67 found

Year:

  1.  4
    Facebook and Virtual Nationhood: Social Media and the Arab Canadians Community.Ahmed Al-Rawi - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):559-571.
    This article focuses on the study of online communities and introduces an empirical study of social media production involving an online group called “Arab Canadians”. The study builds on Anderson’s concept of ‘imagined communities’ and argues that Facebook provides the platform for an online nation in which users, whether Canadians or prospective immigrants, interact and exchange ideas about a country whose imagined concept varies from one user to another. Facebook here is a virtual nation that offers the community members an (...)
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  2.  8
    “When Words Become Unclear”: Unmasking ICT Through Visual Methodologies in Participatory ICT4D.Caitlin M. Bentley, David Nemer & Sara Vannini - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):477-493.
    Across the globe, our work and social lives are increasingly integrated with Information and Communication Technologies, yet massive disparities in the values, uses and benefits of ICT exist. New methods are needed to shed light on unique and integrative concepts of ICT across cultures. This paper explores the use of visual methods to facilitate critical engagement with ICT—defined as situational awareness, reflexive ICT practice and power and control over ICT. This definition of critical ICT engagement is informed by a cultural (...)
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  3.  10
    An Agent-Oriented Account of Piaget’s Theory of Interactional Morality.Antônio Carlos da Rocha Costa - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):649-676.
    In this paper, we present a formal interpretive account of Jean Piaget’s theory of the morality that regulates social exchanges, which we call interactional morality. First, we place Piaget’s conception in the context of his epistemological and sociological works. Then, we review the core of that conception: the two types of interactional moralities that Piaget identified to be usual in social exchanges, and the role that the notion of respect-for-the-other plays in their definition. Next, we analyze the main features of (...)
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  4.  21
    Consumer Confusion From Price Competition and Excessive Product Attributes Under the Curse of Dimensionality.Takeshi Ebina & Keita Kinjo - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):615-624.
    The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of the number of products, product attributes, and prices on consumer confusion, conduct a numerical analysis to check the robustness of the results, and present an example of the cell phone market in Japan. Following an ideal point model and embedding the number of products and product attributes, we clarify how these factors affect consumer confusion and purchase probability. We show that as the number of product attributes increases, the choice (...)
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  5.  13
    Heart Intelligence: Heuristic Phenomenological Investigation Into the Coherence Experience Using HeartMath Methods.Steve Edwards - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):677-685.
    The HeartMath system refers to various methods, tools and techniques developed by the HeartMath Institute, a global research and educational organization. Working from an interdisciplinary, scientific foundation, the institute has adopted a coherence model to promote its vision and mission of education and health. This model is based on empirical, predominantly natural scientific foundations. Although many, rigorous studies have provided a substantial evidence base of the science and praxis of personal, social and global coherence, the actual coherence experience has not (...)
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  6.  11
    Vernacular Architecture as an Idiom for Promoting Cultural Continuity in South Asia with a Special Reference to Buddhist Monasteries.S. Ghosh, A. Goenka, M. Deo & D. Mandal - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):573-588.
    Architectural style is a medium for the promotion of cultural identities and cohesion. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation nations provide a prism through which all forms of vernacular architecture can be viewed. This study is presented through the lens of the soul of the eye coupled with the power of technological probing. This synthesis affords a most appealing and lyrical exploration of the course of the development of cities within the SAARC nations. It showcases research results combining the above (...)
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  7.  10
    Waves and Forms: Constructing the Cultural in Design.Ammar Halabi & Basile Zimmermann - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):403-417.
    While research in HCI on dealing with cultural issues when designing ICTs tended to adopt fixed and taxonomic views, recent theoretical perspectives closer to the social sciences have called for attending to the contingent, fluid, and dynamic aspects of the notion of culture. In this article, we contribute to translating these perspectives into an approach for informing design. We focus on abandoning prior conceptions of culture to allow the discovery of cultural differences through inductive field research while engaging with the (...)
