65 found

Year:

  1.  3
    On the Promotion of Safe and Socially Beneficial Artificial Intelligence.Seth D. Baum - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):543-551.
    This paper discusses means for promoting artificial intelligence that is designed to be safe and beneficial for society. The promotion of beneficial AI is a social challenge because it seeks to motivate AI developers to choose beneficial AI designs. Currently, the AI field is focused mainly on building AIs that are more capable, with little regard to social impacts. Two types of measures are available for encouraging the AI field to shift more toward building beneficial AI. Extrinsic measures impose constraints (...)
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  2.  8
    The Anthropomorphic Imperative: A Historical Analogy.Danila Bertasio - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):591-598.
    In a cultural setting in which the imitation of nature continues to be regulated by the ambitious project to cancel the dividing line between the natural and the artificial, man continues to find space for his replicative fantasies, even at the cost of breaking cultural boundaries and taboos. On the other hand, as shown in the historical analogy, this ambition, aimed not only at a partial reproduction but a true replication, seems to exhibit developmental contours that lead to the same (...)
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  3.  2
    Nudging for Good: Robots and the Ethical Appropriateness of Nurturing Empathy and Charitable Behavior.Borenstein Jason & C. Arkin Ronald - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):499-507.
    An under-examined aspect of human–robot interaction that warrants further exploration is whether robots should be permitted to influence a user’s behavior for that person’s own good. Yet an even more controversial practice could be on the horizon, which is allowing a robot to “nudge” a user’s behavior for the good of society. In this article, we examine the feasibility of creating companion robots that would seek to nurture a user’s empathy toward other human beings. As more and more computing devices (...)
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  4.  1
    Singularitarianism and Schizophrenia.Vassilis Galanos - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):573-590.
    Given the contemporary ambivalent standpoints toward the future of artificial intelligence, recently denoted as the phenomenon of Singularitarianism, Gregory Bateson’s core theories of ecology of mind, schismogenesis, and double bind, are hereby revisited, taken out of their respective sociological, anthropological, and psychotherapeutic contexts and recontextualized in the field of Roboethics as to a twofold aim: the proposal of a rigid ethical standpoint toward both artificial and non-artificial agents, and an explanatory analysis of the reasons bringing about such a polarized outcome (...)
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  5.  5
    Uncommon Voices of AI.Karamjit S. Gill - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):475-482.
  6. Erratum To: Cognitive Bearing of Techno-Advances in Kashmiri Carpet Designing.Gagan Deep Kaur - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):525-525.
  7. Cognitive Bearing of Techno-Advances in Kashmiri Carpet Designing.Gagan Deep Kaur - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):509-524.
    The design process in Kashmiri carpet weaving is a distributed process encompassing a number of actors and artifacts. These include a designer called naqash who creates the design on graphs, and a coder called talim-guru who encodes that design in a specific notation called talim which is deciphered and interpreted by the weavers to weave the design. The technological interventions over the years have influenced these artifacts considerably and triggered major changes in the practice, from heralding profound cognitive accomplishments in (...)
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  8.  9
    A Formal Account of Opportunism Based on the Situation Calculus.Jieting Luo & John-Jules Meyer - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):527-542.
    In social interactions, it is common for individuals to possess different amounts of knowledge about a specific transaction, and those who are more knowledgeable might perform opportunistic behavior to others in their interest, which promotes their value but demotes others’ value. Such a typical social behavior is called opportunistic behavior. In this paper, we propose a formal account of opportunism based on the situation calculus. We first propose a model of opportunism that only considers a single action between two agents, (...)
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  9.  2
    Can Naturalism Explain Consciousness? A Critique.Rajakishore Nath - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):563-571.
    The problem of consciousness is one of the most important problems both in cognitive science and in philosophy. There are different philosophers and different scientists who define consciousness and explain it differently. In philosophy, ‘consciousness’ does not have a definition in terms of genus and differentia or necessary and sufficient conditions. In this paper, I shall explore the very idea of machine consciousness. The machine consciousness has offered causal explanation to the ‘how’ and ‘what’ of consciousness, but they fail to (...)
