AI and Society

ISSNs: 0951-5666, 1425-5655

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  1.  19
    On Machine Learning and the Replacement of Human Labour: Anti-Cartesianism Versus Babbage’s Path.Felipe Tobar & Rodrigo González - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (4):1459-1471.
    This paper addresses two methodological paths in Artificial Intelligence: the paths of Babbage and anti-Cartesianism. While those researchers who have followed the latter have attempted to reverse the Cartesian dictum according to which machines cannot think in principle, Babbage’s path, which has been partially neglected, implies that the replacement of humans—and not the creation of minds—should provide the foundation of AI. In view of the examined paths, the claim that we support here is this: in line with Babbage, AI researchers (...)
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  2.  7
    The Capabilities Approach and Variety Engineering. A Case for Social Cocreation of Value.Alfonso Reyes Alvarado - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1269-1277.
    The purpose of this paper is to show an application of variety engineering in the social realm. It focuses on reducing environmental complexity by catalysing self-organizing processes. This catalysis is based on the use of Sen and Nussbaum’s capabilities approach. By doing this an organization may improve the quality of the relations with their clients by transforming environmental agents into new suppliers. This approach opens a new dimension of social responsibility for organizations. A particular case is presented in which a (...)
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  3.  6
    Cultural, scientific and technical antecedents of the Cybersyn project in Chile.Juan Alvarez & Claudio Gutierrez - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1093-1103.
    The Cybersyn project has lately received increased attention. In this article, we study the local technical antecedents of Stafford Beer's Cybersyn project in Chile, particularly regarding Cybernetics and Systems ideas and local computing and networking developments. We show that the Cybersyn project in Chile was hosted by a rich intellectual environment that understood Cybernetics and Systems ideas; that it found a mature computer community and infrastructure whose high point was the State Computing Enterprise EMCO/ECOM, and an advanced networking experience whose (...)
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  4.  12
    Jaime Garretón’s Cybernetic Theory of the City and its System: A Missing Link in Contemporary Urban Theory.Claudio Araneda - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1179-1189.
  5.  6
    Waldemar Cordeiro and Arteônica: Rewritings of Digital Art in Brazil and Latin America.Priscila Almeida Cunha Arantes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1085-1092.
    In the passage of time from the 1960s to the 1970s, the Brazilian artist Waldemar Cordeiro developed his first works in computer art by applying the mathematical concept of “derivative function.” Around the same time, he organized and took part in exhibitions, and composed a series of essays envisaging that the use of digital resources would become an inevitable process for the future of information reception and artistic communication. A closer look at Waldemar Cordeiro's production, both artistic and theoretical, after (...)
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  6.  8
    Dark Archives or a Dark Age for Reasoning Over Archives?Mark Bell & Jenny Bunn - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):959-966.
    This article considers that reasoning over archives is a joint enterprise between archivists and researchers and that both groups are increasingly using machine agents to assist them in it. It starts by considering the processing of archivists, researchers and machine agents separately. Using the different perspectives this brings to highlight different aspects of that processing, as a process of sense-making, as scholarly research activity, as practices that realise and achieve data for the drawing of further inference, it reasserts the argument (...)
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  7.  7
    Capsaicin and Cybernetics: Mexican Intellectual Networks in the Foundation of Cybernetics.Andrés Burbano & Everardo Reyes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1013-1025.
    This paper offers some insights and clarifications of the paramount role that Mexico has had in the forging of first-order cybernetics. Our account starts with Arturo Rosenblueth as a key intellectual figure in the foundation and formation of the field. After revisiting a historical context of people and places, we proceed to a cultural and media archeological investigation that helps us obtain new insights into the ongoing effort to intertwine the complex intellectual networks across different countries in Latin America, North (...)
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  8.  6
    Using AI and ML to Optimize Information Discovery in Under-Utilized, Holocaust-Related Records.Kirsten Strigel Carter, Abby Gondek, William Underwood, Teddy Randby & Richard Marciano - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):837-858.
    Digital cultural assets are often thought to exist in separate spheres based on their two principal points of origin: digitized and born digital. Increasingly, advances in digital curation are blurring this dichotomy, by introducing so-called “collections as data,” which regardless of their origination make cultural assets more amenable to the application of new computational tools and methodologies. This paper brings together archivists, scholars, and technologists to demonstrate computational treatments of digital cultural assets using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning techniques that (...)
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  9.  7
    Vi/vi/sec/tion of industrial design. Gui Bonsiepe and the formulation of the interface concept. Intec Chile 1972. Document of the beginning of a paradigm shift in the interaction design disciplines. [REVIEW]David Maulén de los Reyes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1115-1129.
    In 1972, in Chile, the German designer Gui Bonsiepe was in charge of the Industrial Design Department of Technological Institute of the National Corporation for the Promotion of Production INTEC Corfo, during the government of socialist President Salvador Allende in Chile. In this article from the INTEC magazine n.2, published this time for the first time in English, Bonsiepe develops a theoretical formulation, applied to the field of design, through which he proposes a concept that will be fundamental in the (...)
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  10.  5
    Finding light in dark archives: using AI to connect context and content in email.Stephanie Decker, David A. Kirsch, Santhilata Kuppili Venkata & Adam Nix - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):859-872.
    Email archives are important historical resources, but access to such data poses a unique archival challenge and many born-digital collections remain dark, while questions of how they should be effectively made available remain. This paper contributes to the growing interest in preserving access to email by addressing the needs of users, in readiness for when such collections become more widely available. We argue that for the content of email to be meaningfully accessed, the context of email must form part of (...)
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  11.  8
    Jumping Into the Artistic Deep End: Building the Catalogue Raisonné.Todd Dobbs, Aileen Benedict & Zbigniew Ras - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):873-889.
    The catalogue raisonné compiled by art scholars holds information about an artist’s work such as a painting’s image, medium, provenance, and title. The catalogue raisonné as a tangible asset suffers from the challenges of art authentication and impermanence. As the catalogue raisonné is born digital, the impermanence challenge abates, but the authentication challenge persists. With the popularity of artificial intelligence and its deep learning architectures of computer vision, we propose to address the authentication challenge by creating a new artefact for (...)
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  12.  8
    Born Digital or Fossilised Digitally? How Born Digital Data Systems Continue the Legacy of Social Violence Towards LGBTQI + Communities: A Case Study of Experiences in the Republic of Ireland.Noeleen Donnelly, Larry Stapleton & Jennifer O’Mahoney - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):905-919.
    The AI and Society discourse has previously drawn attention to the ways that digital systems embody the values of the technology development community from which they emerge through the development and deployment process. Research shows how this effect leads to a particular treatment of gender in computer systems development, a treatment which lags far behind the rich understanding of gender that social studies scholarship reveals and people across society experience. Many people do not relate to the narrow binary gender options (...)