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  8.  12
    GRASP Agents: Social First, Intelligent Later.Gert Jan Hofstede - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):535-543.
    This paper urges that if we wish to give social intelligence to our agents, it pays to look at how we acquired our social intelligence ourselves. We are born with drives and motives that are innate and deeply social. Next, as children we are socialized to acquire norms and values and to understand rituals large and small. These social elements are the core of our being. We capture them in the acronym GRASP: Groups, Rituals, Affiliation, Status, Power. As a consequence, (...)
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  9.  26
    Comparative Legal Study on Privacy and Personal Data Protection for Robots Equipped with Artificial Intelligence: Looking at Functional and Technological Aspects.Kaori Ishii - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):509-533.
    This paper undertakes a comparative legal study to analyze the challenges of privacy and personal data protection posed by Artificial Intelligence embedded in Robots, and to offer policy suggestions. After identifying the benefits from various AI usages and the risks posed by AI-related technologies, I then analyze legal frameworks and relevant discussions in the EU, USA, Canada, and Japan, and further consider the efforts of Privacy by Design originating in Ontario, Canada. While various AI usages provide great convenience, many issues, (...)
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  10.  36
    AI, Agency and Responsibility: The VW Fraud Case and Beyond.Deborah G. Johnson & Mario Verdicchio - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):639-647.
    The concept of agency as applied to technological artifacts has become an object of heated debate in the context of AI research because some AI researchers ascribe to programs the type of agency traditionally associated with humans. Confusion about agency is at the root of misconceptions about the possibilities for future AI. We introduce the concept of a triadic agency that includes the causal agency of artifacts and the intentional agency of humans to better describe what happens in AI as (...)
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  11.  18
    Exploratory Analysis of Sony AIBO Users.Csaba Kertész & Markku Turunen - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):625-638.
    It is important to understand how the cultural background, the age and the gender influence the expectations towards social robots. Although past works studied the user adaptation for some months, the users with multiple years of ownership were not subjects of any experiment to compare these criteria over the years. This exploratory research examines the owners of the discontinued Sony AIBO because these robots have not been abandoned by some enthusiastic users and they are still resold on the secondhand market. (...)
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  12.  3
    Poetry as a Cross-Cultural Analysis and Sensitizing Tool in Design.Patrizia Marti & E. B. Van der Houwen - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):545-558.
    The overall trend toward globalization in design, greatly enhanced by digital technologies, has raised issues and challenges on how to preserve the cultural differences and values of different societies. There is a tendency to lose touch with local cultural values when designing artefacts for global use, and social nuances and traditions risk to be flattened or stereotyped in the pursuit of developing new technologies and products for the global society. Attempts to reduce the tension between the global and the local (...)
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  13.  13
    The Relevance for Science of Western and Eastern Cultures.Daniel Memmi - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):599-608.
    The rise of modern science took place in Western Europe, and one may ask why this was the case. We analyze the roots of modern science by replacing scientific ideas within the framework of Western culture, notably the twin heritage of biblical thought and Greek philosophy. We also investigate Eastern traditions so as to highlight Western beliefs by comparison, and to argue for their relevance to contemporary science. Classical Western conceptions that fostered the rise of science are now largely obsolete, (...)
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  14.  3
    Culture-Based Artefacts to Inform ICT Design: Foundations and Practice.Lara S. G. Piccolo & Roberto Pereira - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):437-453.
    Cultural aspects frame our perception of the world and direct the many different ways people interact with things in it. For this reason, these aspects should be considered when designing technology with the purpose to positively impact people in a community. In this paper, we revisit the foundations of culture aiming to bring this concept in dialogue with design. To inform design with cultural aspects, we model reality in three levels of formality: informal, formal, and technical, and subscribe to a (...)
