo - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):431-440.
    The aim of the article is reflecting on a fundamental epistemological issue which characterises our present technological progress: where are we heading to, as humankind, while we are progressively externalising our most crucial decision processes towards algorithms, from which decisive data, coming from human experience and mind, are left out? By reflecting on some cases, I shall try to argue that the most puzzling issue which engineers and philosophers should be aware that they have to jointly challenge may be that (...)
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  36.  12
    AI&Society: Editorial Volume 35.2: The Trappings of AI Agency.Karamjit S. Gill - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):289-296.
  37.  60
    15 Challenges for AI: Or What AI (Currently) Can’T Do.Thilo Hagendorff & Katharina Wezel - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):355-365.
    The current “AI Summer” is marked by scientific breakthroughs and economic successes in the fields of research, development, and application of systems with artificial intelligence. But, aside from the great hopes and promises associated with artificial intelligence, there are a number of challenges, shortcomings and even limitations of the technology. For one, these challenges arise from methodological and epistemological misconceptions about the capabilities of artificial intelligence. Secondly, they result from restrictions of the social context in which the development of applications (...)
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  38.  44
    Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligence: Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):343-354.
    The concept of artificial intelligence is not new nor is the notion that it should be granted legal protections given its influence on human activity. What is new, on a relative scale, is the notion that artificial intelligence can possess citizenship—a concept reserved only for humans, as it presupposes the idea of possessing civil duties and protections. Where there are several decades’ worth of writing on the concept of the legal status of computational artificial artefacts in the USA and elsewhere, (...)
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  39.  21
    Can artificial intelligency revolutionize drug discovery?Jean-Louis Kraus - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):501-504.
    Artificial intelligency can bring speed and reliability to drug discovery process. It represents an additional intelligence, which in any case can replace the strategic and logic creative insight of the medicinal chemist who remains the architect and molecule master designer. In terms of drug design, artificial intelligency, deep learning machines, and other revolutionary technologies will match with the medicinal chemist’s natural intelligency, but for sure never go beyond. This manuscript tries to assess the impact of the artificial intelligency on drug (...)
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  40.  15
    Augmented Learning, Smart Glasses and Knowing How.Wulf Loh & Catrin Misselhorn - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):297-308.
    While recent studies suggest that augmented learning employing smart glasses increases overall learning performance, in this paper we are more interested in the question which repercussions ALSG will have on the type of knowledge that is acquired. Drawing from the theoretical discussion within epistemology about the differences between Knowledge-How and Knowledge-That, we will argue that ALSG furthers understanding as a series of epistemic and non-epistemic Knowing-Hows. Focusing on academic knowledge acquisition, especially with respect to early curriculum experiments in various STEM (...)
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  41.  23
    The race for an artificial general intelligence: implications for public policy.Wim Naudé & Nicola Dimitri - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):367-379.
    An arms race for an artificial general intelligence would be detrimental for and even pose an existential threat to humanity if it results in an unfriendly AGI. In this paper, an all-pay contest model is developed to derive implications for public policy to avoid such an outcome. It is established that, in a winner-takes-all race, where players must invest in R&D, only the most competitive teams will participate. Thus, given the difficulty of AGI, the number of competing teams is unlikely (...)
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  42.  8
    Collective Bread Diaries: Cultural Identities in an Artificial Intelligence Framework.Haytham Nawar - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):409-416.
    The complex relationship between the current advancement of technology, including the wide scope of settings at which machinery plays substantial roles, and the cultural, historical, and political realities that have long existed across the history of mankind, is one that deserves absolute attention and exploration. This interconnection has been investigated in light of bread, and the meaning it signifies to people from all over the world. Drawing on the commonly unnoticed value of bread, and the everlasting impregnable imprint it has (...)
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  43.  15
    Movie Films Consumption in Brazil: An Analysis of Support Vector Machine Classification.Marislei Nishijima, Nathalia Nieuwenhoff, Ricardo Pires & Patrícia R. Oliveira - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):451-457.
    We employ the support vector machine classifier, over different types of kernels, to investigate whether observable variables of individuals and their household information are able to describe their consumption decision of film at theaters in Brazil. Using a very big dataset of 340,000 individuals living in metropolitan areas of a whole large developing economy, we performed a Knowledge Discovery in Databases to classify the film consumers, which results in 80% instances correctly classified. To reduce the degrees of freedom for SVM (...)
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  44.  22
    Do people with social anxiety feel anxious about interacting with a robot?Tatsuya Nomura, Takayuki Kanda, Tomohiro Suzuki & Sachie Yamada - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):381-390.