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  13.  10
    Cybersyn, big data, variety engineering and governance.Raul Espejo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1163-1177.
    This contribution offers reflections about Chilean Cybersyn, 50 years ago. In recent years, Cybersyn, has received significant attention. It was the brainchild of Stafford Beer, who conceived it to support the transformation of the Chilean economy from its bureaucratic history to hopefully create a vibrant and modern society, driven by cybernetic tools. These aspects have received much attention in recent times; however, in this contribution, I want to discuss how working in Cybersyn influenced my work after the coup of 1973. (...)
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  14.  7
    The Cybernetics of political communications and social transformation in Colombia: the case of the National Audit Office.Raúl Espejo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1255-1267.
    This contribution offers the author’s personal experience with a project that took place 25 years ago in Latin America. This was about Second Order Auditing in Colombia during the second part of the 1990s. This project was carried out at the Country’s National Auditing Office, and was an application of the Viable System Model and the Viplan Methodology to a National Context. It was an innovative project at the CGR, focused on Second Order Auditing, to improve communications within the fabric (...)
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  15.  10
    Democracy and Second-Order Cybernetics: The Ascent of Participation and Creativity.Carlos Senna Figueiredo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1153-1162.
    An exceptional chain of events in science, technology, art and planning took place in Latin America in the 1970s. Does this wonder shed light upon our view of the basic roots of cultural, social and political blooming? This paper intends to adduce evidence on second-order cybernetics processes underlying five outstanding cases in real societies and to disclose the links between democracy and unfettering momentum for freedom and creativity. Namely, Oscar Varsavsky, national projects, styles of development, scientific and technological autonomy; Stefano (...)
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  16.  8
    URUCIB: A Technological Revolution in Post-Dictatorship Uruguay.Víctor Ganón - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1231-1254.
    When URUCIB was created, we did not know we were making an Executive Information Systems. In those days, the development of information technology was very nascent, and its impact on developing countries was even more limited. This paper tells how a government imagined using these resources and put them at the service of its management to have real-time information to guide decision-making. It shows how an interdisciplinary team of professionals from informatics, cybernetics, economics, statistics, and politics worked to create a (...)
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  17.  6
    Transformational AI: Seeing Through the Lens of Digital Heritage and ‘Cybersyn’.Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):815-818.
  18.  5
    Creating a Linked Data thesaurus for Irish traditional music.Treasa Harkin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):967-974.
    Irish traditional music is a complex system of interconnections and relationships. For example, the same tune title can refer to many different tunes, and the same tune can have many different titles. Developing a system whereby a tune can be presented with all its variants and relations, along with its source recordings, has been the work of many scholars in the field. It is only with the advent of Linked Data technologies that a solution to this issue can be truly (...)
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  19.  7
    Unlocking Digital Archives: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on AI and Born-Digital Data.Lise Jaillant & Annalina Caputo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):823-835.
    Co-authored by a Computer Scientist and a Digital Humanist, this article examines the challenges faced by cultural heritage institutions in the digital age, which have led to the closure of the vast majority of born-digital archival collections. It focuses particularly on cultural organizations such as libraries, museums and archives, used by historians, literary scholars and other Humanities scholars. Most born-digital records held by cultural organizations are inaccessible due to privacy, copyright, commercial and technical issues. Even when born-digital data are publicly (...)
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  20.  10
    Born free: a tale of two rivers.Tauriq Jenkins, Richard Ennals & June Bam-Hutchison - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):989-990.
  21.  7
    From cybersin to cybernet. Considerations for a cybernetics design thinking in the socialism of the XXI century.Leonardo Lavanderos - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1279-1292.
    From its origins, cybernetics has based its desire on the concept of transverse nature, today transdisciplinary. Within its history, the breaking point is unquestionably Stafford Beer and the VMS applied in Salvador Allende's government. Chile's historical conditions and context undoubtedly allowed a series of conceptual emergencies that were not necessarily developed after the 1973 coup d'état. Beer's design, as he claims, could serve both a socialist vision and a fascist command. This tells us that the tool depends on the hand (...)
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  22.  8
    On the relationships between philosophy of technology, cybernetics, and aesthetics with their impacts on Latin America.Cornelie Leopold - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1027-1044.
    There had been interesting interactions between philosophical reflections, technical developments and the work of artists, poets and designers, starting especially in the 1950s and 1960s with a stimulating cell in Stuttgart and Ulm in Germany spreading mutual international interactions. The paper aims to describe the philosophical background of Max Bense with his research on the intellectual history of mathematics and the upcoming studies on technology and cybernetics. Together with communication theories and semiotics, new aesthetics such as cybernetic aesthetics had been (...)
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  23.  12
    Cybernetics in Chile: A History with Unexpected Chapters.Juan-Carlos Letelier - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1105-1113.
    During the sixties, a most curious symbiosis took hold between Heinz von Foerster then the Director of a top-notch and lavishly funded US laboratory [Biological Computer Laboratory, 1958–1975] and the Chilean neuroscientist Humberto R. Maturana professor at the Universidad de Chile. The chance encounter between them triggered a long-lasting friendship and a fundamental change in our understanding of Systems Science. In particular the contributions of Biology of Cognition and Autopoiesis are important to understand this change and the years 1968–1973 are (...)
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  24.  13
    Cybernetics and Systems Art in Latin America: The Art and Communication Center (CAyC) and its Pioneering Art and Technology Network.José-Carlos Mariátegui - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1071-1084.
    Towards the end of the 1960s—a period of intense creative, technological and political changes—the Argentinian art critic and entrepreneur Jorge Glusberg founded the CAyC in Buenos Aires. CAyC was an interdisciplinary experimental project that explored the relationship between art, technology and society. It sought to articulate a network of discussions and productions by a new style of Latin American artist, deeply influenced by science, technology and society. Glusberg defined such practice as Systems Art, which appeared in three ways, namely as (...)
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  25.  5
    Bio-digital architecture.David Maulén de los Reyes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1191-1206.
    The concept of “Bio-Digital Architecture” is not new and it is within an area of great speculation and few well-demarcated definitions. A key factor in the definition and practice of technology is the difference between its production and use. If we assume that forms of use are also technical, this distinction is intrinsic to countries based on economies without added value and their histories focused on reverting this situation. This article proposes the revision of a paradigm shift in South America (...)
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  26.  9
    Why Did Cybernetics Disappear From Latin America?David Maulén de los Reyes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1293-1306.
    The Korean economist Ha-Joon Chang proposed the theory of "kicking away the ladder", in reference to how the world’s great powers managed to establish themselves as such after a prolonged period of robust measures to protect their development. Once they achieved that, they entered the free global market, demanding that small countries eschew any protectionist measures and immediately enter the ‘free trade’ in a highly unprotected manner. According to this approach, Cybernetics in Latin America can be interpreted in different ways: (...)