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  15.  9
    Predicting the Ideological Orientation During the Spanish 24M Elections in Twitter Using Machine Learning.Ronaldo Cristiano Prati & Elias Said-Hung - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):589-598.
    Through the application of machine learning techniques, this paper aims to estimate the importance of messages with ideological load during the elections held in Spain on May 24th, 2015 posted by Twitter’s users, as well as other variables associated with the publication of these types of messages. Our study collected and analysed 24,900 tweets associated to two of the main trending topics’ hashtags used in the election day and build a predictive model to infer the ideological orientation for the messages (...)
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  16.  12
    Are Automated Vehicles Safer Than Manually Driven Cars?Lionel P. Robert - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):687-688.
    Are automated vehicles really safer than manually driven vehicles? If so, how would we know? Answering this question has spurred a contentious debate. Unfortunately, several issues make answering this question difficult for the foreseeable future. First, how do we measure safety? Second, how can we keep track of automated vehicle safety? Finally, how do we determine what is or what is not an AV? Until these questions are addressed, it will continue to be difficult to determine whether or when AVs (...)
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  17.  6
    Opening Up the Culture Black Box in Community Technology Design.Amalia Sabiescu, Aldo de Moor & Nemanja Memarovic - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):393-402.
  18.  16
    “What Do Others Think?” An Emic Approach to Participatory Action Research in Bangladesh.Mauro Sarrica, Tom Denison, Larry Stillman, Tapas Chakraborty & Priordarshine Auvi - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):495-508.
    Community informatics and Information and Communications Technology for Development research projects frequently focus on the appropriation of ICTs and the design of information systems to meet the needs of communities. Such projects typically involve a range of participants reflecting different cultures and depend for their success on the ability of the project to bridge differences. Using PROTIC, a 5-year collaborative project between Monash University, Oxfam Australia and Oxfam in Bangladesh as a case study, this paper reflects on the use of (...)
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  19.  15
    Description of Philophonetics Counselling as Expressive Therapeutic Modality for Treating Depression.Jabulani D. Thwala, Patricia M. Sherwood & Stephen D. Edwards - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):609-614.
    Depression is ranked as most common type of mental illness by the World Health Organization. Although cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended as the evidence-based psychological treatment of choice, this applies mostly to youthful, attractive, verbal, intelligent and successful persons with medical aid support in high income countries. More holistic counselling that includes holistic, verbal and non-verbal, expressive therapeutic modalities are more suitable for the planetary majority. Consequently, this study describes the process and effectiveness of philophonetics counselling with a sample of (...)
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  20.  4
    In Sweet Harmony or in Bitter Discord? How Cultural Values and Stakeholder Requirements Shape and Users Read an Urban Computing Technology.Leena Ventä-Olkkonen, Netta Iivari & Arto Lanamäki - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):455-476.
    Culture is, in many ways, implicated in and shapes technology design and use. Inspired by Stuart Hall’s conception of encoding/decoding, we maintain that technological artefacts reflect the cultural values of their creators, while users, in their encounters with the technological artefacts, may decode those artefacts in various ways that are shaped by the users’ cultural values. In this article, we apply this lens to study a decade-long urban computing project that took place in the wild. We focus on the project’s (...)
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  21.  3
    A Classification of Cultural Engagements in Community Technology Design: Introducing a Transcultural Approach.Heike Winschiers-Theophilus, Tariq Zaman & Colin Stanley - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):419-435.
    Community technology design has been deeply affected by paradigm shifts and dominant discourses of its seminal disciplines, such as Human Computer Interaction, Cultural and Design theories, and Community Development as reflected in Community Narratives. A particular distinction of community technology design endeavours has been their cultural stance, which directs the agendas, interactions, and outcomes of the collaboration. Applying different cultural lenses to community technology design, shifts not only practices but also directs the levels of awareness, thereby unfolding fundamentally distinct cultural (...)
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  22.  19
    Coping with Descartes’ Error in Information Systems.Peter Brödner - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):203-213.
