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  1. The Role of Multiword Building Blocks in Explaining L1–L2 Differences.Inbal Arnon & Morten H. Christiansen - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):621-636.
    Why are children better language learners than adults despite being worse at a range of other cognitive tasks? Here, we explore the role of multiword sequences in explaining L1–L2 differences in learning. In particular, we propose that children and adults differ in their reliance on such multiword units in learning, and that this difference affects learning strategies and outcomes, and leads to difficulty in learning certain grammatical relations. In the first part, we review recent findings that suggest that MWUs play (...)
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  2.  5
    More Than Words: The Role of Multiword Sequences in Language Learning and Use.Morten H. Christiansen & Inbal Arnon - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):542-551.
    The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has (...)
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  3.  1
    Structure Mapping for Social Learning.Stella Christie - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):758-775.
    Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures—such as kinships and social hierarchies—forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains—spatial relations, verbs, relational categories—analogical reasoning ought to be (...)
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  4. When Gesture Becomes Analogy.Kensy Cooperrider & Susan Goldin‐Meadow - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):719-737.
    Analogy researchers do not often examine gesture, and gesture researchers do not often borrow ideas from the study of analogy. One borrowable idea from the world of analogy is the importance of distinguishing between attributes and relations. Gentner observed that some metaphors highlight attributes and others highlight relations, and called the latter analogies. Mirroring this logic, we observe that some metaphoric gestures represent attributes and others represent relations, and propose to call the latter analogical gestures. We provide examples of such (...)
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  5.  7
    Multiword Constructions in the Grammar.Peter W. Culicover, Ray Jackendoff & Jenny Audring - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):552-568.
    There is ample evidence that speakers’ linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight (...)
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  6.  1
    Thinking About Multiword Constructions: Usage‐Based Approaches to Acquisition and Processing.Nick C. Ellis & Dave C. Ogden - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):604-620.
    Usage-based approaches to language hold that we learn multiword expressions as patterns of language from language usage, and that knowledge of these patterns underlies fluent language processing. This paper explores these claims by focusing upon verb–argument constructions such as “V about n.” These are productive constructions that bind syntax, lexis, and semantics. It presents analyses of usage patterns of English VACs in terms of their grammatical form, semantics, lexical constituency, and distribution patterns in large corpora; patterns of VAC usage in (...)
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  7.  9
    Representation and Computation in Cognitive Models.D. Forbus Kenneth, Liang Chen & Rabkina Irina - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):694-718.
    One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest (...)
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  8.  4
    Idiom Variation: Experimental Data and a Blueprint of a Computational Model.Kristina Geeraert, John Newman & R. Harald Baayen - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):653-669.
    Corpus surveys have shown that the exact forms with which idioms are realized are subject to variation. We report a rating experiment showing that such alternative realizations have varying degrees of acceptability. Idiom variation challenges processing theories associating idioms with fixed multi-word form units, fixed configurations of words, or fixed superlemmas, as they do not explain how it can be that speakers produce variant forms that listeners can still make sense of. A computational model simulating comprehension with naive discriminative learning (...)
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  9.  1
    Analogy and Abstraction.Gentner Dedre & Hoyos Christian - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):672-693.
    A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions (...)
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  10. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.B. Goldwater Micah - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):776-799.
    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the “who did what to whom” part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel (...)
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  11. Introduction to Volume 9, Issue 3 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):540-541.
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  12.  4
    New Space–Time Metaphors Foster New Nonlinguistic Representations.Rose K. Hendricks & Lera Boroditsky - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):800-818.
    What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like “breakfast is above dinner” or “breakfast is below dinner”. In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left–right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a (...)
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  13.  3
    Structure Mapping and Vocabularies for Thinking.Loewenstein Jeffrey - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):842-858.
    While extremes tend to capture attention, the ordinary is often most of the story. So it may be with the structure-mapping process. The structure-mapping process can account for such pinnacles of thinking as analogy and metaphor, which can lead to overlooking the mundane, incremental use of structure mapping. Consequently, the current discussion shifts focus to the value of close comparisons between literally similar items for the development of knowledge. The intent is to foster greater integration between process and content as (...)
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  14. Introduction: 2016 Rumelhart Prize Issue Honoring Dedre Gentner.Jeffrey Loewenstein & Arthur B. Markman - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):670-671.
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  15.  2
    Computational Investigations of Multiword Chunks in Language Learning.Stewart M. McCauley & Morten H. Christiansen - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):637-652.
    Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language (...)
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  16.  3
    Multiunit Sequences in First Language Acquisition.Theakston Anna & Lieven Elena - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):588-603.
    Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the (...)
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  17.  1
    Anchoring on Self and Others During Social Inferences.F. X. Willard Daniel & B. Markman Arthur - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):819-841.