    To investigate whether people with social anxiety have less actual and “anticipatory” anxiety when interacting with a robot compared to interacting with a person, we conducted a 2 × 2 psychological experiment with two factors: social anxiety and interaction partner. The experiment was conducted in a counseling setting where a participant played the role of a client and the robot or the confederate played the role of a counselor. First, we measured the participants’ social anxiety using the Social Avoidance and (...)
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  45.  26
    AI and the Path to Envelopment: Knowledge as a First Step Towards the Responsible Regulation and Use of AI-Powered Machines.Scott Robbins - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):391-400.
    With Artificial Intelligence entering our lives in novel ways—both known and unknown to us—there is both the enhancement of existing ethical issues associated with AI as well as the rise of new ethical issues. There is much focus on opening up the ‘black box’ of modern machine-learning algorithms to understand the reasoning behind their decisions—especially morally salient decisions. However, some applications of AI which are no doubt beneficial to society rely upon these black boxes. Rather than requiring algorithms to be (...)
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  46.  21
    E-MIIM: an ensemble-learning-based context-aware mobile telephony model for intelligent interruption management.Iqbal H. Sarker, A. S. M. Kayes, Md Hasan Furhad, Mohammad Mainul Islam & Md Shohidul Islam - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):459-467.
    Nowadays, mobile telephony interruptions in our daily life activities are common because of the inappropriate ringing notifications of incoming phone calls in different contexts. Such interruptions may impact on the work attention not only for the mobile phone owners, but also for the surrounding people. Decision tree is the most popular machine-learning classification technique that is used in existing context-aware mobile intelligent interruption management model to overcome such issues. However, a single-decision tree-based context-aware model may cause over-fitting problem and thus (...)
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  47.  19
    God-Like Robots: The Semantic Overlap Between Representation of Divine and Artificial Entities.Nicolas Spatola & Karolina Urbanska - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):329-341.
    Artificial intelligence and robots may progressively take a more and more prominent place in our daily environment. Interestingly, in the study of how humans perceive these artificial entities, science has mainly taken an anthropocentric perspective. Considering people’s fears and expectations from robots and artificial intelligence, they tend to be simultaneously afraid and allured to them, much as they would be to the conceptualisations related to the divine entities. In two experiments, we investigated the proximity of representation between artificial entities, divine (...)
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  48.  23
    Presenting a hybrid model in social networks recommendation system architecture development.Abolfazl Zare, Mohammad Reza Motadel & Aliakbar Jalali - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):469-483.
    There are many studies conducted on recommendation systems, most of which are focused on recommending items to users and vice versa. Nowadays, social networks are complicated due to carrying vast arrays of data about individuals and organizations. In today’s competitive environment, companies face two significant problems: supplying resources and attracting new customers. Even the concept of supply-chain management in a virtual environment is changed. In this article, we propose a new and innovative combination approach to recommend organizational people in social (...)
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  49.  22
    One Robot Doesn’T Fit All: Aligning Social Robot Appearance and Job Suitability From a Middle Eastern Perspective.Jakub Złotowski, Ashraf Khalil & Salam Abdallah - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (2):485-500.
    Social robots are expected to take over a significant number of jobs in the coming decades. The present research provides the first systematic evaluation of occupation suitability of existing social robots based on user perception derived classification of them. The study was conducted in the Middle East since the views of this region are rarely considered in human–robot interaction research, although the region is poised to increasingly adopt the use of robots. Laboratory-based experimental data revealed that a robot’s appearance plays (...)
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  50.  30
    Digital akrasia: a qualitative study of phubbing.Jesper Aagaard - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):237-244.
    The present article focuses on the issue of ignoring conversational partners in favor of one’s phone, or what has also become known as phubbing. Prior research has shown that this behavior is associated with a host of negative interpersonal consequences. Since phubbing by definition entails adverse effects, however, it is interesting to explore why people continue to engage in this hurtful behavior: Are they unaware that phubbing is hurtful to others? Or do they simply not care? Building on interviews with (...)
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  51.  12
    Legal framework for small autonomous agricultural robots.Subhajit Basu, Adekemi Omotubora, Matt Beeson & Charles Fox - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):113-134.
    Legal structures may form barriers to, or enablers of, adoption of precision agriculture management with small autonomous agricultural robots. This article develops a conceptual regulatory framework for small autonomous agricultural robots, from a practical, self-contained engineering guide perspective, sufficient to get working research and commercial agricultural roboticists quickly and easily up and running within the law. The article examines the liability framework, or rather lack of it, for agricultural robotics in EU, and their transpositions to UK law, as a case (...)
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  52.  79
    Social choice ethics in artificial intelligence.Seth D. Baum - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):165-176.
    A major approach to the ethics of artificial intelligence is to use social choice, in which the AI is designed to act according to the aggregate views of society. This is found in the AI ethics of “coherent extrapolated volition” and “bottom–up ethics”. This paper shows that the normative basis of AI social choice ethics is weak due to the fact that there is no one single aggregate ethical view of society. Instead, the design of social choice AI faces three (...)
