74 found

Year:

  1. Controls on Abnormally High Porosity in a Deep Burial Reservoir of the Lingshui Formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea.Guangxu Bi, Chengfu Lyu, Qianshan Zhou, Guojun Chen, Chao Li, Gongcheng Zhang, Yilin Zhao & Chengze Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM53-SM64.
    Based on information including porosity and permeability, petrography, the stable isotopic composition of carbonate cements, and homogenization temperatures of aqueous fluid inclusions, we have studied the main factors for the development of abnormally high porosity in the Lingshui Formation reservoir of the Yacheng area. We found the sandstones were mainly subarkose, arkose, and lithic arkose and were texturally and compositionally immature. The research suggested that the sandstones existing close beneath the regional unconformity were formed during the Late Oligocene. Early diagenetic (...)
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  2. 3D Geophysical Modeling of the Alberton-Mathinna Section of the “Main Slide,” Northeast Tasmania.Daniel Bombardieri, Mark Duffett, Andrew McNeill, Mike Vicary & Rod Paterson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T525-T540.
    We have developed a high-resolution 3D model of the Alberton-Mathinna section of the “Main Slide,” northeast Tasmania. This geological model expresses a new synthesis based on mapping and structural interpretation on multiple cross sections. We have refined this model by 3D geophysical inversion constrained by gravity and magnetic survey data coupled with drilling and rock physical property databases. Our modeling incorporates statistically generated sensitivity characterization metrics into 3D model products that map confidence in the geometry of geological units at depth. (...)
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  3.  1
    A Multiple Filtering and Correlation Array Signal Processing Technique for Cased-Hole Acoustic Logging and Applications.Fan-Tong Kong, Can Jiang, Yuan-Da Su & Xiao-Ming Tang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL1-SL8.
    In cased-hole acoustic logging, estimating the formation velocity is often problematic when the casing is poorly bonded with the formation. The overwhelmingly large casing waves dominate the measured waveforms and overlap with the low-coherence, weak formation arrival, contributing to the failure of conventional semblance processing method. To tackle this problem, we have developed a filtered frequency semblance array waveform signal processing technique. The multiple filter technique is first used to filter the measured waveforms. We then apply the [Formula: see text]th (...)
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  4. Predicting Oil Saturation of Shale-Oil Reservoirs Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logs.Lichun Kuang, Zhenlin Wang, Cheng Feng, Peiqiang Zhao, Rui Mao & Jing Yu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL35-SL43.
    Oil saturation is an important parameter in shale-oil reservoir evaluation. However, due to complex wettability and pore construction, we find that conventional resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance methods do not perform well in calculating oil saturation in shale-oil reservoirs. Hence, we have developed a practical NMR-based method to calculate the oil saturation of the Lucaogou shale-oil Formation, Permian, in Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin, China. First, we analyze the relationships among the wettability, oil saturation, and [Formula: see text] distribution based on (...)
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  5.  1
    Petrophysical Characteristics and Log Identification of Lacustrine Shale Lithofacies: A Case Study of the First Member of Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin, Northeast China.Bo Liu, Xiaoqing Zhao, Xiaofei Fu, Baiyan Yuan, Longhui Bai, Yuwei Zhang & Mehdi Ostadhassan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL45-SL57.
    As an unconventional resource, shale reservoirs recently have attracted considerable attention in the petroleum industry. Shale plays are highly heterogenous vertically and laterally and are characterized by rapid changes in mineral composition. Thus, identification of dominant lithofacies is a key issue in the development of shale oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, various existing lithofacies in a shale section as a target unit in the Qingshankou Formation are divided based on organic matter content, sedimentary structure, and mineral composition. To (...)
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  6. Common-Azimuth Seismic Data Fault Analysis Using Residual UNet.Naihao Liu, Tao He, Yajun Tian, Bangyu Wu, Jinghuai Gao & Zongben Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM25-SM37.
    Seismic fault interpretation is one of the key steps for seismic structure interpretation, which is a time-consuming task and strongly depends on the experience of the interpreter. Aiming to automate fault interpretation, we have considered it as an image segmentation issue and adopt a solution using a residual UNet, which introduces residual units to UNet. Using the ResUNet model, we develop a fault-versus-azimuth analysis based on offset vector tile data, which, as common-azimuth seismic data, provide more detailed and useful information (...)
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  7.  1
    Enhancing Interpretability with Diffraction Imaging Using Plane-Wave Destruction Aided by Frequency-Wavenumber F-K Filtering.Brydon Lowney, Ivan Lokmer, Gareth Shane O’Brien, Lawrence Amy, Christopher J. Bean & Michael Igoe - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T541-T554.
    A conventional processing workflow favors only the specular reflections, reducing or removing other wavefield interactions. These specular reflections are unsuitable for directly imaging sharp corners, such as those in fault zones and pinch outs; therefore, diffractions are used instead in a technique known as diffraction imaging. Plane-wave destruction is a well-established method for removing reflections and imaging diffractions. However, this method assumes a gently variable slope; therefore, it fails to remove energy in areas that do not follow this assumption such (...)
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  8.  3
    Oil Content Prediction of Lacustrine Organic-Rich Shale From Wireline Logs: A Case Study of Intersalt Reservoirs in the Qianjiang Sag, Jianghan Basin, China.Xin Nie, Jing Lu, Roufida Rana Djaroun, Peilin Wang, Zhang Chaomo & Jun Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL79-SL88.
    Shale oil is an unconventional oil resource with great potential. Oil saturation is an essential parameter for formation evaluation. However, due to the complexity of matrix mineral components and pore structure, Archie’s law cannot be used directly to calculate [Formula: see text] in shale oil reservoirs. We have developed a new saturation model for shale oil reservoirs. This model allows us to separate the organic from the inorganic pores, eliminate the background conductivity mainly caused by the borehole fluid or conductive (...)
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  9.  1
    Application of Seismic Sedimentology in Lithostratigraphic Trap Exploration: A Case Study From Banqiao Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Mingjun Su, Jun Yao, Qilin Chen, Kaifeng Hu & Zhong Hong - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T501-T514.