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  27.  9
    Using Linked Data to create provenance-rich metadata interlinks: the design and evaluation of the NAISC-L interlinking framework for libraries, archives and museums.Lucy McKenna, Christophe Debruyne & Declan O’Sullivan - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):921-947.
    Linked data have the capability to open up and share materials, held in libraries, archives and museums, in ways that are restricted by many existing metadata standards. Specifically, LD interlinking can be used to enrich data and to improve data discoverability on the Web through interlinking related resources across datasets and institutions. However, there is currently a notable lack of interlinking across leading LD projects in LAMs, impacting upon the discoverability of their materials. This research describes the Novel Authoritative Interlinking (...)
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  28.  8
    Back and forth: cybernetics interrelations and how it spread in Latin America.Ignacio Nieto Larrain, José-Carlos Mariátegui & David Maulén de los Reyes - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1001-1012.
    Cybernetics is a science characterized by the utopian search for new relationships between different areas of knowledge. After the Second World War, the best-known references in Western academia were Norbert Wiener’s approaches to this new discipline. However, there is another little-known hemisphere of this development that remains understudied and we claim is key for its history which refers to the pioneering work of scientists, engineers and cultural practitioners in Latin America, as well as the materialization of specific experiences that lead (...)
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  29.  8
    Cybernetics, Operations Research and Information Theory at the Ulm School of Design and its Influence on Latin America.David Oswald - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1045-1057.
    The Chilean Cybersyn project, an attempt to manage a nation’s economy by cybernetic methods, has evoked more and more interest in recent years. The project’s design lead and several team members were alumni of the Ulm School of Design—an institution that has been labelled “Bauhaus successor” and today is famous for a no-arts and method-led design approach with strong societal aspirations. The school also influenced the emerging design discipline in Latin America during the 1960s and 70s. This article reviews topics (...)
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  30.  4
    The Role of Born Digital Data in Confronting a Difficult and Contested Past Through Digital Storytelling: The Waterford Memories Project.Jennifer O’Mahoney - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):949-958.
  31.  6
    Digital cultural heritage standards: from silo to semantic web.Brenda O’Neill & Larry Stapleton - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):891-903.
    This paper is a survey of standards being used in the domain of digital cultural heritage with focus on the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard created by the Library of Congress in the United States of America. The process of digitization of cultural heritage requires silo breaking in a number of areas—one area is that of academic disciplines to enable the performance of rich interdisciplinary work. This lays the foundation for the emancipation of the second form of silo which are (...)
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  32.  9
    Conjectural Artworks: Seeing at and Beyond Maturana and Varela’s Visual Thinking on Life and Cognition.Sergio Rodríguez Gómez - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1307-1318.
    This article delineates the notion of conjectural artworks—that is, ways of thinking and explaining formal and relational phenomena by visual means—and presents an appraisal and review of the use of such visual ways in the work of Chilean biologists and philosophers Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. Particularly, the article focuses on their recurrent uses of Cellular Automaton, that is, discrete, locally interacting, rule-based mathematical models, as conjectural artworks for understanding the concepts of autopoiesis, structural coupling, cognition and enaction:. Additionally, the (...)
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  33.  4
    Cybernetic governance of the Peruvian State: a proposal.Ricardo Rodriguez-Ulloa - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1207-1229.
    This paper aims to make a proposal to govern the Peruvian State under the umbrella of management cybernetics, following the paths of the viable system model, proposed by Prof. Stafford Beer, enriched with other soft and hard systemic methodologies and technologies, to cover the soft and hard issues that are part of the complex Peruvian reality at different levels of recursion. For doing this, four defined perspectives were adopted to understand the complexity of Peru: the sectoral view, the regions view, (...)
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  34.  4
    Managing and accessing web archives: Irish practitioners’ perspectives.Maria Ryan, Della Keating & Joanna Finegan - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):975-984.
    This article provides practitioners’ perspectives on preservation of the Irish web space by the National Library of Ireland. The context of this work is outlined including the history of Ireland’s national library, its role, resources and place in library, archive, cultural and digital preservation networks. The development of the NLI Web Archive is discussed within the wider context of the Library’s mission and digital collecting and preservation policies, as well as international approaches to preserving the web. The article looks at (...)
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  35.  4
    “Born Digital” Shedding Light Into the Darkness of Digital Culture.Larry Stapleton & Lise Jaillant - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):819-822.
  36.  3
    Openness and privacy in born-digital archives: reflecting the role of AI development.Angeliki Tzouganatou - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):991-999.
    Galleries, libraries, archives and museums are striving to retain audience attention to issues related to cultural heritage, by implementing various novel opportunities for audience engagement through technological means online. Although born-digital assets for cultural heritage may have inundated the Internet in some areas, most of the time they are stored in “digital warehouses,” and the questions of the digital ecosystem’s sustainability, meaningful public participation and creative reuse of data still remain. Emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, are used to bring (...)
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  37.  14
    Will archivists use AI to enhance or to dumb down our societal memory?Titia van der Werf & Bram van der Werf - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):985-988.
  38.  7
    Operative Communication: Project Cybersyn and the Intersection of Information Design, Interface Design, and Interaction Design.Sebastian Vehlken - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1131-1152.
    This article examines the connecting lines between the Chilean Project Cybersyn’s interface design, the German Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm and its cybernetically inspired approaches towards information design, and later developments in interaction design and the emerging field of Human–Computer Interaction in the USA. In particular, it first examines how early works of designers Tomàs Maldonado and Gui Bonsiepe on operative communication, that is, language-independent pictogram systems and visual grammars for computational systems, were intertwined with attempts to ground industrial design in (...)
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  39.  8
    After the “New Aesthetic”: A Short History of the Cybernetic Turn in Brazil.Nathaniel Wolfson - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (3):1059-1069.
    In this article, I explore a short history of exchange between cybernetics and aesthetics in Brazil, beginning with the reception of Max Bense’s “new aesthetic” by concrete and neo-concrete poets and artists. I focus on his intellectual exchange with the poet and literary critic Haroldo de Campos, who promoted Bense’s information aesthetics in Brazil throughout the 1960s to tell a little-known history of cybernetic theory wedded to aesthetic practice, demonstrating the role that Brazilian critics, writers and artists played in mediating (...)
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  40.  26
    Empathic responses and moral status for social robots: an argument in favor of robot patienthood based on K. E. Løgstrup.Simon N. Balle - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):535-548.