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  53.  29
    Bird Song Diamond in Deep Space 8k.John Brumley, Charles Taylor, Reiji Suzuki, Takashi Ikegami, Victoria Vesna & Hiroo Iwata - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):87-101.
    The Bird Song Diamond project is a series of multifaceted and multidisciplinary installations with the aim of bringing contemporary research on bird communication to a large public audience. Using art and technology to create immersive experiences, BSD allows large audiences to embody bird communication rather than passively observe. In particular, BSD Mimic, a system for mimicking bird song, asks participants to grapple with both audition and vocalization of birdsong. The use of interactive installations for public outreach provides unique experiences to (...)
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  54.  16
    AI Recognition of Differences Among Book-Length Texts.Stephen J. DeCanio - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):135-146.
    Can an Artificial Intelligence make distinctions among major works of politics, philosophy, and fiction without human assistance? In this paper, latent semantic analysis is used to find patterns in a relatively small sample of notable works archived by Project Gutenberg. It is shown that an LSA-equipped AI can distinguish quite sharply between fiction and non-fiction works, and can detect some differences between political philosophy and history, and between conventional fiction and fantasy/science fiction. It is conjectured that this capability is a (...)
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  55.  22
    An invitation to critical social science of big data: from critical theory and critical research to omniresistance.Ulaş Başar Gezgin - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):187-195.
    How a social science of big data would look like? In this article, we exemplify such a social science through a number of cases. We start our discussion with the epistemic qualities of big data. We point out to the fact that contrary to the big data champions, big data is neither new nor a miracle without any error nor reliable and rigorous as assumed by its cheer leaders. Secondly, we identify three types of big data: natural big data, artificial (...)
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  56.  14
    Dance of the Artificial Alignment and Ethics.Karamjit S. Gill - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):1-4.
  57.  83
    What do we owe to intelligent robots?John-Stewart Gordon - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):209-223.
    Great technological advances in such areas as computer science, artificial intelligence, and robotics have brought the advent of artificially intelligent robots within our reach within the next century. Against this background, the interdisciplinary field of machine ethics is concerned with the vital issue of making robots “ethical” and examining the moral status of autonomous robots that are capable of moral reasoning and decision-making. The existence of such robots will deeply reshape our socio-political life. This paper focuses on whether such highly (...)
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  58.  23
    The Borg–eye and the We–I. The production of a collective living body through wearable computers.Nicola Liberati - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):39-49.
    The aim of this work is to analyze the constitution of a new collective subject thanks to wearable computers. Wearable computers are emerging technologies which are supposed to become pervasively used in the near future. They are devices designed to be on us every single moment of our life and to capture every experience we have. Therefore, we need to be prepared to such intrusive devices and to analyze potential effect they will have on us and our society. Thanks to (...)
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  59.  16
    Is it possible to cure Internet addiction with the Internet?William Liu, Farhaan Mirza, Ajit Narayanan & Seng Souligna - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):245-255.
    Significant technological advancements over the last two decades have led to enhanced accessibility to computing devices and the Internet. Our society is experiencing an ever-growing integration of the Internet into everyday lives, and this has transformed the way we obtain and exchange information, communicate and interact with one another as well as conduct business. However, the term ‘Internet addiction’ has emerged from problematic and excessive Internet usage which leads to the development of addictive cyber-behaviours, causing health and social problems. The (...)
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  60.  41
    Artificial Intelligence: Consciousness and Conscience.Gunter Meissner - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):225-235.
    Our society is in the middle of the AI revolution. We discuss several applications of AI, in particular medical causality, where deep-learning neural networks screen through big data bases, extracting associations between a patient’s condition and possible causes. While beneficial in medicine, several questionable AI trading strategies have emerged in finance. Though advantages in many aspects of our lives, serious threats of AI exist. We suggest several regulatory measures to reduce these threats. We further discuss whether ‘full AI robots’ should (...)
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  61. The problem of machine ethics in artificial intelligence.Rajakishore Nath & Vineet Sahu - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):103-111.
    The advent of the intelligent robot has occupied a significant position in society over the past decades and has given rise to new issues in society. As we know, the primary aim of artificial intelligence or robotic research is not only to develop advanced programs to solve our problems but also to reproduce mental qualities in machines. The critical claim of artificial intelligence advocates is that there is no distinction between mind and machines and thus they argue that there are (...)
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  62.  16
    The contradictions of digital modernity.Kieron O’Hara - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):197-208.