    Coming from Hubert Dreyfus’ recent book ‘‘Retrieving Realism”, the paper presents embodied pre-conceptual perception and representational cognition as two contrasting perspectives on accessing the world. It further characterises the ‘different forms of knowledge emerging from these perspectives and how they dynamically relate to each other. Taking up the Peircean theory of signs and abductive reasoning as methods of discovery, computers are analysed as semiotic machines that formally model and objectify explicit knowledge about social practices and that can be embedded in (...)
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  23.  8
    A Long-Standing Encounter.Rafael Capurro - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):331-332.
  24.  26
    Using Dreyfus’ Legacy to Understand Justice in Algorithm-Based Processes.David Casacuberta & Ariel Guersenzvaig - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):313-319.
    As AI is linked to more and more aspects of our lives, the need for algorithms that can take decisions that are not only accurate but also fair becomes apparent. It can be seen both in discussions of future trends such as autonomous vehicles or the issue of superintelligence, as well as actual implementations of machine learning used to decide whether a person should be admitted in certain university or will be able to return a credit. In this paper, we (...)
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  25.  24
    Skillful Coping with and Through Technologies.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):269-287.
    Dreyfus’s work is widely known for its critique of artificial intelligence and still stands as an example of how to do excellent philosophical work that is at the same time relevant to contemporary technological and scientific developments. But for philosophers of technology, especially for those sympathetic to using Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Wittgenstein as sources of inspiration, it has much more to offer. This paper outlines Dreyfus’s account of skillful coping and critically evaluates its potential for thinking about technology. First, it (...)
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  26.  13
    Remembering Bert Dreyfus.F. B. A. Harry Collins - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):373-376.
  27.  9
    Delinquent Genius: The Strange Affair of Man and His Technology.Karamjit S. Gill - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):387-389.
  28.  11
    From Judgment to Calculation: The Phenomenology of Embodied Skill.Karamjit S. Gill - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):165-175.
  29.  12
    AI & Society: In Memoriam.Karamjit S. Gill - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):381-382.
  30.  10
    Artifictional Intelligence: Against Humanity’s Surrender to Computers.Karamjit S. Gill - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):391-392.
  31.  11
    Introduction to The Last Dream by Joseph Weizenbaum.Bo Göranzon - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):177-194.
  32.  18
    Posthuman Learning: AI From Novice to Expert?Cathrine Hasse - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):355-364.
    Will robots ever be able to learn like humans? To answer that question, one first needs to ask: what is learning? Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus had a point when they claimed that computers and robots would never be able to learn like humans because human learning, after an initial phase of rule-based learning, is uncertain, context sensitive and intuitive under contract F49620-C-0063 with the University of California) Berkeley, February 1980.. Washington, DC: Storming Media. https://www.stormingmedia.us/15/1554/A155480.html. Accessed 10 Oct 2017, 1980). I (...)
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  33.  23
    Anonymity and Commitment: How Do Kierkegaard and Dreyfus Fare in the Era of Facebook and “Post-Truth”?Soraj Hongladarom - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):289-299.
    This paper looks at the situation first described by Dreyfus :369–378, 2002) in his seminal paper, in order to find out whether and, if so, to what extent the use of Internet in education is still characterized by anonymity and commitment in today’s social media and ‘post-truth’ era. Current form of web technology provides an occasion for us to rethink what the Press and the Public, two main Kierkegaardian themes, actually consist in. The very ease and rapidity of how information (...)
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  34.  14
    Robot as the “Mechanical Other”: Transcending Karmic Dilemma.Min-Sun Kim - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):321-330.
    As the artificial intelligence of computers grows ever-more sophisticated and continues to surpass the capacities of human minds in many ways, people are forced to question alleged ontological categories that separate humans from machines. As we are entering the world which is populated by non-enhanced and enhanced humans, cyborgs, robots, androids, avatars, and clones among them, the desire for evolutionary mastery of the natural world has taken on the two main directions: merging with machines in disembodied forms or embodied forms. (...)