    A method of identifying lithostratigraphic traps based on seismic sedimentology is proposed. We first establish a 3D high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework by using the stratal slices. Then, the reservoir distribution and reservoir-seal assemblage are investigated within the high-resolution sequence framework. This method turns the interpretation of lithostratigraphic traps from traditional seismic facies-based approach to the dynamic analysis of high-resolution seismic geomorphic information. We divide the lower Sha-1 member in the Banqiao Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China, into fourth- and fifth-order (...)
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  10. Sedimentary Environment Prediction of Grain-Size Data Based on Machine Learning Approach.Qiao Su, Yanhui Zhu, Fang Hu & Xingyong Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL71-SL78.
    Grain size is one of the most important records for sedimentary environment, and researchers have made remarkable progress in the interpretation of sedimentary environments by grain size analysis in the past few decades. However, these advances often depend on the personal experience of the scholars and combination with other methods used together. Here, we constructed a prediction model using the K-nearest neighbors algorithm, one of the machine learning methods, which can predict the sedimentary environments of one core through a known (...)
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  11. Near-Salt Stress-Induced Seismic Velocity Changes and Seismic Anisotropy and Their Impacts on Salt Imaging: A Case Study in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, China.Yunqiang Sun, Gang Luo, Yaxing Li, Mingwen Wang, Xiaofeng Jia, Cheng Chang & Rui Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T487-T499.
    It has been recognized that stress perturbations in sediments induced by salt bodies can cause elastic-wave velocity changes and seismic anisotropy through changing their elastic parameters, thus leading to difficulties in salt imaging. To investigate seismic velocity changes and seismic anisotropy by near-salt stress perturbations and their impacts on salt imaging, taking the Kuqa depression as an example, we have applied a 2D plane-strain static geomechanical finite-element model to simulate stress perturbations and calculate the associated seismic velocity changes and seismic (...)
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  12.  2
    Automated Gamma-Ray Log Pattern Alignment and Depth Matching by Machine Learning.Shirui Wang, Qiuyang Shen, Xuqing Wu & Jiefu Chen - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL25-SL34.
    Depth matching of multiple logging curves is essential to any well evaluation or reservoir characterization. Depth matching can be applied to various measurements of a single well or multiple log curves from multiple wells within the same field. Because many drilling advisory projects have been launched to digitalize the well-log analysis, accurate depth matching becomes an important factor in improving well evaluation, production, and recovery. It is a challenge, though, to align the log curves from multiple wells due to the (...)
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  13.  1
    The Relationship Between Synsedimentary Fault Activity and Reservoir Quality — A Case Study of the Ek1 Formation in the Wang Guantun Area, China.Xixin Wang, Yuming Liu, Jiagen Hou, Shaohua Li, Qiangqiang Kang, Shuang Sun, Ling Ji, Jian Sun & Rui Ma - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM15-SM24.
    The activity of synsedimentary faults plays an important role in controlling the distribution of sand bodies in basins and furthermore the porosity and permeability of reservoirs. We have used fault interpretation, the method of image and granularity size analysis, and the seismic pumping effect to investigate the control of the activity of the Kongdong fault on the development degree of the dissolution pores and grain size, further studying the controlling mechanism of the activity of synsedimentary faults on reservoir quality. The (...)
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  14.  3
    Anisotropic Strength and Failure Behaviors of Transversely Isotropic Shales: An Experimental Investigation.Yang Wang, Hui Li, Abhijit Mitra, De-Hua Han & Teng Long - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL59-SL70.
    The deformation and fracture of anisotropic shale rocks are of great interest to geoengineers concerned with assessing the stability of boreholes and underground excavations. However, some mechanic properties associated with anisotropic rock fracture remain ambiguous. We have purposely reported triaxial failure tests on two sets of transversely isotropic shale plugs cutting parallel and perpendicular to the bedding planes. The experimental results suggest that the bedding planes give rise to considerable differences in the elastic properties, failure strength, and failure modes in (...)
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  15.  1
    Hydrodynamics and Deposition in Lacustrine Shallow-Water Delta Front: A Combination of Numerical Simulations and Modern Sedimentation Measurements.Yunlong Zhang, Zhidong Bao, Luxing Dou, Li Jiang, Mingyang Wei & Li Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM39-SM52.
    With the exploration of tight oil and gas, shallow-water deltaic reservoirs have been attracting more and more attention. The sedimentary architecture of a shallow-water delta shows distinctive differences with that of a deep-slope delta. These differences may be associated with the mechanism and characteristics of the deposition in the area where the sediments unloaded. Based on modern sedimentary research of the Poyang Lake in China, this paper focuses on the processes of river flow entering a lake with a low dip (...)
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  16. Integrated Reservoir Characterization of a Utica Shale with Focus on Sweet Spot Discrimination.Jinming Zhu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SM1-SM14.
    Multiclient 3D seismic data were acquired in 2015 in eastern Ohio for reservoir characterization of the Utica Shale consisting of the Utica and Point Pleasant Formations. I attained accurate, high-fidelity acoustic impedance, shear impedance, density, and [Formula: see text], from elastic inversion. These accurate inversion results allow consistent calculation of reservoir and geomechanical properties of the Utica Shale. I found density critically important affecting the accuracy of other reservoir and geomechanical properties. More than a dozen properties in geologic, geomechanical, and (...)
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  17.  1
    An Improved Method to Characterize the Full-Scale Pore System and Dual Pore Model of Tight Sands.Yurui Zhu, Zhengyuan Lu, Mingshi Feng, Jun Wang & Zhipeng Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):SL9-SL23.
    Tight sands have pore systems with complex structures and widely distributed pore sizes. We have studied the characteristics of these pore systems to better understand their important role in the accumulation and migration mechanisms of oil and gas reservoirs, which may enhance our ability to evaluate reservoir quality and predict reservoir production. To this end, we carried out thin-section analysis, scanning electron microscopy, pressure-controlled porosimetry, and rate-controlled porosimetry to describe the pore systems of a typical tight-sand reservoir in East Asia. (...)
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  18. Influencing Factor Analysis of the Elastic Properties of Shale with Rock-Physical Model Including Pressure Effects.Zhaoyun Zong, Man Jiang & Miaomiao Xu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (3):T515-T524.