    This paper explores the concept of digital modernity, the extension of narratives of modernity with the special affordances of digital networked technology. Digital modernity produces a new narrative which can be taken in many ways: to be descriptive of reality; a teleological account of an inexorable process; or a normative account of an ideal sociotechnical state. However, it is understood that narratives of digital modernity help shape reality via commercial and political decision-makers, and examples are given from the politics and (...)
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  63.  24
    Digital hermeneutics: from interpreting with machines to interpretational machines.Alberto Romele, Marta Severo & Paolo Furia - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):73-86.
    Today, there is an emerging interest for the potential role of hermeneutics in reflecting on the practices related to digital technologies and their consequences. Nonetheless, such an interest has neither given rise to a unitary approach nor to a shared debate. The primary goal of this paper is to map and synthetize the different existing perspectives to pave the way for an open discussion on the topic. The article is developed in two steps. In the first section, the authors analyze (...)
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  64.  17
    Organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for promoting engineers’ practice of ethical AI design.Kaira Sekiguchi & Koichi Hori - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):51-71.
    In recent years, ethical questions related to the development of artificial intelligence are being increasingly discussed. However, there has not been enough corresponding increase in the research and development associated with AI technology that incorporates with ethical discussion. We therefore implemented an organic and dynamic tool for use with knowledge base of AI ethics for engineers to promote engineers’ practice of ethical AI design to realize further social values. Here, “organic” means that the tool deals with complex relationships among different (...)
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  65.  87
    Machine learning, inductive reasoning, and reliability of generalisations.Petr Spelda - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):29-37.
    The present paper shows how statistical learning theory and machine learning models can be used to enhance understanding of AI-related epistemological issues regarding inductive reasoning and reliability of generalisations. Towards this aim, the paper proceeds as follows. First, it expounds Price’s dual image of representation in terms of the notions of e-representations and i-representations that constitute subject naturalism. For Price, this is not a strictly anti-representationalist position but rather a dualist one (e- and i-representations). Second, the paper links this debate (...)
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  66.  27
    Potential of full human–machine symbiosis through truly intelligent cognitive systems.Ron Sun - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):17-28.
    It is highly likely that, to achieve full human–machine symbiosis, truly intelligent cognitive systems—human-like —may have to be developed first. Such systems should not only be capable of performing human-like thinking, reasoning, and problem solving, but also be capable of displaying human-like motivation, emotion, and personality. In this opinion article, I will argue that such systems are indeed possible and needed to achieve true and full symbiosis with humans. A computational cognitive architecture is used in this article to illustrate, in (...)
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  67. Classification of Global Catastrophic Risks Connected with Artificial Intelligence.Alexey Turchin & David Denkenberger - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):147-163.
    A classification of the global catastrophic risks of AI is presented, along with a comprehensive list of previously identified risks. This classification allows the identification of several new risks. We show that at each level of AI’s intelligence power, separate types of possible catastrophes dominate. Our classification demonstrates that the field of AI risks is diverse, and includes many scenarios beyond the commonly discussed cases of a paperclip maximizer or robot-caused unemployment. Global catastrophic failure could happen at various levels of (...)
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  68. The Future of War: The Ethical Potential of Leaving War to Lethal Autonomous Weapons.Steven Umbrello, Phil Torres & Angelo F. De Bellis - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):273-282.
    Lethal Autonomous Weapons (LAWs) are robotic weapons systems, primarily of value to the military, that could engage in offensive or defensive actions without human intervention. This paper assesses and engages the current arguments for and against the use of LAWs through the lens of achieving more ethical warfare. Specific interest is given particularly to ethical LAWs, which are artificially intelligent weapons systems that make decisions within the bounds of their ethics-based code. To ensure that a wide, but not exhaustive, survey (...)
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  69.  15
    The role of robotics and AI in technologically mediated human evolution: a constructive proposal.Jeffrey White - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):177-185.
    This paper proposes that existing computational modeling research programs may be combined into platforms for the information of public policy. The main idea is that computational models at select levels of organization may be integrated in natural terms describing biological cognition, thereby normalizing a platform for predictive simulations able to account for both human and environmental costs associated with different action plans and institutional arrangements over short and long time spans while minimizing computational requirements. Building from established research programs, the (...)
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  70.  6
    From Filters to Fillers: An Active Inference Approach to Body Image Distortion in the Selfie Era.Simon C. Tremblay, Safae Essafi Tremblay & Pierre Poirier - 2020 - AI and Society:1-16.
    Advances in artificial intelligence, as well as its increased presence in everyday life, have brought the emergence of many new phenomena, including an intriguing appearance of what seems to be a variant of body dysmorphic disorder, coined “Snapchat dysmorphia”. Body dysmorphic disorder is a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder defined as a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others. Snapchat dysmorphia is fueled by automated selfie filters that reflect (...)
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