45 found

Year:

  1.  13
    The Klein bottle of digital identity.Kimberly Cass - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1073-1074.
  2.  9
    Hidalgo, C.A (2021). How Humans Judge Machines. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. ISBN: 9780262045520.Karamjit S. Gill - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1075-1075.
  3.  12
    Ethical dilemmas.Karamjit S. Gill - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):669-676.
  4.  12
    The wiseman in the mirror.Karl Kristian Larsson - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1071-1072.
  5.  17
    Pasquale, Frank. New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2020.Daryl Li - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1077-1078.
  6.  8
    The inside out mirror.Sue Pearson - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1069-1070.
  7.  4
    IoT plant monitoring system for mental health therapy.Karuna Yepuganti, Sonalika Awasthi & Raghav Sharma - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):1029-1034.
    In this paper, we propose an Internet of Things to enhancing the experience of personal gardening as a method of therapy for mental-health patients, given a belief in its role in a person’s mood and general positivity, The proposed prototype continuously senses and monitors the state of an indoor plant through different sensors. The user is notified of the plant’s needs for water, sunlight, etc., through generated notifications from channels over cloud in-real time. Thus, we were able to successfully create (...)
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  8.  22
    AI and law: ethical, legal, and socio-political implications.John-Stewart Gordon - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):403-404.
  9.  12
    From Computerised Thing to Digital Being: Mission (Im)Possible?Julija Kiršienė, Edita Gruodytė & Darius Amilevičius - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):547-560.
    Artificial intelligence is one of the main drivers of what has been described as the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”, as well as the most innovative technology developed to date. It is a pervasive transformative innovation, which needs a new approach. In 2017, the European Parliament introduced the notion of the “electronic person”, which sparked huge debates in philosophical, legal, technological, and other academic settings. The issues related to AI should be examined from an interdisciplinary perspective. In this paper, we examine this (...)
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  10.  33
    AI ethics – a review of three recent publications.Johann-Christian Põder - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):661-664.
  11.  28
    Clinical AI: opacity, accountability, responsibility and liability.Helen Smith - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):535-545.
    The aim of this literature review was to compose a narrative review supported by a systematic approach to critically identify and examine concerns about accountability and the allocation of responsibility and legal liability as applied to the clinician and the technologist as applied the use of opaque AI-powered systems in clinical decision making. This review questions if it is permissible for a clinician to use an opaque AI system in clinical decision making and if a patient was harmed as a (...)
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  12.  31
    Artificial intelligence and the value of transparency.Joel Walmsley - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):585-595.
    Some recent developments in Artificial Intelligence—especially the use of machine learning systems, trained on big data sets and deployed in socially significant and ethically weighty contexts—have led to a number of calls for “transparency”. This paper explores the epistemological and ethical dimensions of that concept, as well as surveying and taxonomising the variety of ways in which it has been invoked in recent discussions. Whilst “outward” forms of transparency may be straightforwardly achieved, what I call “functional” transparency about the inner (...)
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  13. The Hard Problem of AI Rights.Adam J. Andreotta - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):19-32.
    In the past few years, the subject of AI rights—the thesis that AIs, robots, and other artefacts (hereafter, simply ‘AIs’) ought to be included in the sphere of moral concern—has started to receive serious attention from scholars. In this paper, I argue that the AI rights research program is beset by an epistemic problem that threatens to impede its progress—namely, a lack of a solution to the ‘Hard Problem’ of consciousness: the problem of explaining why certain brain states give rise (...)
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  14.  16
    AI in the noosphere: an alignment of scientific and wisdom traditions.Stephen D. Edwards - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):397-399.
  15.  13
    Ethical encounters.Karamjit S. Gill - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):1-7.
  16.  23
    Moral Control and Ownership in AI Systems.Raul Gonzalez Fabre, Javier Camacho Ibáñez & Pedro Tejedor Escobar - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):289-303.