    With the continuous petroleum exploration around the world, the target of exploration is converting from conventional to deep, unconventional reservoirs. The pressure condition on those new target layers is different from the conventional reservoir, and pressure is one of the important factors affecting the elastic moduli and velocities of shale reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to take pressure effects into consideration in rock-physics modeling. We initially adopted a novel iterative rock-physical modeling approach on the basis of pore space stiffness theory (...)
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  19. Interpretation of Paleozoic Paleokarst Features in the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma Using 3D Seismic and Well Logs.Olanrewaju Aboaba & Christopher Liner - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T421-T440.
    Paleokarst regions worldwide are repositories for hydrocarbons, mineral deposits, and groundwater. Time structure maps were generated for the Ordovician Viola Limestone, Mississippian Caney Shale, and Pennsylvanian Jefferson Sandstone and Wapanucka Limestone. Isochron maps indicate pronounced visible sinkhole time thickening in the Viola-Caney and Caney-Jefferson intervals relative to the Jefferson-Wapanucka. Sinkhole features in the Viola exhibit mappable structural depression, characterized by lower positive amplitude, higher seismic variance, and most-negative curvature. Curiously, spatially coincident sinkhole features in the shallower Wapanucka display the opposite (...)
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  20. Introduction to Special Section: Atlantic Margin of Canada.Ian Atkinson, Vsevolod Egorov, David Brown, John Cody, William Dickson, Michael Enachescu, Roy Fitzsimmons, John Hogg & Jonathan Redfern - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SHi-SHi.
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  21.  2
    Seismic Attribute and Petrophysics-Assisted Interpretation of the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope, Alaska.Shuvajit Bhattacharya & Sumit Verma - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ17-SJ34.
    Exploration of the Brookian sandstone reservoirs in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope of Alaska is a hot topic and presents opportunities to the oil and gas community because of their shallow depth, vast extent, and scope of development. The consecutive hydrocarbon discoveries announced by Repsol-Armstrong, Caelus Energy, and ConocoPhillips in 2015, 2016, and 2017 have indicated the presence of the vast recoverable resources on the North Slope in the Nanushuk and Torok reservoirs. We have investigated the (...)
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  22.  1
    Introduction to Special Section: Alaska — Challenges and Opportunities in the Last Frontier.Shuvajit Bhattacharya, Sumit Verma, Evan Staples, Jacob Mongrain & Bradley Wallet - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ17-SJ34.
    Exploration of the Brookian sandstone reservoirs in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations on the North Slope of Alaska is a hot topic and presents opportunities to the oil and gas community because of their shallow depth, vast extent, and scope of development. The consecutive hydrocarbon discoveries announced by Repsol-Armstrong, Caelus Energy, and ConocoPhillips in 2015, 2016, and 2017 have indicated the presence of the vast recoverable resources on the North Slope in the Nanushuk and Torok reservoirs. We have investigated the (...)
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  23. Seismic Characterization of Geothermal Sedimentary Reservoirs: A Field Example From the Copenhagen Area, Denmark.Kenneth Bredesen, Esben Dalgaard, Anders Mathiesen, Rasmus Rasmussen & Niels Balling - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T275-T291.
    We have seismically characterized a Triassic-Jurassic deep geothermal sandstone reservoir north of Copenhagen, onshore Denmark. A suite of regional geophysical measurements, including prestack seismic data and well logs, was integrated with geologic information to obtain facies and reservoir property predictions in a Bayesian framework. The applied workflow combined a facies-dependent calibrated rock-physics model with a simultaneous amplitude-variation-with-offset seismic inversion. The results suggest that certain sandstone distributions are potential aquifers within the target interval, which appear reasonable based on the geologic properties. (...)
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  24. Near-Salt Perturbations of Stresses and Pore Fluid Pressures and Their Impacts on Wellbore Stability in the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin, China.Cheng Chang, Gang Luo, Mingwen Wang & Yunqiang Sun - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG33-SG49.
    Salt structures are highly associated with economic hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, drilling a wellbore near or through the salt is usually difficult because the near-salt stresses and pore fluid pressures are largely perturbed due to weaker mechanical strength of salt bodies than their surrounding sediments. We have developed a 2D plane-strain poroelastic finite-element model to simulate stresses and pore pressures in the horizontal-compression salt tectonic system, the Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, China, and we use the model results of stresses (...)
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  25. Seismic Geomorphology of Shoal-Water Deltaic and Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Beach-Bar Systems in Hanging Wall of Rift Basins: Paleogene of the Raoyang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Hehe Chen, Xiaomin Zhu, Ruisheng Shi & Zili Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF1-SF19.
    Recent studies of ancient rift basins focus on the tectonosedimentary models, which emphasize the control of tectonics on the distribution and evolution of depositional systems in rift basins, whereas these studies seldom address stratigraphic dominated depositional models. Compared to footwall depositional systems, hanging wall depositional systems are especially underexplored due to their fine-grained, thin-layered, and widely distributed features. We integrated seismic data, cores, and well logs to define the dispersal of hanging wall depositional systems that are related to the fluctuation (...)
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  26. Seismic Petrophysics Workflow Applied to Delaware Basin.Yoryenys Del Moro, Venkatesh Anantharamu, Lev Vernik, Alfonso Quaglia & Eduardo Carrillo - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T349-T363.
    Petrophysical analysis of unconventional plays that are comprised of organic mudrock needs detailed data QC and preparation to optimize the results of quantitative interpretation. This includes accurate computation of mineral volumes, total organic carbon, porosity, and saturations. We used TOC estimation to aid the process of determining the best pay zones for development of such reservoirs. TOC was calculated as a weighted average of Passey’s and the bulk density-based methods. In organic mudrock reservoirs, the computed TOC log was used as (...)
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  27. Sedimentary Characteristics and Mechanism Analysis of a Large-Scale Fan Delta System in the Paleocene Kongdian Formation, Southwestern Bohai Sea, China.Xiaofeng Du, Qiming Wang, Meng Zhao & Xiaojian Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF81-SF94.
    Exploration of the deep buried sandstones and glutenites of the Paleocene Kongdian Formation of the Bozhong 19-6 structure was a significant success. An integrated analysis of 3D seismic data, logging curves, core observation, thin sections, and casting thin sections was applied to characterize the sequences, petrology, sedimentary facies, and reservoir properties of the glutenite of the Kongdian Formation. The results indicated that the Kongdian Formation mainly consisted of tuffaceous glutenites at the lower section and glutenites in the upper section. The (...)