    Empirical research on human–robot interaction has demonstrated how humans tend to react to social robots with empathic responses and moral behavior. How should we ethically evaluate such responses to robots? Are people wrong to treat non-sentient artefacts as moral patients since this rests on anthropomorphism and ‘over-identification’ —or correct since spontaneous moral intuition and behavior toward nonhumans is indicative for moral patienthood, such that social robots become our ‘Others’?. In this research paper, I weave extant HRI studies that demonstrate empathic (...)
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  41.  14
    Drone culture: perspectives on autonomy and anonymity.Garfield Benjamin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):635-645.
    This article addresses the problematic perspectives of drone culture. In critiquing focus on the drone’s apparent ‘autonomy’, it argues that such devices function as part of a socio-technical network. They are relational parts of human–machine interaction that, in our changing geopolitical realities, have a powerful influence on politics, reputation and warfare. Drawing on Žižek’s conception of parallax, the article stresses the importance of culture and perception in forming the role of the drone in widening power asymmetries. It examines how perceptions (...)
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  42.  16
    A Critical Analysis of the Representations of Older Adults in the Field of Human–Robot Interaction.Dafna Burema - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):455-465.
    This paper argues that there is a need to critically assess bias in the representations of older adults in the field of Human–Robot Interaction. This need stems from the recognition that technology development is a socially constructed process that has the potential to reinforce problematic understandings of older adults. Based on a qualitative content analysis of 96 academic publications, this paper indicates that older adults are represented as; frail by default, independent by effort; silent and technologically illiterate; burdensome; and problematic (...)
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  43.  14
    Drones, Robots and Perceived Autonomy: Implications for Living Human Beings.Stephen J. Cowley & Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):591-594.
  44.  13
    Service Robots for Affective Labor: A Sociology of Labor Perspective.Anna Dobrosovestnova, Glenda Hannibal & Tim Reinboth - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):487-499.
    Profit-oriented service sectors such as tourism, hospitality, and entertainment are increasingly looking at how professional service robots can be integrated into the workplace to perform socio-cognitive tasks that were previously reserved for humans. This is a work in which social and labor sciences recognize the principle role of emotions. However, the models and narratives of emotions that drive research, design, and deployment of service robots in human–robot interaction differ considerably from how emotions are framed in the sociology of labor and (...)
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  45.  14
    Attribution of Autonomy and its Role in Robotic Language Acquisition.Frank Förster & Kaspar Althoefer - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):605-617.
    The false attribution of autonomy and related concepts to artificial agents that lack the attributed levels of the respective characteristic is problematic in many ways. In this article, we contrast this view with a positive viewpoint that emphasizes the potential role of such false attributions in the context of robotic language acquisition. By adding emotional displays and congruent body behaviors to a child-like humanoid robot’s behavioral repertoire, we were able to bring naïve human tutors to engage in so called intent (...)
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  46.  20
    Should My Robot Know What's Best for Me? Human–Robot Interaction Between User Experience and Ethical Design.Nora Fronemann, Kathrin Pollmann & Wulf Loh - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):517-533.
    To integrate social robots in real-life contexts, it is crucial that they are accepted by the users. Acceptance is not only related to the functionality of the robot but also strongly depends on how the user experiences the interaction. Established design principles from usability and user experience research can be applied to the realm of human–robot interaction, to design robot behavior for the comfort and well-being of the user. Focusing the design on these aspects alone, however, comes with certain ethical (...)
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  47.  10
    Seeming Autonomy, Technology and the Uncanny Valley.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):595-603.
    This paper extends Mori’s uncanny valley-hypothesis to include technologies that fail its basic criterion that uncanniness arises when the subject experiences a discrepancy in a machine’s human likeness. In so doing, the paper considers Mori’s hypothesis about the uncanny valley as an instance of what Heidegger calls the ‘challenging revealing’ nature of modern technology. It introduces seeming autonomy and heteronomy as phenomenological categories that ground human being-in-the-world including our experience of things and people. It is suggested that this categorical distinction (...)
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  48.  14
    Autonomous Technologies in Human Ecologies: Enlanguaged Cognition, Practices and Technology.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Stephen J. Cowley - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):687-699.
    Advanced technologies such as drones, intelligent algorithms and androids have grave implications for human existence. With the purpose of exploring their basis for doing so, the paper proposes a framework for investigating the complex relationship between such devices and human practices and language-mediated cognition. Specifically, it centers on the importance of the typically neglected intermediate layer of culture which not only drives both technophobia and philia but also, more fundamentally, connects pre-reflective experience and socio-material practices by placing advanced technologies in (...)
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  49.  19
    Moving Beyond the Mirror: Relational and Performative Meaning Making in Human–Robot Communication.Petra Gemeinboeck & Rob Saunders - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):549-563.
    Current research in human–robot interaction often focuses on rendering communication between humans and robots more ‘natural’ by designing machines that appear and behave humanlike. Communication, in this human-centric approach, is often understood as a process of successfully transmitting information in the form of predefined messages and gestures. This article introduces an alternative arts-led, movement-centric approach, which embraces the differences of machinelike robotic artefacts and, instead, investigates how meaning is dynamically enacted in the encounter of humans and machines. Our design approach (...)
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  50.  12
    Autonomous Reciprocity: Context Matters.Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):415-416.
  51.  11
    Alienation in a digitalized world.Trond Haga - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):801-814.
    In this paper, the aim is to study how the work organization in one specific company for one specific trade has changed over time and with these changes, the presence and absence of alienation of employees in this trade. Blauner’s U-shaped alienation development trend has been a reference in discussions on alienation. It displays a connection between the degree of alienation and technological development. The findings from this study verify the trend and the connection in the case company. However, although (...)
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  52.  9
    “Magic through many minor measures”: How introducing a flowline production mode in six steps enables journalist team autonomy in local news organizations.Aina Landsverk Hagen, Ingrid M. Tolstad & Arne Lindseth Bygdås - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):745-759.
    While facing cuts, downsizing and revenue losses, media organizations experience paradoxical demands in being organized for print or linear production with daily deadlines and simultaneously striving to be ‘digital first’ and produce and publish stories online on a continuous basis throughout the day. In this paper, we describe efforts applied when introducing the metaphor flowline in a medium-sized newspaper organization in Norway with the aim of aligning their production and publishing processes to readers’ consumption of online news. Both the production (...)
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  53.  8
    What is the message of the robot medium? Considering media ecology and mobilities in critical robotics research.Julia M. Hildebrand - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):443-453.
    This article makes the case for including frameworks of media ecology and mobilities research in the shaping of critical robotics research for a human-centered and holistic lens onto robot technologies. The two meta-disciplines, which align in their attention to relational processes of communication and movement, provide useful tools for critically exploring emerging human–robot dimensions and dynamics. Media ecology approaches human-made technologies as media that can shape the way we think, feel, and act. Relatedly, mobilities research highlights various kinds of influential (...)