    AI systems are bringing an augmentation of human capabilities to shape the world. They may also drag a replacement of human conscience in large chunks of life. AI systems can be designed to leave moral control in human hands, to obstruct or diminish that moral control, or even to prevent it, replacing human morality with pre-packaged or developed ‘solutions’ by the ‘intelligent’ machine itself. Artificial Intelligent systems are increasingly being used in multiple applications and receiving more attention from the public (...)
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  17.  14
    Operations of power in autonomous weapon systems: ethical conditions and socio-political prospects.Nik Hynek & Anzhelika Solovyeva - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):79-99.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a multi-perspective examination of one of the most important contemporary security issues: weaponized, and especially lethal, artificial intelligence. This technology is increasingly associated with the approaching dramatic change in the nature of warfare. What becomes particularly important and evermore intensely contested is how it becomes embedded with and concurrently impacts two social structures: ethics and law. While there has not been a global regime banning this technology, regulatory attempts at establishing a ban (...)
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  18.  11
    A case-based reasoning recommender system for sustainable smart city development.Bokolo Anthony Jnr - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):159-183.
    With the deployment of information and communication technologies and the needs of data and information sharing within cities, smart city aims to provide value-added services to improve citizens’ quality of life. But, currently city planners/developers are faced with inadequate contextual information on the dimensions of smart city required to achieve a sustainable society. Therefore, in achieving sustainable society, there is need for stakeholders to make strategic decisions on how to implement smart city initiatives. Besides, it is required to specify the (...)
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  19.  16
    Do robots dream of escaping? Narrativity and ethics in Alex Garland’s Ex-Machina and Luke Scott’s Morgan.Inbar Kaminsky - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):349-359.
    Ex-Machina and Morgan, two recent science-fiction films that deal with the creation of humanoids, also explored the relationship between artificial intelligence, spatiality and the lingering question mark regarding artificial consciousness. In both narratives, the creators of the humanoids have tried to mimic human consciousness as closely as possible, which has resulted in the imprisonment of the humanoids due to proprietary concerns in Ex-Machina and due to the violent behavior of the humanoid in Morgan. This article addresses the dilemma of whether (...)
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  20.  22
    Computers Do Not Think, They Are Oriented in Thought.Attay Kremer - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):401-402.
  21.  11
    Artificial intelligence, culture and education.Sergey B. Kulikov & Anastasiya V. Shirokova - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):305-318.
    Sequential transformative design of research :224–235, 2015; Groleau et al. in J Mental Health 16:731–741, 2007; Robson and McCartan in Real world research: a resource for users of social research methods in applied settings, Wiley, Chichester, 2016) allows testing a group of theoretical assumptions about the connections of artificial intelligence with culture and education. In the course of research, semiotics ensures the description of self-organizing systems of cultural signs and symbols in terms of artificial intelligence as a special set of (...)
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  22.  12
    Things That Help Out: Designing Smart Wearables as Partners in Stress Management.Xueliang Li, Marco C. Rozendaal, Kaspar Jansen, Catholijn Jonker & Eric Vermetten - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):251-261.
    We propose an approach to designing smart wearables that act as partners to help people cope with stress in daily life. Our approach contributes to the developing field of smart wearables by addressing how technological capabilities can be designed to establish partnerships that consider the person, the situation, and the appropriate type of support. As such, this study also contributes to healthcare by opening up novel technology-supported routes to stress treatment and care. We present the results of a phenomenological study (...)
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  23.  24
    Artificial intelligence and moral rights.Martin Miernicki & Irene Ng - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):319-329.
    Whether copyrights should exist in content generated by an artificial intelligence is a frequently discussed issue in the legal literature. Most of the discussion focuses on economic rights, whereas the relationship of artificial intelligence and moral rights remains relatively obscure. However, as moral rights traditionally aim at protecting the author’s “personal sphere”, the question whether the law should recognize such protection in the content produced by machines is pressing; this is especially true considering that artificial intelligence is continuously further developed (...)