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  35.  13
    Vulnerability Under the Gaze of Robots: Relations Among Humans and Robots.Nicola Liberati & Shoji Nagataki - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):333-342.
    The problem of artificial intelligence and human being has always raised questions about possible interactions among them and possible effects yielded by the introduction of such un-human subject. Dreyfus deeply connects intelligence and body based on a phenomenological viewpoint. Thanks to his reading of Merleau-Ponty, he clearly stated that an intelligence must be embodied into a body to function. According to his suggestion, any AI designed to be human-like is doom to failure if there is no tight bound with a (...)
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  36.  37
    Machine Intelligence: A Chimera.Mihai Nadin - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):215-242.
    The notion of computation has changed the world more than any previous expressions of knowledge. However, as know-how in its particular algorithmic embodiment, computation is closed to meaning. Therefore, computer-based data processing can only mimic life’s creative aspects, without being creative itself. AI’s current record of accomplishments shows that it automates tasks associated with intelligence, without being intelligent itself. Mistaking the abstract for the concrete has led to the religion of “everything is an output of computation”—even the humankind that conceived (...)
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  37.  15
    Hubert Dreyfus, the Artificial and the Perspective of a Doubled Philosophy.Massimo Negrotti - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):195-201.
    The contribution by Hubert L. Dreyfus to the debate on the feasibility of AI projects has been surely of great relevance because of his pointing out specific limits of the machine as compared to the human mind. His critics, along with the actual difficulties encountered in the advance of a pure symbolic AI, induced a wide discussion that in some measure stimulated other ways to follow for reproducing human abilities. Nevertheless, a curious fact characterizes the history of AI regarding the (...)
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  38.  12
    Enactive–Performative Perspectives on Cognition and the Arts.Simon Penny - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):243-249.
    The practices of the arts—plastic and performing—deal in direct sensorial engagement with the body, with materiality, with artifacts and tools, with spaces, and with other people. The arts are centrally concerned with intelligent doing. Conventional explanations of the cognitive dimensions of arts practices have been unsatisfying because internalist paradigms provides few useful tools to discuss embodied dimensions of cognition.
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  39.  16
    From Bacteria to Bach and Back.Simon Penny - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):383-386.
  40.  27
    Why AI Shall Emerge in the One of Possible Worlds?Ignacy Sitnicki - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):365-371.
    The aim of this paper is to present some philosophical considerations about the supposed AI emergence in the future. However, the predicted timeline of this process is uncertain. To avoid any kind of speculations on the proposed analysis from a scientific point of view, a metaphysical approach is undertaken as a modal context of the discussion. I argue that modal claim about possible AI emergence at a certain point of time in the future is justified from a temporal perspective. Therefore, (...)
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  41.  8
    Announcing the Professor Cooley Archive at Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland: A Celebration of the Legacy of Mike Cooley.Larry Stapleton, Brenda O’Neill, Kieran Cronin & Matthew Kendrick - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):377-379.
  42.  32
    The Spur of the Moment: What Jazz Improvisation Tells Cognitive Science.Steve Torrance & Frank Schumann - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):251-268.
    Improvisation is ubiquitous in life. It deserves, we suggest, to occupy a more central role in cognitive science. In the current paper, we take the case of jazz improvisation as a rich model domain from which to explore the nature of improvisation and expertise more generally. We explore the activity of the jazz improviser against the theoretical backdrop of Dreyfus’s account of expertise as well as of enactivist and 4E accounts of cognition and action. We argue that enactivist and 4E (...)
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  43.  22
    Man as ‘Aggregate of Data’.Sjoukje van der Meulen & Max Bruinsma - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):343-354.