    When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves. However, research on relational self theory suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Participants answered questions about their likes and habits, (...)
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  18.  1
    Analogy Lays the Foundation for Two Crucial Aspects of Symbolic Development: Intention and Correspondence.Lei Yuan & David H. Uttal - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):738-757.
    We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others’ intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the (...)
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  19.  5
    Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.R. Boot Walter, Sumner Anna, J. Towne Tyler, Rodriguez Paola & K. Anders Ericsson - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):413-436.
    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of (...)
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  20.  1
    Six Suggestions for Research on Games in Cognitive Science.F. Chabris Christopher - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):497-509.
    Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: Don't forget about chess, Look beyond action games and chess, Use -optimal play to understand human play and players, Investigate social phenomena, (...)
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  21. What Has the Study of Digital Games Contributed to the Science of Expert Behavior?Neil Charness - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):510-521.
    I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to (...)
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  22.  1
    On the Relation Between Marr's Levels: A Response to Blokpoel.Richard P. Cooper & David Peebles - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2).
    Blokpoel reminds us of the importance of consistency of function across Marr's levels, but we argue that the approach to ensuring consistency that he advocates—a strict relation through exact implementation of the higher level function at the lower level—is unnecessarily restrictive. We show that it forces overcomplication of the computational level and results in the sacrifice of the distinct responsibilities associated with each level. We propose an alternative, no less rigorous, potential characterization of the relation between levels.
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  23.  1
    A Simple Heuristic Successfully Used by Humans, Animals, and Machines: The Story of the RAF and Luftwaffe, Hawks and Ducks, Dogs and Frisbees, Baseball Outfielders and Sidewinder Missiles—Oh My!Gerd Gigerenzer & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):260-263.
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  24.  1
    Allen Newell's Program of Research: The Video‐Game Test.Fernand Gobet - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):522-532.
    Newell argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in (...)
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  25.  2
    Game‐XP: Action Games as Experimental Paradigms for Cognitive Science.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):289-307.
    Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to “accept a single complex task and do all of it.” More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an “experimental psychology as usual approach,” we should “focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task” so as to demonstrate that our theories of (...)
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  26.  3
    Introduction to Volume 9, Issue 2 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):258-259.
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  27. “The Gaze Heuristic:” Biography of an Adaptively Rational Decision Process.P. Hamlin Robert - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):264-288.
    This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal (...)
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  28.  5
    Games for Psychological Science.Howes Andrew - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):533-536.
    How does the cognitive system, as a whole, act to generate behaviour? A crucial requirement for science aimed at answering this question is that any empirical paradigm is developed hand in hand with robust theoretical models that explain the emergence of behavioural strategies. Complex games have the potential to be one such paradigm.
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  29.  4
    Master Maker: Understanding Gaming Skill Through Practice and Habit From Gameplay Behavior.Huang Jeff, Yan Eddie, Cheung Gifford, Nagappan Nachiappan & Zimmermann Thomas - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):437-466.
    The study of expertise is difficult to do in a laboratory environment due to the challenge of finding people at different skill levels and the lack of time for participants to acquire mastery. In this paper, we report on two studies that analyze naturalistic gameplay data using cohort analysis to better understand how skill relates to practice and habit. Two cohorts are analyzed, each from two different games. Our work follows skill progression through 7 months of Halo matches for a (...)
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  30.  1
    Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games: The Number Game.L. J. Maas Han & Nyamsuren Enkhbold - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):395-412.
    We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers have to be used precisely once to create a target number with basic arithmetic operations. We argue that some instances of this game are NP complete, by showing its relation to the well-known Partition problem. We propose heuristics based on the distinction in forward and backward reasoning. The Number (...)
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  31.  1
    Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play.Stuart Reeves, Christian Greiffenhagen & Eric Laurier - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):308-342.
    Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical “work” of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a “tactical zoom.” We start very much “outside” the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within (...)
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  32.  1
    Mario Becomes Cognitive.Fabian Schrodt, Jan Kneissler, Stephan Ehrenfeld & Martin V. Butz - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):343-373.
    In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner. Thus, in contrast to several well-known (...)
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  33. Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real‐Time, Dynamic Decision‐Making Task.Sibert Catherine, D. Gray Wayne & K. Lindstedt John - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):374-394.
    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning models to determine whether different goals result in (...)
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  34. Testing Sleep Consolidation in Skill Learning: A Field Study Using an Online Game.Tom Stafford & Erwin Haasnoot - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):485-496.
    Using an observational sample of players of a simple online game, we are able to trace the development of skill in that game. Information on playing time, and player location, allows us to estimate time of day during which practice took place. We compare those whose breaks in practice probably contained a night's sleep and those whose breaks in practice probably did not contain a night's sleep. Our analysis confirms experimental evidence showing a benefit of spacing for skill learning, but (...)