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  24.  18
    Hybrid collective intelligence in a human–AI society.Marieke M. M. Peeters, Jurriaan van Diggelen, Karel van den Bosch, Adelbert Bronkhorst, Mark A. Neerincx, Jan Maarten Schraagen & Stephan Raaijmakers - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):217-238.
    Within current debates about the future impact of Artificial Intelligence on human society, roughly three different perspectives can be recognised: the technology-centric perspective, claiming that AI will soon outperform humankind in all areas, and that the primary threat for humankind is superintelligence; the human-centric perspective, claiming that humans will always remain superior to AI when it comes to social and societal aspects, and that the main threat of AI is that humankind’s social nature is overlooked in technological designs; and the (...)
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  25.  12
    The Carousel of Ethical Machinery.Luís Moniz Pereira - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):185-196.
    Human beings have been aware of the risks associated with knowledge or its associated technologies since the dawn of time. Not just in Greek mythology, but in the founding myths of Judeo-Christian religions, there are signs and warnings against these dangers. Yet, such warnings and forebodings have never made as much sense as they do today. This stems from the emergence of machines capable of cognitive functions performed exclusively by humans until recently. Besides those technical problems associated with its design (...)
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  26.  90
    The Chinese Approach to Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Policy, Ethics, and Regulation.Huw Roberts, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Vincent Wang & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):59–⁠77.
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabilities. Instead, in this article, we focus on (...)
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  27.  10
    Authente-Kente: enabling authentication for artisanal economies with deep learning.Kwame Porter Robinson, Ron Eglash, Audrey Bennett, Sansitha Nandakumar & Lionel Robert - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):369-379.
    The economy for artisanal products, such as Navajo rugs or Pashmina shawls are often threatened by mass-produced fakes. We propose the use of AI-based authentication as one part of a larger system that would replace extractive economies with generative circulation. In this case study we examine initial experiments towards the development of a cell phone-based authentication app for kente cloth in West Africa. We describe the context of weavers and cloth sales; an initial test of a machine learning algorithm for (...)
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  28.  18
    Healthcare and Anomaly Detection: Using Machine Learning to Predict Anomalies in Heart Rate Data.Edin Šabić, David Keeley, Bailey Henderson & Sara Nannemann - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):149-158.
    The application of machine learning algorithms to healthcare data can enhance patient care while also reducing healthcare worker cognitive load. These algorithms can be used to detect anomalous physiological readings, potentially leading to expedited emergency response or new knowledge about the development of a health condition. However, while there has been much research conducted in assessing the performance of anomaly detection algorithms on well-known public datasets, there is less conceptual comparison across unsupervised and supervised performance on physiological data. Moreover, while (...)
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  29.  15
    Out of the laboratory and into the classroom: the future of artificial intelligence in education.Daniel Schiff - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):331-348.
    Like previous educational technologies, artificial intelligence in education threatens to disrupt the status quo, with proponents highlighting the potential for efficiency and democratization, and skeptics warning of industrialization and alienation. However, unlike frequently discussed applications of AI in autonomous vehicles, military and cybersecurity concerns, and healthcare, AI’s impacts on education policy and practice have not yet captured the public’s attention. This paper, therefore, evaluates the status of AIEd, with special attention to intelligent tutoring systems and anthropomorphized artificial educational agents. I (...)
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  30.  27
    From Machine Ethics to Computational Ethics.Samuel T. Segun - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):263-276.
    Research into the ethics of artificial intelligence is often categorized into two subareas—robot ethics and machine ethics. Many of the definitions and classifications of the subject matter of these subfields, as found in the literature, are conflated, which I seek to rectify. In this essay, I infer that using the term ‘machine ethics’ is too broad and glosses over issues that the term computational ethics best describes. I show that the subject of inquiry of computational ethics is of great value (...)
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  31.  14
    Designing Ethical Artifacts has Resulted in Creative Design.Kaira Sekiguchi & Koichi Hori - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):101-148.