    Since the emergence of the innovative field of artificial intelligence in the 1960s, the late Hubert Dreyfus insisted on the ontological distinction between man and machine, human and artificial intelligence. In the different editions of his classic and influential book What computers can’t do, he posits that an algorithmic machine can never fully simulate the complex functioning of the human mind—not now, nor in the future. Dreyfus’ categorical distinctions between man and machine are still relevant today, but their relation has (...)
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  44.  15
    Dreyfus on the “Fringe”: Information Processing, Intelligent Activity, and the Future of Thinking Machines.Jeffrey White - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):301-312.
    From his preliminary analysis in 1965, Hubert Dreyfus projected a future much different than those with which his contemporaries were practically concerned, tempering their optimism in realizing something like human intelligence through conventional methods. At that time, he advised that there was nothing “directly” to be done toward machines with human-like intelligence, and that practical research should aim at a symbiosis between human beings and computers with computers doing what they do best, processing discrete symbols in formally structured problem domains. (...)
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  45.  8
    Reconsidering Buber, Educational Technology, and the Expansion of Dialogic Space.Vikas Baniwal - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):121-127.
    This paper is an attempt to further the conversation about the possibilities of dialogue with technology that Wegerif and Major have initiated. In their paper Wegerif and Major have argued that “constructive dialogue with technology is possible, even essential, and that this takes the form of opening a dialogic space” and they also “argue against Buber that dialogic spaces do not all take the same form, but that they take a multitude of forms depending, to a large extent, on the (...)
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  46.  12
    The Synthetization of Human Voices.Oliver Bendel - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):83-89.
    The synthetization of voices, or speech synthesis, has been an object of interest for centuries. It is mostly realized with a text-to-speech system, an automaton that interprets and reads aloud. This system refers to text available for instance on a website or in a book, or entered via popup menu on the website. Today, just a few minutes of samples are enough to be able to imitate a speaker convincingly in all kinds of statements. This article abstracts from actual products (...)
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  47. The Rise of the Robots and the Crisis of Moral Patiency.John Danaher - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):129-136.
    This paper adds another argument to the rising tide of panic about robots and AI. The argument is intended to have broad civilization-level significance, but to involve less fanciful speculation about the likely future intelligence of machines than is common among many AI-doomsayers. The argument claims that the rise of the robots will create a crisis of moral patiency. That is to say, it will reduce the ability and willingness of humans to act in the world as responsible moral agents, (...)
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  48.  9
    Humans as Relational Selves.Nicole Dewandre - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):95-98.
    Instead of wondering about the nature of robots, as if our thinking about humans was stable and straightforward, we should dig deeper in thinking about how we think about humans. Indeed, the emotions embedded in the ethical approaches to robots and artificial intelligence, are rooted in a long tradition of thinking about humans, either in an instrumental or in a pseudo-divine way. Both perspectives miss humanness, and are misleading when it comes to thinking about robots and their relationships with humans. (...)
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  49.  12
    I in an Other’s Eye.Alan Dix - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):55-73.
  50.  20
    AI and Education: The Importance of Teacher and Student Relations.Alex Guilherme - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):47-54.
    A defining aspect of our modern age is our tenacious belief in technology in all walks of life, not least in education. It could be argued that this infatuation with technology or ‘techno-philia’ in education has had a deep impact in the classroom changing the relationship between teacher and student, as well as between students; that is, these relations have become increasingly more I–It than I–Thou based because the capacity to form bonds, the level of connectedness between teacher and students, (...)
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  51.  15
    Cultivating Mindfulness Through Technology in Higher Education: A Buberian Perspective.Linor L. Hadar & Oren Ergas - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):99-107.
    One of the most fundamental concepts within Martin Buber’s philosophy concerns two modes of being: I–it, which reflects an egocentric instrumental existence, and I–thou, which reflects dialogical encounter and interrelatedness. At the face of it, technology seems to be the ultimate example of that which engenders and I–it consciousness. Indeed, a recurrent concern in contemporary times suggests that the increase in our technology use is slowly but surely depriving us of meaningful encounters with the other. In this paper we propose (...)