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  35. Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive‐Motor Skill Learning.Joseph J. Thompson, C. M. McColeman, Ekaterina R. Stepanova & Mark R. Blair - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):467-484.
    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action is delayed relative to the other actions in the (...)
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  36. Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games: The Number Game.L. J. van der Maas Han & Nyamsuren Enkhbold - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):395-412.
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  37.  3
    Improving With Practice: A Neural Model of Mathematical Development.Sean Aubin, Aaron R. Voelker & Chris Eliasmith - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):6-20.
    The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal (...)
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  38.  24
    Is Color Experience Cognitively Penetrable?Berit Brogaard & Dimitria E. Gatzia - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):193-214.
    Is color experience cognitively penetrable? Some philosophers have recently argued that it is. In this paper, we take issue with the claim that color experience is cognitively penetrable. We argue that the notion of cognitive penetration that has recently dominated the literature is flawed since it fails to distinguish between the modulation of perceptual content by non-perceptual principles and genuine cognitive penetration. We use this distinction to show that studies suggesting that color experience can be modulated by factors of the (...)
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  39.  6
    Is Color Experience Cognitively Penetrable?Berit Brogaard & Dimitria E. Gatzia - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):193-214.
    Is color experience cognitively penetrable? Some philosophers have recently argued that it is. In this paper, we take issue with the claim that color experience is cognitively penetrable. We argue that the notion of cognitive penetration that has recently dominated the literature is flawed since it fails to distinguish between the modulation of perceptual content by non-perceptual principles and genuine cognitive penetration. We use this distinction to show that studies suggesting that color experience can be modulated by factors of the (...)
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  40.  6
    Cortical Color and the Cognitive Sciences.Berit Brogaard & Dimitria Electra Gatzia - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):135-150.
    Back when researchers thought about the various forms that color vision could take, the focus was primarily on the retinal mechanisms. Since that time, research on human color vision has shifted from an interest in retinal mechanisms to cortical color processing. This has allowed color research to provide insight into questions that are not limited to early vision but extend to cognition. Direct cortical connections from higher-level areas to lower-level areas have been found throughout the brain. One of the classic (...)
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  41.  5
    Cortical Color and the Cognitive Sciences.Berit Brogaard & Dimitria Electra Gatzia - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):135-150.
    Back when researchers thought about the various forms that color vision could take, the focus was primarily on the retinal mechanisms. Since that time, research on human color vision has shifted from an interest in retinal mechanisms to cortical color processing. This has allowed color research to provide insight into questions that are not limited to early vision but extend to cognition. Direct cortical connections from higher-level areas to lower-level areas have been found throughout the brain. One of the classic (...)
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  42.  91
    Color Relationalism and Relativism.Alex Byrne & David R. Hilbert - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1).
    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.
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  43.  12
    Color Relationalism and Relativism.Alex Byrne & David R. Hilbert - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):172-192.
    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.
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  44.  4
    Perceptual Pragmatism and the Naturalized Ontology of Color.Mazviita Chirimuuta - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):151-171.
    This paper considers whether there can be any such thing as a naturalized metaphysics of color—any distillation of the commitments of perceptual science with regard to color ontology. I first make some observations about the kinds of philosophical commitments that sometimes bubble to the surface in the psychology and neuroscience of color. Unsurprisingly, because of the range of opinions expressed, an ontology of color cannot simply be read off from scientists’ definitions and theoretical statements. I next consider two alternative routes. (...)
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  45.  2
    The Effects of Guanfacine and Phenylephrine on a Spiking Neuron Model of Working Memory.Peter Duggins, Terrence C. Stewart, Xuan Choo & Chris Eliasmith - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):117-134.
    We use a spiking neural network model of working memory capable of performing the spatial delayed response task to investigate two drugs that affect WM: guanfacine and phenylephrine. In this model, the loss of information over time results from changes in the spiking neural activity through recurrent connections. We reproduce the standard forgetting curve and then show that this curve changes in the presence of GFC and PHE, whose application is simulated by manipulating functional, neural, and biophysical properties of the (...)
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  46. Introduction to Volume 9, Issue 1 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):4-5.
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  47.  2
    Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):215-227.
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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  48. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.Justin Li & Emma Kohanyi - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):102-116.
    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common–sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant (...)
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  49.  2
    The Myth of Color Sensations, or How Not to See a Yellow Banana.Pete Mandik - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):228-240.
    I argue against a class of philosophical views of color perception, especially insofar as such views posit the existence of color sensations. I argue against the need to posit such nonconceptual mental intermediaries between the stimulus and the eventual conceptualized perceptual judgment. Central to my arguments are considerations of certain color illusions. Such illusions are best explained by reference to high-level, conceptualized knowledge concerning, for example, object identity, likely lighting conditions, and material composition of the distal stimulus. Such explanations obviate (...)