    Ethical aspects in engineering design have become increasingly important in recent years. A typical example is the recent rise of artificial intelligence ethics. This paper applies user studies of a design support tool to empirically verify that our ethical framework improves the creativity of an engineer’s design activity. The design support tool provides an environment for the promotion of ethical design perspectives and description. The experiments focus on two functionalities: semi-automatic generation and scenario path recommendation. These functions are designed around (...)
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  32.  9
    Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for Bangla Sentiment Analysis.Sadia Sharmin & Danial Chakma - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):381-396.
    With the accelerated evolution of the internet in the form of web-sites, social networks, microblogs, and online portals, a large number of reviews, opinions, recommendations, ratings, and feedback are generated by writers or users. This user-generated sentiment content can be about books, people, hotels, products, research, events, etc. These sentiments become very beneficial for businesses, governments, and individuals. While this content is meant to be useful, a bulk of this writer-generated content requires using text mining techniques and sentiment analysis. However, (...)
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  33.  18
    A Taxonomy of Human–Machine Collaboration: Capturing Automation and Technical Autonomy.Monika Simmler & Ruth Frischknecht - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):239-250.
    Due to the ongoing advancements in technology, socio-technical collaboration has become increasingly prevalent. This poses challenges in terms of governance and accountability, as well as issues in various other fields. Therefore, it is crucial to familiarize decision-makers and researchers with the core of human–machine collaboration. This study introduces a taxonomy that enables identification of the very nature of human–machine interaction. A literature review has revealed that automation and technical autonomy are main parameters for describing and understanding such interaction. Both aspects (...)
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  34.  10
    Children’s Perceptions of Social Robots: A Study of the Robots Pepper, AV1 and Tessa at Norwegian Research Fairs.Roger Andre Søraa, Pernille Søderholm Nyvoll, Karoline Blix Grønvik & J. Artur Serrano - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):205-216.
    This article studies perceptual differences of three social robots by elementary school children of ages 6–13 years at research fairs. The autonomous humanoid robot Pepper, an advanced social robot primarily designed as a personal assistant with movement and mobility, is compared to the teleoperated AV1 robot—designed to help elementary school children who cannot attend school to have a telepresence through the robot—and the flowerpot robot Tessa, used in the eWare system as an avatar for a home sensor system and dedicated (...)
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  35.  13
    Context, Design and Conveyance of Information: ICT-Enabled Agricultural Information Services for Rural Women in Bangladesh.Tahmina Khan Tithi, Tapas Ranjan Chakraborty, Pinash Akter, Humayra Islam & Amina Khan Sabah - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):277-287.
    ICT for development projects often focus on integrating social factors in information systems design. A well-designed ICT4D solution must be tailored to the needs of the people who will use them and subsequently, requires an extensive understanding of the context and constraints in people’s lives. With an objective to explore how context-specific issues influence the conveyance of appropriate agricultural information to women, this paper uses PROTIC, a 5-year collaborative project between Monash University and Oxfam, as a case. PROTIC was implemented (...)
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  36.  27
    Machine Learning’s Limitations in Avoiding Automation of Bias.Daniel Varona, Yadira Lizama-Mue & Juan Luis Suárez - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):197-203.
    The use of predictive systems has become wider with the development of related computational methods, and the evolution of the sciences in which these methods are applied Solon and Selbst and Pedreschi et al.. The referred methods include machine learning techniques, face and/or voice recognition, temperature mapping, and other, within the artificial intelligence domain. These techniques are being applied to solve problems in socially and politically sensitive areas such as crime prevention and justice management, crowd management, and emotion analysis, just (...)
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  37.  14
    Minding Morality: Ethical Artificial Societies for Public Policy Modeling.Saikou Y. Diallo, F. LeRon Shults & Wesley J. Wildman - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):49-57.
    Public policies are designed to have an impact on particular societies, yet policy-oriented computer models and simulations often focus more on articulating the policies to be applied than on realistically rendering the cultural dynamics of the target society. This approach can lead to policy assessments that ignore crucial social contextual factors. For example, by leaving out distinctive moral and normative dimensions of cultural contexts in artificial societies, estimations of downstream policy effectiveness fail to account for dynamics that are fundamental in (...)