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  54.  14
    Could a Robot Flirt? 4E Cognition, Reactive Attitudes, and Robot Autonomy.Charles Lassiter - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):675-686.
    In this paper, I develop a view about machine autonomy grounded in the theoretical frameworks of 4E cognition and PF Strawson’s reactive attitudes. I begin with critical discussion of White, and conclude that his view is strongly committed to functionalism as it has developed in mainstream analytic philosophy since the 1950s. After suggesting that there is good reason to resist this view by appeal to developments in 4E cognition, I propose an alternative view of machine autonomy. Namely, machines count as (...)
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  55.  15
    A critique of robotics in health care.Arne Maibaum, Andreas Bischof, Jannis Hergesell & Benjamin Lipp - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):467-477.
    When the social relevance of robotic applications is addressed today, the use of assistive technology in care settings is almost always the first example. So-called care robots are presented as a solution to the nursing crisis, despite doubts about their technological readiness and the lack of concrete usage scenarios in everyday nursing practice. We inquire into this interconnection of social robotics and care. We show how both are made available for each other in three arenas: innovation policy, care organization, and (...)
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  56.  10
    Social implications of autonomous vehicles: a focus on time.Cian McCarroll & Federico Cugurullo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):791-800.
    The urban environment is increasingly engaging with artificial intelligence, a focus on the automation of urban processes, whether it be singular artefacts or city-wide systems. The impact of such technological innovation on the social dynamics of the urban environment is an ever changing and multi-faceted field of research. In this paper, the space and time defined by the autonomous vehicle is used as a window to view the way in which a shift in urban transport dynamics can impact the temporal (...)
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  57.  10
    Robotification & Ethical Cleansing.Marco Nørskov - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):425-441.
    Robotics is currently not only a cutting-edge research area, but is potentially disruptive to all domains of our lives—for better and worse. While legislation is struggling to keep pace with the development of these new artifacts, our intellectual limitations and physical laws seem to present the only hard demarcation lines, when it comes to state-of-the-art R&D. To better understand the possible implications, the paper at hand critically investigates underlying processes and structures of robotics in the context of Heidegger’s and Nishitani’s (...)
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  58.  19
    Can Communication with Social Robots Influence How Children Develop Empathy? Best-Evidence Synthesis.Ekaterina Pashevich - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):579-589.
    Social robots are gradually entering children’s lives in a period when children learn about social relationships and exercise prosocial behaviors with parents, peers, and teachers. Designed for long-term emotional engagement and to take the roles of friends, teachers, and babysitters, such robots have the potential to influence how children develop empathy. This article presents a review of the literature in the fields of human–robot interaction, psychology, neuropsychology, and roboethics, discussing the potential impact of communication with social robots on children’s social (...)
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  59.  4
    Team Autonomy and Digital Transformation.Johan E. Ravn, Nils Brede Moe, Viktoria Stray & Eva Amdahl Seim - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):701-710.
    The organizational theory literature is reasonably unanimous that team autonomy is a key factor for employee well-being and motivation as well as organizational performance. However, team autonomy is challenged when its processes and outputs need to be aligned with actors and factors external to a team. There are likely challenges and conflicts between team autonomy and the need for coherence in the wider system. Team autonomy has a range of implications and is challenged by a number of factors, such as (...)
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  60.  13
    An Architecture Governance Approach for Agile Development by Tailoring the Spotify Model.Abdallah Salameh & Julian M. Bass - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):761-780.
    The role of software architecture in large-scale Agile development is important because several teams need to work together to release a single software product while helping to maximise teams’ autonomy. Governing and aligning Agile architecture across autonomous squads, when using the Spotify model, is a challenge because the Spotify model lacks practices for addressing Agile architecture governance. To explore how software architecture can be governed and aligned by scaling the Spotify model, we conducted a longitudinal embedded case study in a (...)
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  61.  12
    Introduction: Special Issue—Critical Robotics Research.Sofia Serholt, Sara Ljungblad & Niamh Ní Bhroin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):417-423.
  62.  19
    Microdecisions and Autonomy in Self-Driving Cars: Virtual Probabilities.Florian Sprenger - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):619-634.
    To operate in an unpredictable environment, a vehicle with advanced driving assistance systems, such as a robot or a drone, not only needs to register its surroundings but also to combine data from different sensors into a world model, for which it employs filter algorithms. Such world models, as this article argues with reference to the SLAM problem in robotics, consist of nothing other than probabilities about states and events arising in the environment. The model, thus, contains a virtuality of (...)
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  63.  6
    Development and Implementation Processes of Digitalization in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing: Enablers and Barriers.Sylvi Thun, Ottar Bakås & Tore Christian Bjørsvik Storholmen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):725-743.
    This study seeks to gain knowledge about key conditions in the process of digitalization using a socio-technical systems design as a theoretical framework and a case-study approach. Semi-structured interviews with 15 relevant stakeholders are conducted to learn about barriers to and enablers of the development and implementation process in a manufacturing company. After conducting a thematic analysis, eight higher-ranked themes relevant to the digitalization process are identified. These are grouped to describe the overarching phenomena, resulting in four enablers and four (...)
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  64.  27
    Social Robots and the Risks to Reciprocity.Aimee van Wynsberghe - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):479-485.
    A growing body of research can be found in which roboticists are designing for reciprocity as a key construct for successful human–robot interaction. Given the centrality of reciprocity as a component for our moral lives, this paper confronts the possibility of what things would look like if the benchmark to achieve perceived reciprocity were accomplished. Through an analysis of the value of reciprocity from the care ethics tradition the richness of reciprocity as an inherent value is revealed: on the micro-level, (...)
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  65.  11
    Robots Beyond Science Fiction: Mutual Learning in Human–Robot Interaction on the Way to Participatory Approaches.Astrid Weiss & Katta Spiel - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):501-515.
    Putting laypeople in an active role as direct expert contributors in the design of service robots becomes more and more prominent in the research fields of human–robot interaction and social robotics. Currently, though, HRI is caught in a dilemma of how to create meaningful service robots for human social environments, combining expectations shaped by popular media with technology readiness. We recapitulate traditional stakeholder involvement, including two cases in which new intelligent robots were conceptualized and realized for close interaction with humans. (...)
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  66.  36
    Autonomous Reboot: Kant, the Categorical Imperative, and Contemporary Challenges for Machine Ethicists.Jeffrey White - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):661-673.
    Ryan Tonkens has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe—"rational" and "free"—while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of machine ethicists to facilitate the creation of AMAs that are perfectly and not merely reliably ethical. This series of papers meets this challenge by landscaping traditional moral theory in resolution of a comprehensive account of moral agency. The first paper established the challenge and set out autonomy in Aristotelian terms. (...)