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  28. Impact of Convective Cooling on Pore Pressure and Stresses Around a Borehole Subjected to a Constant Flux: Implications for Hydraulic Tests in an Enhanced Geothermal System Reservoir.Zhiqiang Fan, Rishi Parashar & Zhi-He Jin - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG13-SG20.
    Hydraulic tests are commonly performed prior to reservoir stimulation to determine the natural permeability of the enhanced geothermal system, which typically involves injection of cold water at low rates into the hot target EGS reservoir and measurement of the surface pressure, flow rate, and thermal drawdown simultaneously. Interpretation and analysis of the data collected during a hydraulic test are largely based on fitting type curves generated from analytical solutions. We have formulated a geomechanical model for hydraulic tests in a thermoporoelastic (...)
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  29. Seismic Sedimentary Characteristics and Filling Structure of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China.Congjun Feng, Mengsi Sun, Chiyang Liu, Xili Deng, Yuze Xue & Li Dong - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T259-T274.
    Following the analysis of cores, outcrops, well log, and seismic sections, we have studied the seismic reflection configuration and depositional history of the hydrocarbon-rich Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin. We divided the seismic reflection configurations into five types: subparallel reflection, parallel reflection, tangential progradational reflection, shingled progradational reflection, and chaotic reflection. Based on our study results, we concluded that the slopes exhibit differences in the different regions of the Ordos Basin during the sedimentary period of the Yanchang Formation: The (...)
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  30.  1
    Definition of the Churchill River Delta and its Petroleum Potential, Offshore Labrador, Canada.Erin Gillis, Richard Wright, Victoria Mitchell & Nick Montevecchi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH19-SH32.
    Starting in 2011, a multiyear modern 2D long offset broadband seismic survey was acquired offshore Labrador, Canada, by TGS and PGS in partnership with Nalcor Energy. This regional survey covers the slope and deepwater portions of the margin. Three Mesozoic and Cenozoic-aged basins were informally defined from these data, the Chidley, Henley, and Holton; also, the poorly constrained Hawke Basin was remapped. The 2D data set imaged for the first time a very large Cenozoic-aged delta adjacent to the mouth of (...)
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  31. Structural Characterization of Potentially Seismogenic Faults in the Fort Worth Basin.Elizabeth A. Horne, Peter H. Hennings, Johnathon L. Osmond & Heather R. DeShon - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T323-T347.
    From 2006 through mid-2018, there have been 125 [Formula: see text] recorded earthquakes within the Fort Worth Basin and the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. There is general scientific consensus that this increase in seismicity has been induced by increases in pore-fluid pressure from wastewater injection and from cross-fault pore-pressure imbalance due to injection and production. Previous fault stress analyses indicate that many of the faults are critically stressed; therefore, careful consideration should be taken when injecting in close proximity to these (...)
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  32.  2
    A Lateral Well in the Shublik Formation, Alaska North Slope, with Implications for Unconventional Resource Potential.Allegra Hosford Scheirer & Kenneth J. Bird - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ35-SJ49.
    Analyses of a horizontal well drilled in the Shublik Formation within the southern part of the Prudhoe Bay field provide the first glimpse of the unit’s potential as an unconventional resource. Drilled in 1996, the 1450 ft long well, PBU X-19B L1, targeted the 17 ft thick Shublik Zone B. More than 70% of the lateral well path sampled that target, a feat of precise geosteering years before the unconventional revolution. The well operator’s drilling plan focused on the middle subzone (...)
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  33. Gas Hydrate Petroleum Systems: What Constitutes the “Seal”?Junbong Jang, William F. Waite & Laura A. Stern - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T231-T248.
    The gas hydrate petroleum system approach, which has been used to characterize gas hydrates in nature, uses three distinct components: a methane source, a methane migration pathway, and a reservoir that not only contains gas hydrate, but also acts as a seal to prevent methane loss. Unlike GHPS, a traditional petroleum system approach further distinguishes between the reservoir, a unit with generally coarser sediment grains, and a separate overlying seal unit with generally finer sediment grains. Adopting this traditional PS distinction (...)
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  34. Seismic Quality Factor Estimation Using Prestack Seismic Gathers: A Simulated Annealing Approach.Shengjun Li, Bo Zhang, Xueshan Yong & Wang Shangxu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T441-T451.
    Fluid movement and grain boundary friction are the two main factors affecting the anelastic attenuation of seismic data. The quality factor quantifies the degree of anelastic attenuation and is commonly used in assisting the identification of gas reservoirs. We can accurately compute [Formula: see text] if we obtain the accurate amplitude spectrum of seismic wavelets at refereed and at target time indexes of the seismic profile. However, it is very difficult to obtain the accurate wavelets at the referred and target (...)
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  35.  1
    Characterizing Subseismic Faults From SK-2 Drilling Core (2900–4200 M): Implication for Reservoir Transmissibility and Regional Tectonic Evolution. [REVIEW]Shujun Liang, Wei Gan & Chengshan Wang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG1-SG11.
    Undiscernible faults on seismic reflection profiles are referred to as subseismic faults. Although most subseismic faults are undetected, they play a significant role in understanding regional tectonic evolution and can influence the flow of oil and gas. The Songliao Basin in northeast China is a typical Meso-Cenozoic continental petroliferous basin characterized by stable sedimentation, rift-depression dual structure, and large-scale oil and gas production. However, the characteristics of subseismic faults and their effect on petroleum resources remain not well understood. We have (...)
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  36.  1
    Seismic Geologic Structure Characterization Using a High-Order Spectrum-Coherence Attribute.Naihao Liu, Zhen Li, Fengyuan Sun, Fangyu Li & Jinghuai Gao - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T391-T401.
    Characterization of seismic geologic structures, such as describing fluvial channels and geologic faults, is significant for seismic reservoir prediction. The coherence algorithm is one of the widely used techniques for describing discontinuous seismic geologic structures. However, precise coherence attributes between adjacent seismic traces are difficult to compute due to the nonstationary and non-Gaussian property of seismic data. To describe seismic geologic structures accurately, we define a high-order spectrum-coherence attribute. First, we have developed a time-frequency analysis method to compute a constant-frequency (...)