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  10.  2
    The Case of Classroom Robots: Teachers’ Deliberations on the Ethical Tensions.Sofia Serholt, Wolmet Barendregt, Asimina Vasalou, Patrícia Alves-Oliveira, Aidan Jones, Sofia Petisca & Ana Paiva - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):613-631.
    Robots are increasingly being studied for use in education. It is expected that robots will have the potential to facilitate children’s learning and function autonomously within real classrooms in the near future. Previous research has raised the importance of designing acceptable robots for different practices. In parallel, scholars have raised ethical concerns surrounding children interacting with robots. Drawing on a Responsible Research and Innovation perspective, our goal is to move away from research concerned with designing features that will render robots (...)
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  11.  16
    Machine Humour: Examples From Turing Test Experiments.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):553-561.
    In this paper, we look at the possibility of a machine having a sense of humour. In particular, we focus on actual machine utterances in Turing test discourses. In doing so, we do not consider the Turing test in depth and what this might mean for humanity, rather we merely look at cases in conversations when the output from a machine can be considered to be humorous. We link such outpourings with Turing’s “arguments from various disabilities” used against the concept (...)
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  12. Sentiment Analysis on Social Campaign “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” Using Unigram Method.Devendra K. Tayal & Sumit K. Yadav - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):633-645.
    Sentiment analysis is the field of natural language processing to analyze opinionated data, for the purpose of decision making. An opinion is a statement about a subject which expresses the sentiments as well as the emotions of the opinion makers on the topic. In this paper, we develop a sentiment analysis tool namely SENTI-METER. This tool estimates the success rate of social campaigns based on the algorithms we developed that analyze the sentiment of word as well as blog. Social campaigns (...)
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  13.  1
    How to Study Public Imagination of Autonomous Systems: The Case of the Helsinki Automated Metro.Mikael Wahlström - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):599-612.
    Means of transportation are changing through advances in automation. One issue to be considered in this development is public opinion regarding these systems, yet existing studies of automated transportation do not provide theoretical or methodological means for exploring public imagination, even though this would be relevant in exploring public acceptance of future technologies. Applied for studying public views on a future automated metro system, a method was devised that includes quantitative and qualitative analysis of media and questionnaire data. Although supportive (...)
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  14. Erratum To: Arguments From Authority and Expert Opinion in Computational Argumentation Systems.Walton Douglas & Koszowy Marcin - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):497-498.
  15.  2
    Arguments From Authority and Expert Opinion in Computational Argumentation Systems.Walton Douglas & Koszowy Marcin - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):483-496.
    In this paper we show that an essential aspect of solving the problem of uncritical acceptance of expert opinions that is at the root of the ad verecundiam fallacy is the need to disentangle argument from expert opinion from another kind of appeal to authority. Formal and computational argumentation systems enable us to analyze the fault in which an error has occurred by virtue of a failure to meet one or more of the requirements of the argumentation scheme from argument (...)
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  16.  13
    Engineering Sustainable mHealth: The Role of Action Research.Ulf Gerhardt, Rüdiger Breitschwerdt & Oliver Thomas - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):339-357.
    The present paper aims to review the value of Action Research in the evolution of sustainable mHealth. On the one hand, mHealth is a medically and economically massively expanding domain. On the other hand, the mHealth development suffers from a serious lack of sustainability, which has become particularly evident through the concept of “pilotitis.” The proposed methodological remedy shows a high congruence to the principle of AR. A quantitative and qualitative literature research is performed. Each result from the qualitative literature (...)
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  17.  2
    Hermeneutic of Performing Data.Karamjit S. Gill - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):309-320.
  18.  4
    Converging Technologies and a Modern Man: Emergence of a New Type of Thinking.Anna Gorbacheva & Sergei Smirnov - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):465-473.