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  38.  11
    Failure of chatbot Tay was evil, ugliness and uselessness in its nature or do we judge it through cognitive shortcuts and biases?Tomáš Zemčík - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):361-367.
    This study deals with the failure of one of the most advanced chatbots called Tay, created by Microsoft. Many users, commentators and experts strongly anthropomorphised this chatbot in their assessment of the case around Tay. This view is so widespread that we can identify it as a certain typical cognitive distortion or bias. This study presents a summary of facts concerning the Tay case, collaborative perspectives from eminent experts: Tay did not mean anything by its morally objectionable statements because, in (...)
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  39. Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2021 - AI and Society 2:1-10.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  40.  23
    In search of the moral status of AI: why sentience is a strong argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - 2021 - AI and Society 1:1-12.
    Is it OK to lie to Siri? Is it bad to mistreat a robot for our own pleasure? Under what condition should we grant a moral status to an artificial intelligence system? This paper looks at different arguments for granting moral status to an AI system: the idea of indirect duties, the relational argument, the argument from intelligence, the arguments from life and information, and the argument from sentience. In each but the last case, we find unresolved issues with the (...)
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  41.  93
    Artificial Intelligence and its Natural Limits.Karl D. Stephan & Gyula Klima - 2021 - AI and Society (1):9-18.
    An argument with roots in ancient Greek philosophy claims that only humans are capable of a certain class of thought termed conceptual, as opposed to perceptual thought, which is common to humans, the higher animals, and some machines. We outline the most detailed modern version of this argument due to Mortimer Adler, who in the 1960s argued for the uniqueness of the human power of conceptual thought. He also admitted that if conceptual thought were ever manifested by machines, such an (...)
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  42.  30
    From filters to fillers: an active inference approach to body image distortion in the selfie era.Simon C. Tremblay, Safae Essafi Tremblay & Pierre Poirier - 2021 - AI and Society (1):33-48.
    Advances in artificial intelligence, as well as its increased presence in everyday life, have brought the emergence of many new phenomena, including an intriguing appearance of what seems to be a variant of body dysmorphic disorder, coined “Snapchat dysmorphia”. Body dysmorphic disorder is a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder defined as a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others. Snapchat dysmorphia is fueled by automated selfie filters that reflect (...)
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  43.  36
    The Social Turn of Artificial Intelligence.Nello Cristianini, Teresa Scantamburlo & James Ladyman - 2021 - AI and Society (online).
    Social machines are systems formed by material and human elements interacting in a structured way. The use of digital platforms as mediators allows large numbers of humans to participate in such machines, which have interconnected AI and human components operating as a single system capable of highly sophisticated behavior. Under certain conditions, such systems can be understood as autonomous goal-driven agents. Many popular online platforms can be regarded as instances of this class of agent. We argue that autonomous social machines (...)
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  44.  53
    Word vector embeddings hold social ontological relations capable of reflecting meaningful fairness assessments.Ahmed Izzidien - 2021 - AI and Society (March 2021):1-20.
    Programming artificial intelligence to make fairness assessments of texts through top-down rules, bottom-up training, or hybrid approaches, has presented the challenge of defining cross-cultural fairness. In this paper a simple method is presented which uses vectors to discover if a verb is unfair or fair. It uses already existing relational social ontologies inherent in Word Embeddings and thus requires no training. The plausibility of the approach rests on two premises. That individuals consider fair acts those that they would be willing (...)
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  45. Why Machines Cannot Be Moral.Robert Sparrow - 2021 - AI and Society:1-9.
    The fact that real-world decisions made by artificial intelligences are often ethically loaded has led a number of authorities to advocate the development of “moral machines”. I argue that the project of building “ethics” “into” machines presupposes a flawed understanding of the nature of ethics. Drawing on the work of the Australian philosopher, Raimond Gaita, I argue that ethical dilemmas are problems for particular people and not problems for everyone who faces a similar situation. Moreover, the force of an ethical (...)
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