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  37.  1
    Using Well-Log Data to Modeling Factors Influencing the Amount of Adsorbed Gas in Transitional Shale Reservoirs.Rui Liu, Shaobin Guo & Kun Ji - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T249-T258.
    Traditional isothermal adsorption experiments often fail to accurately estimate the adsorption capacity of reservoirs with rapidly changing lithology. Temperature, pressure, and mineral composition can influence the adsorption capacity of shale reservoirs. We have examined the influence of these factors on the amount of gas adsorbed in samples from well Yu-88. Samples consist of marine-continental transitional coal-bearing strata from the Upper Paleozoic Shanxi-Taiyuan Formation of the Ordos Basin of China. Shales occur as frequently interbedded, thin, and single layers that exhibit large (...)
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  38.  1
    Introduction to Special Section: Characterization of the Subsurface Stress, Deformation, and Pore Pressure.Gang Luo, Wei Gan, Rui Zhang, Junhua Guo & Jincai Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SGi-SGii.
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  39. Multiphysics Anomaly Map: A New Data Fusion Workflow for Geophysical Interpretation.Julio Cesar S. O. Lyrio, Paulo T. L. Menezes, Jorlivan L. Correa & Adriano R. Viana - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):B35-B43.
    When collecting and processing geophysical data for exploration, the same geologic feature can generate a different response for each rock property being targeted. Typically, the units of these responses may differ by several orders of magnitude; therefore, the combination of geophysical data in integrated interpretation is not a straightforward process and cannot be performed by visual inspection only. The multiphysics anomaly map that we have developed is a data fusion solution that consists of a spatial representation of the correlation between (...)
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  40. Predicting and 3D Modeling of Karst Zones Using Seismic Facies Analysis in Ordovician Carbonates of the Tahe Oilfield, China.José N. Méndez, Qiang Jin, María González, Wei Hehua & Cyril D. Boateng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T293-T307.
    Karsted carbonates of the Ordovician Yingshan Formation represent significant hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China. Due to the geologic complexity of the formation, realistically predicting and modeling karst zones and rock properties is challenging. This drives the need to apply diverse techniques for building a suitable geologic model. We have developed a static model approach that uses fully automated seismic facies classification processes for predicting and modeling patterns associated with karst elements. Our method uses a seismic attribute and well (...)
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  41.  3
    Application of Sparse-Layer Inversion and Harmonic Bandwidth Extension for a Channel System in Southern Alberta, Canada.Yang Mu, John Castagna & Gabriel Gil - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T217-T229.
    Sparse-layer reflectivity inversion decomposes a seismic trace into a limited number of simple layer responses and their corresponding reflection coefficients for top and base reflections. In contrast to sparse-spike inversion, the applied sparsity constraint is less biased against layer thickness and can thus better resolve thin subtuning layers. Application to a 3D seismic data set in Southern Alberta produces inverted impedances that have better temporal resolution and lateral stability and a less blocky appearance than sparse-spike inversion. Bandwidth extension harmonically extrapolated (...)
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  42. Making Interpretation More Diverse.Balazs Nemeth, Vsevolod Egorov & Kurt Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):1M-2M.
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  43.  1
    L1–2 Minimization for P- and S-Impedance Inversion.Wenliang Nie, Xiaotao Wen, Jixin Yang, Jian He, Kai Lin & Longcheng Yang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T379-T390.
    Amplitude variation with offset inversion has been widely used in reservoir characterization to predict lithology and fluids. However, some existing AVO inversion methods that use [Formula: see text] norm regularization may not obtain the block boundary of subsurface layers because the AVO inversion is a severely ill-posed problem. To obtain sparse and accurate solutions, we have introduced the [Formula: see text] minimization method as an alternative to [Formula: see text] norm regularization. We used [Formula: see text] minimization for simultaneous P- (...)
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  44.  1
    Conjugate Margins — An Oversimplification of the Complex Southern North Atlantic Rift and Spreading System?Alexander L. Peace & J. Kim Welford - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH33-SH49.
    The prevalence of conjugate margin terminology and studies in the scientific literature is testimony to the contribution that this concept and approach has made to the study of passive margins, and more broadly extensional tectonics. However, when applied to the complex rift, transform, and spreading system of the southern North Atlantic, it becomes obvious that at these passive continental margin settings, additional geologic phenomena complicate this convenient description. These aspects include the preservation of relatively undeformed continental fragments, formation of transform (...)
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  45.  1
    Coalbed Methane Content Prediction Using Deep Belief Network.Fan Peng, Suping Peng, Wenfeng Du & Hongshuan Liu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T309-T321.
    Accurate measurement of coalbed methane content is the foundation for CBM resource exploration and development. Machine-learning techniques can help address CBM content prediction tasks. Due to the small amount of actual measurement data and the shallow model structure, however, the results from traditional machine-learning models have errors to some extent. We have developed a deep belief network -based model with the input as continuous real values and the activation function as the rectified linear unit. We first calculated a variety of (...)
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  46. Surface to Subsurface Correlation of the Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation Within a Revised Sequence Stratigraphic Framework.William A. Rouse, Katherine J. Whidden, Julie A. Dumoulin & David W. Houseknecht - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SJ1-SJ16.
    Recent work on cores and outcrops of the Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation has facilitated surface to subsurface correlation of depositional sequences across the Alaska North Slope. Five transgressive-regressive depositional sequences have been defined within three large-scale stratigraphic units. Outcrop spectral gamma-ray profiles were used to correlate observed stacking patterns with nearby exploration wells, and GR logs from 161 exploration wells were used to correlate the three large-scale stratigraphic units across the North Slope and nearby offshore. Interpretations of depositional facies and (...)
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  47. Quantitative Analysis of Facies Variation Using Ground-Based Lidar and Hyperspectral Imaging in Mississippian Limestone Outcrop Near Jane, Missouri.Aydin Shahtakhtinskiy & Shuhab Khan - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T365-T378.
    Ground-based hyperspectral imaging is useful for geologic mapping because of its high spectral and spatial resolutions at a millimeter to centimeter scale. We have used hyperspectral and terrestrial laser scanner data collected in close range to a roadcut near Jane, Missouri, that contains a subvertical outcrop of Lower Mississippian limestone. The outcrop consists of the Compton, Northview, and Pierson Formations, which we evaluated for facies heterogeneity. The sequence near Jane, Missouri, was deposited in shelf margin with high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. These (...)