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  67.  29
    Autonomous Reboot: Aristotle, Autonomy and the Ends of Machine Ethics.Jeffrey White - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):647-659.
    Tonkens has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe—"rational" and "free"—while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of machine ethicists to facilitate the creation of AMAs that are perfectly and not merely reliably ethical. Challenges for machine ethicists have also been presented by Anthony Beavers and Wendell Wallach. Beavers pushes for the reinvention of traditional ethics to avoid "ethical nihilism" due to the reduction of morality to mechanical causation. (...)
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  68.  8
    Initiated and received task interdependence and distributed team performance: the mediating roles of different forms of role clarity.Sut I. Wong & Suzanne van Gils - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):781-790.
    Distributed agile teams are increasingly employed in organizations, partly due to the increased focus on digital transformation. However, research findings about the performance of such teams appear to be inconsistent, calling for more research to investigate the conditions under which distributed agile teams may thrive. Given that task coordination is particularly challenging when team members are not co-located, the present study investigates the roles of the two types of task interdependence, i.e., initiated versus received task interdependence. Survey results from 191 (...)
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  69.  6
    It is like taking a ball for a walk: on boundary work in software development.Kristin Wulff & Hanne Finnestrand - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):711-724.
    In this paper, we explore how the choices of boundary work in software development influence the team autonomy enacted by team members. Boundary work is when people protect their professional individual autonomy, when they downplay that autonomy to collaborate over professional boundaries, and when they create new boundaries. Team autonomy is here defined as a team using their autonomy to collaborate in deciding their own output. We use an action research design, with varied methodologies carried out through three action cycles. (...)
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  70.  13
    Socially robotic: making useless machines.Ceyda Yolgormez & Joseph Thibodeau - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):565-578.
    As robots increasingly become part of our everyday lives, questions arise with regards to how to approach them and how to understand them in social contexts. The Western history of human–robot relations revolves around competition and control, which restricts our ability to relate to machines in other ways. In this study, we take a relational approach to explore different manners of socializing with robots, especially those that exceed an instrumental approach. The nonhuman subjects of this study are built to explore (...)
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  71.  11
    The effect of visual and informational complexity of news website designs on comprehension and memorization among undergraduate students.Nidal Al Said & Khaleel M. Al-Said - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):401-409.
    The importance of web designs for commercial and informational use has been a focus of research for over a decade and a half. At present, findings concerning the influence of news website designs on the perception and recall of information are rather contradictory. This study aims to identify how the basic web designs aesthetically affect users. A total of 214 students from Arab universities were shown three news sites with different designs and asked to complete two tests to determine their (...)
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  72. From the Ground Truth Up: Doing AI Ethics From Practice to Principles.James Brusseau - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):1-7.
    Recent AI ethics has focused on applying abstract principles downward to practice. This paper moves in the other direction. Ethical insights are generated from the lived experiences of AI-designers working on tangible human problems, and then cycled upward to influence theoretical debates surrounding these questions: 1) Should AI as trustworthy be sought through explainability, or accurate performance? 2) Should AI be considered trustworthy at all, or is reliability a preferable aim? 3) Should AI ethics be oriented toward establishing protections for (...)
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  73.  16
    The AI doctor will see you now: assessing the framing of AI in news coverage.Mercedes Bunz & Marco Braghieri - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):9-22.
    One of the sectors for which Artificial Intelligence applications have been considered as exceptionally promising is the healthcare sector. As a public-facing sector, the introduction of AI applications has been subject to extended news coverage. This article conducts a quantitative and qualitative data analysis of English news media articles covering AI systems that allow the automation of tasks that so far needed to be done by a medical expert such as a doctor or a nurse thereby redistributing their agency. We (...)
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  74.  31
    Algorithmic Augmentation of Democracy: Considering Whether Technology Can Enhance the Concepts of Democracy and the Rule of Law Through Four Hypotheticals.Paul Burgess - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):97-112.
    The potential use, relevance, and application of AI and other technologies in the democratic process may be obvious to some. However, technological innovation and, even, its consideration may face an intuitive push-back in the form of algorithm aversion :114–126, 2015). In this paper, I confront this intuition and suggest that a more ‘extreme’ form of technological change in the democratic process does not necessarily result in a worse outcome in terms of the fundamental concepts of democracy and the Rule of (...)
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  75.  19
    Human Autonomy, Technological Automation.Simona Chiodo - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):39-48.
    We continuously talk about autonomous technologies. But how can words qualifying technologies be the very same words chosen by Kant to define what is essentially human, i.e. being autonomous? The article focuses on a possible answer by reflecting upon both etymological and philosophical issues, as well as upon the case of autonomous vehicles. Most interestingly, on the one hand, we have the notion of “autonomy”, meaning that there is a “law” that is “self-given”, and, on the other hand, we have (...)
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  76.  29
    Is Explainable Artificial Intelligence Intrinsically Valuable?Nathan Colaner - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):231-238.
    There is general consensus that explainable artificial intelligence is valuable, but there is significant divergence when we try to articulate why, exactly, it is desirable. This question must be distinguished from two other kinds of questions asked in the XAI literature that are sometimes asked and addressed simultaneously. The first and most obvious is the ‘how’ question—some version of: ‘how do we develop technical strategies to achieve XAI?’ Another question is specifying what kind of explanation is worth having in the (...)
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  77.  9
    Categorization and challenges of utilitarianisms in the context of artificial intelligence.Štěpán Cvik - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):291-297.
    The debates about ethics in the context of artificial intelligence have been recently focusing primarily on various types of utilitarianisms. This article suggests a categorization of the various presented utilitarianisms into static utilitarianisms and dynamic utilitarianisms. It explains the main features of both. Then, it presents the challenges the utilitarianisms in each group need to be able to deal with. Since it appears that those cannot be overcome in the context of each group alone, the article suggests a possibility of (...)
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  78.  8
    Automated news recommendation in front of adversarial examples and the technical limits of transparency in algorithmic accountability.Antonin Descampe, Clément Massart, Simon Poelman, François-Xavier Standaert & Olivier Standaert - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):67-80.
    Algorithmic decision making is used in an increasing number of fields. Letting automated processes take decisions raises the question of their accountability. In the field of computational journalism, the algorithmic accountability framework proposed by Diakopoulos formalizes this challenge by considering algorithms as objects of human creation, with the goal of revealing the intent embedded into their implementation. A consequence of this definition is that ensuring accountability essentially boils down to a transparency question: given the appropriate reverse-engineering tools, it should be (...)
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  79.  21
    Educational technology: what it is and how it works.Jon Dron - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):155-166.