    The processes of changing the way of thinking, typical for modern people, and subsequently shaping a new “Homo clicking” individual are analyzed. The authors consider a specific mindset of “Homo clicking” illustrating it with some patterns and modes of action that characterize individuals in the human–machine interface. Under this frame, the influence of modern converging technologies upon human conduct is examined and functional redistribution between human beings and technical devices is outlined. In the literature, the latter phenomenon is referred to (...)
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  19.  16
    From Alan Turing to Modern AI: Practical Solutions and an Implicit Epistemic Stance.George F. Luger & Chayan Chakrabarti - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):321-338.
    It has been just over 100 years since the birth of Alan Turing and more than 65 years since he published in Mind his seminal paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence. In the Mind paper, Turing asked a number of questions, including whether computers could ever be said to have the power of “thinking”. Turing also set up a number of criteria—including his imitation game—under which a human could judge whether a computer could be said to be “intelligent”. Turing’s paper, as (...)
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  20.  4
    Comparative Foundations of Eastern and Western Thought.Daniel Memmi - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):359-368.
    Modern science and technology originated in Western Europe within a specific culture, but they have now been adopted and developed by several Eastern countries as well. We analyze the features of Western culture that may explain the rise of modern science with its associated economic development. A comparative analysis of Eastern cultures will then help us evaluate how far could contemporary science be successfully integrated within very different cultures. Without denying the role of social and political institutions, we would like (...)
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  21.  13
    Digital Technologies and Artificial Intelligence’s Present and Foreseeable Impact on Lawyering, Judging, Policing and Law Enforcement.Ephraim Nissan - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):441-464.
    ‘AI & Law’ research has been around since the 1970s, even though with shifting emphasis. This is an overview of the contributions of digital technologies, both artificial intelligence and non-AI smart tools, to both the legal professions and the police. For example, we briefly consider text mining and case-automated summarization, tools supporting argumentation, tools concerning sentencing based on the technique of case-based reasoning, the role of abductive reasoning, research into applying AI to legal evidence, tools for fighting crime and tools (...)
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  22.  2
    Anonymity Interacting with Participation on a Q&A Site.Malte Paskuda & Myriam Lewkowicz - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):369-381.
    This article presents a study that investigates how anonymity influences user participation in an online question-and-answer platform [Quora ]. The study is one step in identifying hypotheses that can be used to address a research and design issue concerning the role of anonymity in online participation, particularly in sensitive situations where people are seeking social support. Based on the literature, we present a model that describes the factors that influence participation. These factors were used when analyzing the answers to questions (...)
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  23.  1
    A Socially Inspired Energy Feedback Technology: Challenges in a Developing Scenario.Lara S. G. Piccolo, Cecília Baranauskas & Rodolfo Azevedo - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):383-399.
    Raising awareness of the environmental impact of energy generation and consumption has been a recent concern of contemporary society worldwide. Underlying the awareness of energy consumption is an intricate network of perception and social interaction that can be mediated by technology. In this paper we argue that issues regarding energy, environment and technology are very much situated and involve tensions of sociocultural nature. This exploratory investigation addresses the subject by introducing the design of a Socially-inspired Energy Eco-Feedback Technology, which is (...)
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  24.  10
    Understanding the Social Impact of ICN: Between Myth and Reality.G. Piro, S. Signorello, M. R. Palattella, L. A. Grieco, G. Boggia & T. Engel - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):401-419.
    The information-centric networking paradigm is attracting more and more interest from the research community due to its peculiarities that make it one of the best candidates for constructing the future Internet. For this reason, there are many papers in literature that study how to transform ICN principles in reality in order to magnify its relevance for the society. In order to provide a solid summary of the state of the art, the present contribution tries to summarize the main findings related (...)
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  25.  11
    Assessing Environmental Impacts of Aviation on Connected Cities Using Environmental Vulnerability Studies and Fluid Dynamics: An Indian Case Study.G. Ramchandran, J. Nagawkar, K. Ramaswamy, S. Ghosh, A. Goenka & A. Verma - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):421-432.