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  48. Texture Attribute Analysis Based on Strong Background Interference Suppression.Shi’an Shen, Siqi Chi, Wenchao Chen, Xiaokai Wang, Cheng Wang & Binke Huang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T475-T486.
    Seismic texture attributes are closely related to seismic facies and reservoir characteristics. However, when a strong reflection interface overlying or underlying one target layer exists, their seismic response will mask the seismic response of the target layer. In this case, it is difficult to use texture attributes to identify geologic structures and reservoirs in the target layer. We have adopted a novel method to analyze texture attributes based on suppressing strong background reflection interference. First, we use the difference between the (...)
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  49. Factors Affecting the Nanopore Structure and Methane Adsorption Capacity of Organic-Rich Marine Shales in Zhaotong Area, Southern Sichuan Basin.Panke Sun, Hanqing Zhu, Huaimin Xu, Xiaoni Hu & Linfeng Tian - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T403-T419.
    As a national shale-gas demonstration zone in China, the Zhaotong area has great gas resource potential. However, the nanopore structure characteristics, methane adsorption capacity, and their affecting factors of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in this area remain unclear. To address these puzzles, we conducted a series of experiments, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low-pressure [Formula: see text] adsorption, and high-pressure methane adsorption, and we calculated the relevant characteristic parameters, such as pore volume, specific surface area, (...)
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  50.  1
    Crustal Structure of the Offshore Labrador Margin Into Deep Water From Combined Seismic Reflection Interpretation and Gravity Modeling.J. Kim Welford, Deric Cameron, Erin Gillis, Victoria Mitchell & Richard Wright - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SH1-SH17.
    A regional long-offset 2D seismic reflection program undertaken along the Labrador margin of the Labrador Sea, Canada, and complemented by the acquisition of coincident gravity data, has provided an extensive data set with which to image and model the sparsely investigated outer shelf, slope, and deepwater regions. Previous interpretation of the seismic data revealed the extent of Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins and resulted in the remapping of the basin configuration for the entire margin. To map the synrift package and improve (...)
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  51. Regularization to Stein Unbiased Risk Estimation Denoising and Threshold for First-Break Picking to Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Surface Microseismic Monitoring — Case of Gas Shale Fracturing.Qingming Xie, Hong Xu, Lichuan Chen, Hong Liu, Bolin Chen, Fei He, Dan Liang & Degui Su - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG51-SG60.
    With monitoring of the acoustic emission phenomenon caused by rock deformation and failure, microseismic monitoring has been widely used in the development of unconventional oil and gas fields. Due to the complex environment and diversity types of the noise, the signal energy of surface microseismic monitoring is weak and the signal-to-noise ratio of raw data is very low. In the process of data processing, many human resources are needed to discriminate the first-break picking because of the low S/N, and this (...)
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  52. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lacustrine Rift Basin in the Paleogene System of the Bohai Sea Area: Architecture Mode, Deposition Filling Pattern, and Response to Tectonic Rifting Processes.Changgui Xu, Lu Huan, Song Zhangqiang & Jia Donghui - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF57-SF79.
    The Bohai Sea area is a complex lacustrine rift basin characterized by multistage rifts, polycycle superimpositions, and multiple genetic mechanisms. We recognized three types of sequence boundaries from the Paleogene strata of offshore Bohai, including 2 first-, 3 second-, and 10 third-order sequence boundaries. The third-order wedges, composed of the low-stand system tract, lake expansion system tract, and high-stand system tract, are significant for hydrocarbon exploration. The sequence stratigraphic patterns vary in different periods. We discovered that the LST and EST (...)
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  53. High-Quality Marine Shale Reservoir Prediction in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin, China.Shang Xu, Fang Hao, Yuanyin Zhang & Qiyang Gou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T453-T463.
    For the lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, China, the traditional P-impedance is insensitive for predicting good reservoirs. As an integral indicator of borehole radioactivity that is substantially corresponding to the organic richness, the uranium curve is qualified to identify the abundance of organic matter. Therefore, to efficiently comprehend the shale distribution in the Jiaoshiba area, we have adopted a so-called pseudo-P-impedance, which is constructed from the P-impedance and the uranium log and spatially computed (...)
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  54.  5
    Sedimentary Characteristics and Genetic Mechanisms of High-Quality Reservoirs in a Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate System in the Qinhuangdao Area, Bohai Sea, China.Yongan Xue, Chengmin Niu, Wei Xu, Xiaojun Pang & Li Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF95-SF111.
    Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments occur broadly in modern and ancient systems. Studies on mixing processes began in shallow shelf environments; however, the genetic model of marine mixed sediments is difficult to apply to continental rift basins due to the complex palaeogeographic environment. We identified three mixing types in the first and second members of the Palaeogene Shahejie Formation in the Qinhuangdao area of the Bohai Sea: mixed fan delta, retrogradation mixed sheet, and mixed sheet without siliciclastic influx. Tectonic stability, arid climate, (...)
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  55.  1
    Analytic Formulation for Subsurface Volumetric Estimation.Chuan Yin & Terry Thibodeaux - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):T465-T473.
    We have developed an analytic formulation for quick and more accurate volumetric estimations of subsurface resource potential. Our formulation is conceptually based on a structurally conformable model built deterministically using known and interpreted reservoir properties from wells, such as net-to-gross, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, along with oil-water contact or lowest known oil depth and interpreted seismic top-of-pay depth horizon. We have evaluated an important function, the hydrocarbon pore capacity, which is a product of net-to-gross, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation. HPC reflects (...)
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  56.  5
    The Facies Analysis of a Fan Delta by Integrating Multiple Discipline Data — A Case Study of the KL-A Oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Zhijun Yin, Bo Zhang, Yue Hu, Jianmin Zhu, Cheng Guo, Guolong Chen, Xianbo Hou, Jianwei Liu & Rongdong Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF21-SF35.
    The third member of the Shahejie Formation is the main hydrocarbon exploration target in the KL-A oilfield, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. The facies classification is an essential step in mapping the depositional system of Es3 within the Bohai Bay Basin. The facies model is important for identifying the “sweet” lithology within the reservoirs. We characterize the facies of Es3 by integrating cores, well logs, and seismic data. The analysis indicates that the Es3 consists of fan delta deposits. The analysis (...)