    This theoretical paper elucidates the nature of educational technology and, in the process, sheds light on a number of phenomena in educational systems, from the no-significant-difference phenomenon to the singular lack of replication in studies of educational technologies. Its central thesis is that we are not just users of technologies but coparticipants in them. Our participant roles may range from pressing power switches to designing digital learning systems to performing calculations in our heads. Some technologies may demand our participation only (...)
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  80.  8
    Data Objects for Knowing.Fred Fonseca - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):195-204.
    Although true in some aspects, the suggested characterization of today’s science as a dichotomy between traditional science and data-driven science misses some of the nuance, complexity, and possibility that exists between the two positions. Part of the problem is the claim that Data Science works without theories. There are many theories behind the data that are used in science. However, for data science, the only theories that matter are those in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. In this conceptual paper, we (...)
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  81.  12
    Attitude of College Students Towards Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence in an International University in Japan.Nader Ghotbi, Manh Tung Ho & Peter Mantello - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):283-290.
    We have examined the attitude and moral perception of 228 college students towards artificial intelligence in an international university in Japan. The students were asked to select a single most significant ethical issue associated with AI in the future from a list of nine ethical issues suggested by the World Economic Forum, and to explain why they believed that their chosen issues were most important. The majority of students chose unemployment as the major ethical issue related to AI. The second (...)
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  82.  10
    In Search of the Moral Status of AI: Why Sentience is a Strong Argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):319-330.
  83.  5
    Actionable ethics.Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):1-7.
  84.  16
    Nowotny, Helga (2021). In AI we trust: power, illusion and control of predictive algorithms, Polity, Cambridge, UK, ISBN-13: 978-1509548811. [REVIEW]Karamjit S. Gill - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):411-414.
  85.  79
    Algorithmic and Human Decision Making: For a Double Standard of Transparency.Mario Günther & Atoosa Kasirzadeh - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):375-381.
    Should decision-making algorithms be held to higher standards of transparency than human beings? The way we answer this question directly impacts what we demand from explainable algorithms, how we govern them via regulatory proposals, and how explainable algorithms may help resolve the social problems associated with decision making supported by artificial intelligence. Some argue that algorithms and humans should be held to the same standards of transparency and that a double standard of transparency is hardly justified. We give two arguments (...)
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  86.  30
    Discrimination in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Bert Heinrichs - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):143-154.
    In this paper, I examine whether the use of artificial intelligence and automated decision-making aggravates issues of discrimination as has been argued by several authors. For this purpose, I first take up the lively philosophical debate on discrimination and present my own definition of the concept. Equipped with this account, I subsequently review some of the recent literature on the use AI/ADM and discrimination. I explain how my account of discrimination helps to understand that the general claim in view of (...)
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  87.  2
    Word vector embeddings hold social ontological relations capable of reflecting meaningful fairness assessments.Ahmed Izzidien - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):299-318.
    Programming artificial intelligence to make fairness assessments of texts through top-down rules, bottom-up training, or hybrid approaches, has presented the challenge of defining cross-cultural fairness. In this paper a simple method is presented which uses vectors to discover if a verb is unfair or fair. It uses already existing relational social ontologies inherent in Word Embeddings and thus requires no training. The plausibility of the approach rests on two premises. That individuals consider fair acts those that they would be willing (...)
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  88.  10
    A Computational Approach for Creativity Assessment of Culinary Products: The Case of elBulli.Antonio Jimenez-Mavillard & Juan Luis Suarez - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):331-353.
    In recent years, the gastronomy industry has increased the demand for rigorous and reliable tools to evaluate culinary creativity; but conceptually, creativity is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose an AI-based method for assessing culinary product creativity by using the renowned high cuisine restaurant elBulli as a case study to understand the proliferation and scale of an entity’s creativity and innovation. To achieve so, we trained a Random Forest Classifier to assess the (...)
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  89.  9
    The Making of AI Society: AI Futures Frames in German Political and Media Discourses.Lea Köstler & Ringo Ossewaarde - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):249-263.
    In this article, we shed light on the emergence, diffusion, and use of socio-technological future visions. The artificial intelligence future vision of the German federal government is examined and juxtaposed with the respective news media coverage of the German media. By means of a content analysis of frames, it is demonstrated how the German government strategically uses its AI future vision to uphold the status quo. The German media largely adapt the government´s frames and do not integrate alternative future narratives (...)
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  90.  21
    The Future of Artificial Intelligence, Posthumanism and the Inflection of Pixley Isaka Seme’s African Humanism.Malesela John Lamola - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):131-141.
    Increasingly, innovation in artificial intelligence technologies portends the re-conceptualization of human existentiality along the paradigm of posthumanism. An exposition of this through a critical culturo-historical methodology uncloaks the Eurocentric genitive basis of the philosophical anthropology that underpins this technological posthumanism, as well as its dystopian possibilities. As a contribution to obviating the latter, an Africanist civilizational humanism proclaimed by Pixley ka Isaka Seme is proffered as a plausible alternative paradigm for humanity’s technological advancement. Seme, a pan-Africanist thinker of the early (...)
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  91.  10
    The Future of Urban Models in the Big Data and AI Era: A Bibliometric Analysis.Marion Maisonobe - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):177-194.
    This article questions the effects on urban research dynamics of the Big Data and AI turn in urban management. Increasing access to large datasets collected in real time could make certain mathematical models developed in research fields related to the management of urban systems obsolete. These ongoing evolutions are the subject of numerous works whose main angle of reflection is the future of cities rather than the transformations at work in the academic field. Our article proposes grasp the scientific dynamics (...)
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  92.  6
    Protecting Victim and Witness Statement: Examining the Effectiveness of a Chatbot That Uses Artificial Intelligence and a Cognitive Interview.Rashid Minhas, Camilla Elphick & Julia Shaw - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):265-281.
    Information of high evidentiary quality plays a crucial role in forensic investigations. Research shows that information provided by witnesses and victims often provide major leads to an inquiry. As such, statements should be obtained in the shortest possible time following an incident. However, this is not achieved in many incidents due to demands on resources. This intersectional study examined the effectiveness of a chatbot, that uses artificial intelligence and a cognitive interview to help record statements following an incident. After viewing (...)
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  93.  13
    Experiences, Knowledge of Functions, and Social Acceptance of Robots: An Exploratory Case Study Focusing on Japan.Tatsuya Nomura & Motoharu Tanaka - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):367-374.
    Although Japanese society has become aware of some types of robots, social acceptance of robots is still not widespread. This study conducted an online questionnaire survey to investigate the relationships between experiences with and knowledge of vacuum, pet-type, and communication robots and acceptance of these robots, including the intention to use and trust. The results suggested that experiences with, knowledge of functions, and acceptance of the robots differed depending on the type of robot, and the influence of these factors on (...)
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  94.  14
    Political machines: a framework for studying politics in social machines.Orestis Papakyriakopoulos - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):113-130.