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  52.  12
    The Vitruvian Robot.Cathrine Hasse - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):91-93.
    Robots are simultaneously real machines and technical images that challenge our sense of self. I discuss the movie Ex Machina by director Alex Garland. The robot Ava, played by Alicia Vikander, is a rare portrait of what could be interpreted as a feminist robot. Though she apparently is created as the dream of the ‘perfect woman’, sexy and beautiful, she also develops and urges to free herself from the slavery of her creator, Nathan Bateman. She is a robot created along (...)
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  53.  44
    I–Thou Dialogical Encounters in Adolescents’ WhatsApp Virtual Communities.Arie Kizel - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):19-27.
    The use of WhatsApp as a means of communication is widespread amongst today‘s youth, many of whom spend hours in virtual space, in particular during the evenings and nighttime in the privacy of their own homes. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion of the dialogical language and ―conversations‖ conducted in virtual-space encounters and the way in which young people perceive this space, its affect on them, and their interrelations within it. It presents the findings of a study based (...)
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  54.  14
    Encountering Bloody Others in Mined Reality.Nika Mahnič - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):153-160.
    This article explores interpersonal and human–computer interaction in the era of big data through the lens of Martin Buber’s relational ethics. Doing theory otherwise, it analyses the importance of other voices and speech through the case of digital assistants, questioning the implications of naming them ‘companions’. Following recent proposals to ascribe legal subjectivity to synthetic agents, the article explores the effects on agency, interaction with flesh-and-blood others and democracy in an attention economy enmeshed with technologies of behavioural manipulation powered by (...)
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  55.  23
    Burning Down the House: Bitcoin, Carbon-Capitalism, and the Problem of Trustless Systems.David Morris - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):161-162.
  56.  23
    Rethinking the I-You Relation Through Dialogical Philosophy in the Ethics of AI and Robotics.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):1-2.
  57.  16
    The Human Relationship in the Ethics of Robotics: A Call to Martin Buber’s I and Thou.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):75-82.
    Artificially Intelligent robotic technologies increasingly reflect a language of interaction and relationship and this vocabulary is part and parcel of the meanings now attached to machines. No longer are they inert, but interconnected, responsive and engaging. As machines become more sophisticated, they are predicted to be a “direct object” of an interaction for a human, but what kinds of human would that give rise to? Before robots, animals played the role of the relational other, what can stories of feral children (...)
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  58.  20
    S. P. Gill: Tacit Engagement: Beyond Interaction.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):163-163.
  59.  11
    Why Being Dialogical Must Come Before Being Logical: The Need for a Hermeneutical–Dialogical Approach to Robotic Activities.John Shotter - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):29-35.
    Currently, our official rationality is still of a Cartesian kind; we are still embedded in a mechanistic order that takes it that separate, countable entities, related logically to each other, are the only ‘things’ that matter to us—an order clearly suited to advances in robotics. Unfortunately, it is an order that renders invisible ‘relational things’, non-objective things that exist in time, in the transitions from one state of affairs to another, things that ‘point’ toward possibilities in the future, which mean (...)
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  60.  14
    Towards a Unified Framework for Developing Ethical and Practical Turing Tests.Balaji Srinivasan & Kushal Shah - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):145-152.
    Since Turing proposed the first test of intelligence, several modifications have been proposed with the aim of making Turing’s proposal more realistic and applicable in the search for artificial intelligence. In the modern context, it turns out that some of these definitions of intelligence and the corresponding tests merely measure computational power. Furthermore, in the framework of the original Turing test, for a system to prove itself to be intelligent, a certain amount of deceit is implicitly required which can have (...)
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  61.  15
    Primacy of I–You Connectedness Revisited: Some Implications for AI and Robotics.Beata Stawarska - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):3-8.