    As the annual air passenger traffic in India is increasing steeply, an environmental impact assessment on important cities connected by air is becoming increasingly indispensable. This study proposes an innovative screening method that uses a modified Environmental Vulnerability Index. This modified EVI calculator includes aviation-related parameters and can be used to assess the environmental vulnerabilities of political states and cities, in addition to countries as is being already done. This study also suggests the need to include aspects of human comfort (...)
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  26.  15
    Freud, Frankenstein and Our Fear of Robots: Projection in Our Cultural Perception of Technology.Michael Szollosy - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (3):433-439.
    This paper examines why robots are so often presented as monstrous in the popular media, regardless of the intended applications of the robots themselves. The figure of the robot monster is examined in its historical and cultural specificity—that is, as a direct descendent of monsters that we have grown accustomed to since the nineteenth century: Frankenstein, Mr. Hyde, vampires, zombies, etc. Using the psychoanalytic notion of projection, these monsters are understood as representing human anxieties regarding the dehumanising tendencies of science (...)
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  27.  31
    Heidegger on Technology and Gelassenheit: Wabi-Sabi and the Art of Verfallenheit.Babette Babich - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):157-166.
  28.  29
    Explanation in Philosophy and the Limits of Precision.Rebecca Bendick & Albert Borgmann - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):167-174.
  29.  10
    The Force of Wilderness Within the Ubiquity of Cyberspace.Albert Borgmann - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):261-265.
  30.  18
    Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence.Alan Bundy - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):285-287.
  31.  10
    Digitization as an Ethical Challenge.Rafael Capurro - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):277-283.
  32.  17
    A Philosophical Study of Human–Artefact Interaction.Manjari Chakrabarty - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):267-274.
  33.  16
    Language and Technology: Maps, Bridges, and Pathways.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2).
    Contemporary philosophy of technology after the empirical turn has surprisingly little to say on the relation between language and technology. This essay describes this gap, offers a preliminary discussion of how language and technology may be related to show that there is a rich conceptual space to be gained, and begins to explore some ways in which the gap could be bridged by starting from within specific philosophical subfields and traditions. One route starts from philosophy of language (both ‘‘analytic’’ and (...)
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  34.  2
    Technological Change.Mike Cooley - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):275-276.
  35.  9
    Brain Research and the Social Self in a Technological Culture.Paul T. Durbin - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):253-260.
  36.  11
    Albert Borgmann: Real American Ethics: Taking Responsibility for Our Country.Paul T. Durbin - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):289-291.
  37.  3
    Johan Berglund: Why Safety Cultures Degenerate and How to Revive Them.Richard Ennals - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):293-294.
  38.  14
    Gestalt Descriptions Embodiments and Medical Image Interpretation.Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):209-218.
    In this paper I will argue that medical specialists interpret and diagnose through technological mediations like X-ray and fMRI images, and by actualizing embodied skills tacitly they are determining the identity of objects in the perceptual field. The initial phase of human interpretation of visual objects takes place during the moments of visual perception before we are consciously aware of the perceived. What facilitate this innate ability to interpret are experiences, learning and training that become humanly embodied skills. These embodied (...)
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  39.  9
    Bernhard Irrgang: Handling Technical Power: Philosophy of Technology.Siby K. George - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):295-298.
  40.  11
    Total Enframing: Global South and Techno-Developmental Orthodoxy.Siby K. George - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):191-199.
  41.  3
    Hermeneutic of Performing Knowledge.Karamjit S. Gill - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):149-156.
  42.  2
    Programming Machine Ethics by Luís Moniz Pereira and Ari Saptawijaya.Robert Kowalski - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):299-300.
  43.  13
    Ethics of Responsibilities Distributions in a Technological Culture.Hans Lenk - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):219-231.
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  44.  13
    Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation on the Economic and Political Power.Raghunath Anant Mashelkar - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):243-251.
  45.  2
    On the Hermeneutics of Everyday Things: Or, the Philosophy of Fire Hydrants.Rosenberger Robert - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):233-241.