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  50.  1
    Phenomenal Intentionality and Color Experience.Jennifer Matey - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):241-254.
    Phenomenal intentionality is a view about the representational content of conscious experiences that grounds the content of experiences in their phenomenal character. The view is motivated by evidence from introspection, as well as theoretical considerations and intuitions. This paper discusses one potential problem with the view. The view has difficulty accounting for the intentionality of color experiences. Versions of the view either fail to count things as part of the content of color experience that should be counted, resulting in verdicts (...)
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  51. Canalization of Language Structure From Environmental Constraints: A Computational Model of Word Learning From Multiple Cues.Padraic Monaghan - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):21-34.
    There is substantial variation in language experience, yet there is surprising similarity in the language structure acquired. Constraints on language structure may be external modulators that result in this canalization of language structure, or else they may derive from the broader, communicative environment in which language is acquired. In this paper, the latter perspective is tested for its adequacy in explaining robustness of language learning to environmental variation. A computational model of word learning from cross-situational, multimodal information was constructed and (...)
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  52.  1
    Encoding and Accessing Linguistic Representations in a Dynamically Structured Holographic Memory System.Dan Parker & Daniel Lantz - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):51-68.
    This paper presents a computational model that integrates a dynamically structured holographic memory system into the ACT-R cognitive architecture to explain how linguistic representations are encoded and accessed in memory. ACT-R currently serves as the most precise expression of the moment-by-moment working memory retrievals that support sentence comprehension. The ACT-R model of sentence comprehension is able to capture a range of linguistic phenomena, but there are cases where the model makes the wrong predictions, such as the over-prediction of retrieval interference (...)
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  53. Introduction to the Issue on Computational Models of Memory: Selected Papers From the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling.David Reitter & Frank E. Ritter - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1).
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  54.  1
    Introduction to the Issue on Computational Models of Memory: Selected Papers From the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling.David Reitter & Frank E. Ritter - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):48-50.
    Computational models of memory presented in this issue reflect varied empirical data and levels of representation. From mathematical models to neural and cognitive architectures, all aim to converge on a unified theory of the mind.
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  55.  1
    A Neural Dynamic Model Generates Descriptions of Object‐Oriented Actions.Mathis Richter, Jonas Lins & Gregor Schöner - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):35-47.
    Describing actions entails that relations between objects are discovered. A pervasively neural account of this process requires that fundamental problems are solved: the neural pointer problem, the binding problem, and the problem of generating discrete processing steps from time-continuous neural processes. We present a prototypical solution to these problems in a neural dynamic model that comprises dynamic neural fields holding representations close to sensorimotor surfaces as well as dynamic neural nodes holding discrete, language-like representations. Making the connection between these two (...)
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  56. An Account of Interference in Associative Memory: Learning the Fan Effect.Robert Thomson, Anthony M. Harrison, J. Gregory Trafton & Laura M. Hiatt - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1).
    Associative learning is an essential feature of human cognition, accounting for the influence of priming and interference effects on memory recall. Here, we extend our account of associative learning that learns asymmetric item-to-item associations over time via experience by including link maturation to balance associations between longer-term stability while still accounting for short-term variability. This account, combined with an existing account of activation strengthening and decay, predicts both human response times and error rates for the fan effect for both target (...)
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  57.  1
    An Account of Interference in Associative Memory: Learning the Fan Effect.Robert Thomson, Anthony M. Harrison, J. Gregory Trafton & Laura M. Hiatt - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):69-82.
    Associative learning is an essential feature of human cognition, accounting for the influence of priming and interference effects on memory recall. Here, we extend our account of associative learning that learns asymmetric item-to-item associations over time via experience by including link maturation to balance associations between longer-term stability while still accounting for short-term variability. This account, combined with an existing account of activation strengthening and decay, predicts both human response times and error rates for the fan effect for both target (...)
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  58.  1
    Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces.Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1).
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions remain regarding (...)
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  59.  1
    Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces.Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):83-101.
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions remain regarding (...)
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  60.  6
    Formulaic Sequences as a Regulatory Mechanism for Cognitive Perturbations During the Achievement of Social Goals.Alison Wray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):569-587.
    This paper explores two questions central to understanding the nature of formulaic sequences: What are they for? and What determines how many there are? The “Communicative Impact” model draws into a single account how language is shaped by cognitive processing on the one hand and socio-interactional function on the other: Formulaic sequences play a range of coordinated roles in neutralizing unanticipated perturbations in the cognitive management of language, so the speaker's socio-interactional goals can still be achieved. One role involves compensatory (...)
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