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  57. Permeability Inversion Using Induced Microseismicity: A Case Study for the Longmaxi Shale Gas Reservoir.Yadong Zhang, Reza Rezaee, Tobias M. Müller, Guangjie Zheng, Jimmy X. Li, Yu Fan, Bo Zeng & Xiaojin Zhou - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SG21-SG31.
    We have predicted the flow permeability and its spatial distribution for the Longmaxi shale gas reservoir using microseismicity induced during hydraulic-fracturing stimulation. In the time-of-occurrence versus distance-from-injector plot, we find that microseismic points exhibit a parabolic envelope, which we interpret as a triggering front. This reveals that fluid pressure diffusion is at least one of the underlying mechanisms of microseismicity generation. We derive the large-scale equivalent diffusivity from the triggering front plot and thereafter obtain a 3D diffusivity map of the (...)
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  58.  5
    Depositional Characteristics of Fluvial Facies in Gentle Slope Zone of Lacustrine Rift Basins: The Third Member of the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope of Baxian Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China.Zili Zhang, Xiaomin Zhu, Qi Li, Ruifeng Zhang, Jing Zhang & Yi Huang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SF37-SF55.
    We have integrated core, well logs, and seismic data to analyze fluvial types and reconstruct sediment dispersal patterns of the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope, Bohai Bay Basin. We analyzed four meandering-braided fluvial successions from the Dongying Formation in the Wen’an Slope. The results indicate that the fluvial systems are dominantly northeast–southwest and consist of channel, channel bar, and flood plain subfacies, which can be further subdivided into six microfacies including braided channel, meandering channel, sandy channel bar, muddy channel (...)
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  59.  2
    Introduction to Special Section: Mapping of Depositional Systems — Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China.Hongtao Zhu, Changgui Xu, Xiaofeng Du, Xiaomin Zhu, Zaixing Jiang, Keyu Liu, Changmin Zhang, Hao Liu, Qianghu Liu & Hongliu Zeng - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (2):SFi-SFi.
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  60.  2
    Normalized and Color-Filled Logarithmic Gamma-Ray Logs to Enhance Subsurface Stratigraphic Interpretation of Carbonates and Siliciclastics.Thomas De Keyser, Essam Saeid, Christopher G. St C. Kendall & James Kellogg - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):B1-B11.
    Modern petrophysical software has broad capabilities for the display and manipulation of subsurface digital log data and for its integration with core data. Color and scale are two of the most important display attributes that can be used to enhance the visualization and interpretation of rock properties. The gamma-ray log, the most important log used in subsurface interpretation, is conventionally displayed on a linear scale of American Petroleum Institute units. This makes it difficult to interpret in very clean lithologies with (...)
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  61.  1
    Density Log Correction for Borehole Effects and its Impact on Well-to-Seismic Tie: Application on a North Sea Data Set.Isadora A. S. de Macedo, Jose Jadsom S. de Figueiredo & Matias C. de Sousa - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T43-T53.
    Reservoir characterization requires accurate elastic logs. It is necessary to guarantee that the logging tool is stable during the drilling process to avoid compromising the measurements of the physical properties in the formation in the vicinity of the well. Irregularities along the borehole may happen, especially if the drilling device is passing through unconsolidated formations. This affects the signals recorded by the logging tool, and the measurements may be more impacted by the drilling mud than by the formation. The caliper (...)
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  62.  3
    Seismic Modeling and Expression of Common Fold-Thrust Structures.Jianjun Li & Shankar Mitra - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T55-T65.
    We have conducted seismic modeling of common fold-thrust structures to understand the common geologic parameters influencing seismic data and to understand the common pitfalls associated with interpreting prestack time migration and prestack depth migration data. Mode 1 fault-bend folds are generally well-imaged in PSTM data, provided the correct migration velocities are used for the dipping back and front limbs. Seismic pull-ups of the footwall related to lateral velocity variations can result in problems in interpreting the fault geometry and the subthrust (...)
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  63.  1
    Effect of Laminae Development on Pore Structure in the Lower Third Member of the Shahejie Shale, Zhanhua Sag, Eastern China.Tingwei Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Pibo Su, Xi Zhang, Weitao Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Chuanxiang Ning, Zhi Wang & Zixin Xue - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T103-T114.
    Similar to mineral composition and organic geochemical features, laminae development significantly influences pore structure. Taking the lower third member of the Shahejie Shale, Zhanhua Sag, Eastern China as the research object, we introduced various methods to analyze the influence of laminae development on pore structure, including thin section observations, field emission scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, high-pressure mercury injection, nano-computed tomography, quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, and spontaneous imbibition. We draw the conclusions that various minerals present a (...)
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  64.  6
    Horizon Extraction Using Ordered Clustering on a Directed and Colored Graph.Zhining Liu, Chengyun Song, Kunhong Li, Bin She, Xingmiao Yao, Feng Qian & Guangmin Hu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T1-T11.
    Extracting horizons from a seismic image has been playing an important role in seismic interpretation. However, how to fully use global-level information contained in the seismic images such as the order of horizon sequences is not well-studied in existing works. To address this issue, we have developed a novel method based on a directed and colored graph, which encodes effective context information for horizon extraction. Following the commonly used framework, which generates horizon patches and then groups them into horizons, we (...)
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  65.  7
    Multispectral Coherence: Which Decomposition Should We Use?Bin Lyu, Jie Qi, Fangyu Li, Ying Hu, Tao Zhao, Sumit Verma & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T115-T129.
    Seismic coherence is commonly used to delineate structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. We generally use full-bandwidth seismic data to calculate coherence. However, some seismic stratigraphic features may be buried in this full-bandwidth data but can be highlighted by certain spectral components. Due to thin-bed tuning phenomena, discontinuities in a thicker stratigraphic feature may be tuned and thus better delineated at a lower frequency, whereas discontinuities in the thinner units may be tuned and thus better delineated at a higher frequency. Additionally, whether (...)