    In the age of ubiquitous computing and artificially intelligent applications, social machines serves as a powerful framework for understanding and interpreting interactions in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. Although researchers have largely used it to analyze the interactions of individuals and algorithms, limited attempts have been made to investigate the politics in social machines. In this study, I claim that social machines are per se political machines, and introduce a five-point framework for classifying influence processes in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. By drawing from scholars from (...)
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  95.  9
    Sensorimotor debilities in digital cultures.Simon Penny - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):355-366.
    This paper reflects on the qualities of living and learning in digital cultures, the design of digital technologies and the philosophical history that has informed that design. It takes as its critical perspective the field of embodied cognition as it has developed over the last three decades, in concert with emerging neurophysiology and neurocognitive research. From this perspective the paper considers cognitive, neurological and physiological effects that are increasingly becoming noticed in user populations, especially young populations. I call this class (...)
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  96.  91
    The Hard Limit on Human Nonanthropocentrism.Michael R. Scheessele - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):49-65.
    There may be a limit on our capacity to suppress anthropocentric tendencies toward non-human others. Normally, we do not reach this limit in our dealings with animals, the environment, etc. Thus, continued striving to overcome anthropocentrism when confronted with these non-human others may be justified. Anticipation of super artificial intelligence may force us to face this limit, denying us the ability to free ourselves completely of anthropocentrism. This could be for our own good.
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  97.  17
    How Do People Judge the Credibility of Algorithmic Sources?Donghee Shin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):81-96.
    The exponential growth of algorithms has made establishing a trusted relationship between human and artificial intelligence increasingly important. Algorithm systems such as chatbots can play an important role in assessing a user’s credibility on algorithms. Unless users believe the chatbot’s information is credible, they are not likely to be willing to act on the recommendation. This study examines how literacy and user trust influence perceptions of chatbot information credibility. Results confirm that algorithmic literacy and users’ trust play a pivotal role (...)
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  98.  28
    The Ethical Application of Biometric Facial Recognition Technology.Marcus Smith & Seumas Miller - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):167-175.
    Biometric facial recognition is an artificial intelligence technology involving the automated comparison of facial features, used by law enforcement to identify unknown suspects from photographs and closed circuit television. Its capability is expanding rapidly in association with artificial intelligence and has great potential to solve crime. However, it also carries significant privacy and other ethical implications that require law and regulation. This article examines the rise of biometric facial recognition, current applications and legal developments, and conducts an ethical analysis of (...)
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  99.  11
    Organisational Responses to the Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence.Bernd Carsten Stahl, Josephina Antoniou, Mark Ryan, Kevin Macnish & Tilimbe Jiya - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):23-37.
    The ethics of artificial intelligence is a widely discussed topic. There are numerous initiatives that aim to develop the principles and guidance to ensure that the development, deployment and use of AI are ethically acceptable. What is generally unclear is how organisations that make use of AI understand and address these ethical issues in practice. While there is an abundance of conceptual work on AI ethics, empirical insights are rare and often anecdotal. This paper fills the gap in our current (...)
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  100.  8
    Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):239-248.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  101.  34
    The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):215-230.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  102.  14
    The wizard and I: How transparent teleoperation and self-description (do not) affect children’s robot perceptions and child-robot relationship formation.Caroline L. van Straten, Jochen Peter, Rinaldo Kühne & Alex Barco - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):383-399.
    It has been well documented that children perceive robots as social, mental, and moral others. Studies on child-robot interaction may encourage this perception of robots, first, by using a Wizard of Oz set-up and, second, by having robots engage in self-description. However, much remains unknown about the effects of transparent teleoperation and self-description on children’s perception of, and relationship formation with a robot. To address this research gap initially, we conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 between-subject design (...)
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  103.  16
    Endowing Artificial Intelligence with legal subjectivity.Sylwia Wojtczak - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):205-213.
    This paper reflects on the problem of endowing Artificial Intelligence with legal subjectivity, especially with regard to civil law. It is necessary to reject the myth that the criteria of legal subjectivity are sentience and reason. Arguing that AI may have potential legal subjectivity based on an analogy to animals or juristic persons suggests the existence of a single hierarchy or sequence of entities, organized according to their degree of similarity to human beings; also, that the place of an entity (...)
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  104.  22
    Towards a Bioinformational Understanding of AI.Rahul D. Gautam & Balaganapathi Devarakonda - 2022 - AI and Society 37:1-23.
    The article seeks to highlight the relation between ontology and communication while considering the role of AI in society and environment. Bioinformationalism is the technical term that foregrounds this relationality. The study reveals instructive consequences for philosophy of technology in general and AI in particular. The first section introduces the bioinformational approach to AI, focusing on three critical features of the current AI debate: ontology of information, property-based vs. relational AI, and ontology vs. constitution of AI. When applied to the (...)
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  105.  81
    Maximizing Team Synergy in AI-Related Interdisciplinary Groups: An Interdisciplinary-by-Design Iterative Methodology.Piercosma Bisconti, Davide Orsitto, Federica Fedorczyk, Fabio Brau, Marianna Capasso, Lorenzo De Marinis, Hüseyin Eken, Federica Merenda, Mirko Forti, Marco Pacini & Claudia Schettini - 2022 - AI and Society 1 (1):1-10.
    In this paper, we propose a methodology to maximize the benefits of interdisciplinary cooperation in AI research groups. Firstly, we build the case for the importance of interdisciplinarity in research groups as the best means to tackle the social implications brought about by AI systems, against the backdrop of the EU Commission proposal for an Artificial Intelligence Act. As we are an interdisciplinary group, we address the multi-faceted implications of the mass-scale diffusion of AI-driven technologies. The result of our exercise (...)
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  106. Apprehending AI Moral Purpose in Practical Wisdom.Mark Graves - 2022 - AI and Society.
    Practical wisdom enables moral decision-making and action by aligning one’s apprehension of proximate goods with a distal, socially embedded interpretation of a more ultimate Good. A focus on purpose within the overall process mutually informs human moral psychology and moral AI development in their examinations of practical wisdom. AI practical wisdom could ground an AI system’s apprehension of reality in a sociotechnical moral process committed to orienting AI development and action in light of a pluralistic, diverse interpretation of that Good. (...)
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  107.  9
    Expert Responsibility in AI Development.Maria Hedlund & Erik Persson - 2022 - AI and Society:1-12.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the responsibility of AI experts for guiding the development of AI in a desirable direction. More specifically, the aim is to answer the following research question: To what extent are AI experts responsible in a forward-looking way for effects of AI technology that go beyond the immediate concerns of the programmer or designer? AI experts, in this paper conceptualised as experts regarding the technological aspects of AI, have knowledge and control of AI (...)
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