  46.  19
    Technology is a Laughing Matter: Bergson, the Comic and Technology.Steffen Steinert - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):201-208.
    There seems to be no connection between philosophy of humor and the philosophy of technology. In this paper, I want to make the case that there is. I will pursue a twofold goal in this paper: First, I will take an account from one of the seminal figures in the philosophy of humor, Henri Bergson, and bring out its merits for a philosophy of technology. Bergson has never been fully appreciated as a philosopher of technology. I will fill this gap (...)
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  47.  1
    Erratum To: Hermeneutics of Technologically Mediated Listening.Arun Kumar Tripathi - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):307-307.
  48.  1
    Hermeneutics of Technologically Mediated Listening.Arun Kumar Tripathi - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):301-305.
  49.  3
    Hermeneutics of Technological Culture.Arun Kumar Tripathi - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):137-148.
  50.  12
    Methods of Analysis of a Modern University’s Presence in the Internet Communicative Space.Marina N. Bychkova & Gulnafist A. Okushova - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):89-100.
  51.  11
    ‘What I See is Not What You Get’: Why Culture-Specific Behaviours for Virtual Characters Should Be User-Tested Across Cultures.Nick Degens, Birgit Endrass, Gert Jan Hofstede, Adrie Beulens & Elisabeth André - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):37-49.
  52.  2
    Introduction: Culturally Motivated Virtual Characters and Connect-Universum.S. Gill Karamjit - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):7-8.
  53.  3
    Performing Ethics.Karamjit S. Gill - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):1-5.
  54.  12
    Construction of National Identity Through a Social Network: A Case Study of Ethnic Networks of Immigrants to Russia From Central Asia.Andrey P. Glukhov - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):101-108.
  55.  11
    Real-Time Gesture Translation in Intercultural Communication.Béatrice S. Hasler, Oren Salomon, Peleg Tuchman, Amir Lev-Tov & Doron Friedman - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):25-35.
  56.  9
    Visual Representation of Realities with Different Ontological Status in Contemporary Primers and ABC Books.Larisa P. Kazakova - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):79-87.
  57.  10
    The Cultural Influence Model: When Accented Natural Language Spoken by Virtual Characters Matters.Peter Khooshabeh, Morteza Dehghani, Angela Nazarian & Jonathan Gratch - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):9-16.
  58.  11
    Eloquence of Eyes and Mouth of Virtual Agents: Cultural Study of Facial Expression Perception.Tomoko Koda & Zsofia Ruttkay - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):17-24.
  59.  9
    Speak to Me and I Tell You Who You Are! A Language-Attitude Study in a Cultural-Heritage Application.Brigitte Krenn, Stephanie Schreitter & Friedrich Neubarth - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):65-77.
  60.  4
    The Processes of Alienation in the Modern World and Their Features in Visual Culture.K. Kryshtaleva Marina - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):117-120.
  61.  10
    The Web and its Sorceries.Giuseppe Longo - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):135-136.
  62.  11
    Body-Centrism in Advertising Texts, or How We Are Inured to Pain.Iryna V. Matsyshyna - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):109-115.
  63.  19
    Fractal Computer Visualization in Psychological Research.Emma I. Meshcheryakova & Anastasia V. Larionova - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):121-133.
  64.  11
    Culture-Specific Models of Negotiation for Virtual Characters: Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Based on Culture-Specific Values.Elnaz Nouri, Kallirroi Georgila & David Traum - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):51-63.
  65.  11
    The Art, Poetics, and Grammar of Technological Innovation as Practice, Process, and Performance.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2017 - AI and Society:1-10.
    Usually technological innovation and artistic work are seen as very distinctive practices, and innovation of technologies is understood in terms of design and human intention. Moreover, thinking about technological innovation is usually categorized as “technical” and disconnected from thinking about culture and the social. Drawing on work by Dewey, Heidegger, Latour, and Wittgenstein and responding to academic discourses about craft and design, ethics and responsible innovation, transdisciplinarity, and participation, this essay questions these assumptions and examines what kind of knowledge and (...)
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