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  66.  1
    Improved Seismic Interpretation of a Salt Diapir by Utilization of Diffractions, Exemplified by 2D Reflection Seismics, Danish Sector of the North Sea.Mahboubeh Montazeri, Lars Ole Boldreel, Anette Uldall & Lars Nielsen - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T77-T88.
    Development of salt diapirs affects the hydrocarbon trapping systems in the Danish sector of the North Sea, where the reservoirs mainly consist of chalk. Seismic imaging and interpretation of the salt structures are challenging, primarily due to the complex geometry of the salt bodies and typically strong velocity contrast with the neighboring sediment layers. The quality of seismic imaging in the North Sea is highly dependent on the quality of the estimated velocity model. We have studied diffracted arrivals originating from (...)
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  67. Case Study: Seismic Resolution and Reservoir Characterization of Thin Sands Using Multiattribute Analysis and Bandwidth Extension in the Daqing Field, China.David Mora, John Castagna, Ramses Meza, Shumin Chen & Renqi Jiang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T89-T102.
    The Daqing field, located in the Songliao Basin in northeastern China, is the largest oil field in China. Most production in the Daqing field comes from seismically thin sand bodies with thicknesses between 1 and 15 m. Thus, it is not usually possible to resolve Daqing reservoirs using only conventional seismic data. We have evaluated the effectiveness of seismic multiattribute analysis of bandwidth extended data in resolving and making inferences about these thin layers. Multiattribute analysis uses statistical methods or neural (...)
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  68.  9
    Fluid Detection in Carbonate Rocks by Integrating Well Logs and Seismic Attributes.Mohammad Reza Saberi - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA1-SA10.
    Prestack seismic attributes are efficient tools for hydrocarbon exploration and pore fluid detection with the help of various techniques, such as amplitude variation with offset analysis. Such studies focus mainly on siliciclastics rather than carbonates because detection of fluid effects in carbonate rocks can be masked by their complex pore structure and heterogeneity. Current fluid detection methods from seismic attributes usually rely on a linear background model for P- and S-wave velocities of the water-saturated rocks, and any deviation from this (...)
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  69.  1
    A Methodology for Integrating Unconventional Geologic and Engineering Data Into a Geocellular Model.Kathryn Tamulonis - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):B13-B33.
    Unconventional field development and well performance analysis encompass multiple disciplines and large data sets. Even when seismic and other data sets are not available, geologists can build geocellular models to determine factors that improve operational efficiency by incorporating well log, geosteering, stratigraphic, structural, completion, and production data. I have developed a methodology to integrate these data sets from vertical and horizontal wells to build a sequence stratigraphic and structurally framed geocellular model for an unconventional Marcellus Formation field in the Appalachian (...)
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  70.  1
    Identifying Shallow Gas Zones by Using Seismic Attributes, Offshore Vietnam.Anh Thi Van Ngo & Angus John Ferguson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T67-T76.
    Shallow gas zones are a major concern in offshore drilling because of their potential to quickly cause kicks or blowouts. Shallow gas hazards are identified by using a series of seismic attributes. We have combined seismic data analysis and well-log analysis to identify the location and distribution of shallow gas layers. These shallow gas zones are formed during a large influx of gas due to a blowout well. The blowout well is located in the Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam. (...)
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  71. Gas Hydrate Quantification in Walker Ridge Block 313, Gulf of Mexico, From Full-Waveform Inversion of Ocean-Bottom Seismic Data.Jiliang Wang, Priyank Jaiswal, Seth S. Haines, Yihong Yang, Patrick E. Hart & Shingo Wu - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T27-T42.
    The Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg 2 logging-while-drilling data in Walker Ridge lease block 313 in the GOM detected gas hydrate in coarse- and fine-grained sediments at sites WR313-G and WR313-H. The coarse-grained units are thin and highly saturated, whereas the fine-grained unit is thick with low saturation and fracture-filling gas hydrate. Unlike its coarse-grained counterpart, the seismic character of the fine-grained unit does not clearly indicate the presence of gas hydrate, which would likely have remained undiscovered in (...)
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  72. Meet West Africa Deep Exploration Challenge with Geomorphology and Targeted Amplitude Variation with Offset Inversion.Ellen Xiaoxia Xu, Yu Jin, Sarah Coyle, Dileep Tiwary, Henry Posamentier, Andrew Royle & Zhao Zhang - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA25-SA33.
    Seismic amplitude has played a critical role in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon in West Africa. Class 3 and 2 amplitude variation with offset was extensively used as a direct hydrocarbon indicator and reservoir prediction tool in Neogene assets. As exploration advanced to deeper targets with class 1 AVO seismic character, the usage of seismic amplitude for reservoir presence and quality prediction became challenged. To overcome this obstacle, we used seismic geomorphology to infer reservoir presence and precisely target geophysical (...)
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  73.  1
    Seismic Chronostratigraphy at Reservoir Scale: Lessons From a Realistic Seismic Modeling of Mixed Clastic-Carbonate Strata in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, USA.Hongliu Zeng, Yawen He, Charles Kerans & Xavier Janson - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):T13-T25.
    We tested the validity of tracking seismic events as representations of chronostratigraphic surfaces at the subseismic, high-frequency-cycle level. A high-resolution geocellular model was generated from approximately 400 m of mixed clastic-carbonate sequences in the San Andres and Grayburg Formations in the Permian Basin, with 0.3–0.6 m layering and minimal upscaling. Realistic stratigraphic framework, facies, and velocity volumes were created by geostatistically mapping data from outcrop and subsurface sources while honoring state-of-the-art principles of stratigraphic and sedimentary analyses. Using the synthetic seismic (...)
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  74. Characterization of a Shale-Gas Reservoir Based on a Seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset Inversion for Transverse Isotropy with Vertical Axis of Symmetry Media and Quantitative Seismic Interpretation.Feng Zhang, Lin Wang & Xiang-Yang Li - 2020 - Interpretation 8 (1):SA11-SA23.
    The Lower Silurian shale-gas formation in the south of the Sichuan Basin represents a strong transverse isotropy with vertical axis of symmetry feature. Successful characterization of shale-gas formation requires handling the great influence of anisotropy in the seismic wave propagation. Seismic amplitude variation with offset inversion for VTI media using PP-waves only is a difficult issue because more than three parameters need to be estimated and such an inverse problem is highly ill posed. We have applied an AVO inversion method (...)
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