    In this essay, I challenge the egocentric tradition which privileges the standpoint of an isolated individual, and propose a speech-based dialogical approach as an alternative. Considering that the egocentric tradition can be deciphered in part by analyzing the distortions undergone by pronominal discourse in the language of classical philosophy, I reexamine the pragmatics of ordinary language featuring the pronoun I in an effort to recover a more relational understanding of persons. I develop such an analysis of the deep grammar of (...)
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  62.  18
    Is It Possible to Grow an I–Thou Relation with an Artificial Agent? A Dialogistic Perspective.Stefan Trausan-Matu - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):9-17.
    The paper analyzes if it is possible to grow an I–Thou relation in the sense of Martin Buber with an artificial, conversational agent developed with Natural Language Processing techniques. The requirements for such an agent, the possible approaches for the implementation, and their limitations are discussed. The relation of the achievement of this goal with the Turing test is emphasized. Novel perspectives on the I–Thou and I–It relations are introduced according to the sociocultural paradigm and Mikhail Bakhtin’s dialogism, polyphony inter-animation, (...)
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  63.  11
    Robot Use Self-Efficacy in Healthcare Work : Development and Validation of a New Measure.Tuuli Turja, Teemu Rantanen & Atte Oksanen - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):137-143.
    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a measure of robot use self-efficacy in healthcare work based on social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior. This article provides a briefing on technology-specific self-efficacy and discusses the development, validation, and implementation of an instrument that measures care workers’ self-efficacy in working with robots. The validity evaluation of the Finnish-language measure was based on representative survey samples gathered in 2016. The respondents included practical and registered nurses, homecare (...)
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  64.  10
    Buber, Educational Technology, and the Expansion of Dialogic Space.Rupert Wegerif & Louis Major - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):109-119.
    Buber’s distinction between the ‘I-It’ mode and the ‘I-Thou’ mode is seminal for dialogic education. While Buber introduces the idea of dialogic space, an idea which has proved useful for the analysis of dialogic education with technology, his account fails to engage adequately with the role of technology. This paper offers an introduction to the significance of the I-It/I-Thou duality of technology in relation with opening dialogic space. This is followed by a short schematic history of educational technology which reveals (...)
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  65.  14
    E. M. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’: Humans, Technology and Dialogue.Ana Cristina Zimmermann & W. John Morgan - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):37-45.
    The article explores E.M. Forster’s story The Machine Stops as an example of dystopian literature and its possible associations with the use of technology and with today’s cyber culture. Dystopian societies are often characterized by dehumanization and Forster’s novel raises questions about how we live in time and space; and how we establish relationships with the Other and with the world through technology. We suggest that the fear of technology depicted in dystopian literature indicates a fear that machines are mimicking (...)
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  66.  34
    Why Friendly AIs Won’T Be That Friendly: A Friendly Reply to Muehlhauser and Bostrom.Robert James M. Boyles & Jeremiah Joven Joaquin - 2019 - AI and Society:1–3.
    In “Why We Need Friendly AI”, Luke Muehlhauser and Nick Bostrom propose that for our species to survive the impending rise of superintelligent AIs, we need to ensure that they would be human-friendly. This discussion note offers a more natural but bleaker outlook: that in the end, if these AIs do arise, they won’t be that friendly.
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  67.  2
    Classical AI Linguistic Understanding and the Insoluble Cartesian Problem.Rodrigo González - 2019 - AI and Society.
    This paper examines an insoluble Cartesian problem for classical AI, namely, how linguistic understanding involves knowledge and awareness of u’s meaning, a cognitive process that is irreducible to algorithms. As analyzed, Descartes’ view about reason and intelligence has paradoxically encouraged certain classical AI researchers to suppose that linguistic understanding suffices for machine intelligence. Several advocates of the Turing Test, for example, assume that linguistic understanding only comprises computational processes which can be recursively decomposed into algorithmic mechanisms. Against this background, in (...)
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