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  1.  13
    The Problem with Reproductive Freedom. Procreation Beyond Procreators’ Interests.Giulia Cavaliere - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):131-140.
    Reproductive freedom plays a pivotal role in debates on the ethics of procreation. This moral principle protects people’s interests in procreative matters and allows them discretion over whether to have children, the number of children they have and, to a certain extent, the type of children they have. Reproductive freedom’s theoretical and political emphasis on people’s autonomy and well-being is grounded in an individual-centred framework for discussing the ethics of procreation. It protects procreators’ interests and significantly reduces the permissible grounds (...)
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  2.  9
    The Ethical Obligation of the Dead Donor Rule.Anne L. Dalle Ave, Daniel P. Sulmasy & James L. Bernat - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):43-50.
    The dead donor rule originally stated that organ donors must not be killed by and for organ donation. Scholars later added the requirement that vital organs should not be procured before death. Some now argue that the DDR is breached in donation after circulatory determination of death programs. DCDD programs do not breach the original version of the DDR because vital organs are procured only after circulation has ceased permanently as a consequence of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. We hold that (...)
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  3.  8
    ‘I Am Your Son, Mother’: Severe Dementia and Duties to Visit Parents Who Can’T Recognise You.Bouke de Vries - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):17-24.
    It is commonly assumed that many, if not most, adult children have moral duties to visit their parents when they can do so at reasonable cost. However, whether such duties persist when the parents lose the ability to recognise their children, usually due to dementia, is more controversial. Over 40% of respondents in a public survey from the British Alzheimer’s Society said that it was “pointless” to keep up contact at this stage. Insofar as one cannot be morally required to (...)
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  4.  1
    A Gap Between the Philosophy and the Practice of Palliative Healthcare: Sociological Perspectives on the Practice of Nurses in Specialised Palliative Homecare.Stinne Glasdam, Frida Ekstrand, Maria Rosberg & Ann-Margrethe van der Schaaf - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):141-152.
    Palliative care philosophy is based on a holistic approach to patients, but research shows that possibilities for living up to this philosophy seem limited by historical and administrative structures. From the nurse perspective, this article aims to explore nursing practice in specialised palliative homecare, and how it is influenced by organisational and cultural structures. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with nine nurses were conducted, inspired by Bourdieu. The findings showed that nurses consolidate the doxa of medicine, including medical-professional values that configure a (...)
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  5.  4
    Heideggerian Hermeneutic Phenomenology as Method: Modelling Analysis Through a Meta-Synthesis of Articles on Being-Towards-Death.Janice Gullick & Sandra West - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):87-105.
    While the richness of Heideggerian philosophy is attractive as a healthcare research framework, its density means authors rarely utilise its fullest possibilities as an hermeneutic analytic structure. This article aims to clarify Heideggerian hermeneutic analysis by taking one discrete element of Heideggerian philosophy, and using it’s clearly defined structure to conduct a meta-synthesis of Heideggerian phenomenological studies on the experience of living with a potentially life-limiting illness. The findings richly illustrate Heidegger’s philosophy that there is either an inauthentic positioning towards (...)
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  6.  1
    All in the Family.Henk ten Have & Bert Gordijn - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):1-2.
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  7.  2
    Stories of Despair: A Kierkegaardian Read of Suffering and Selfhood in Survivorship.Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard Knox - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):61-72.
    A life-threatening illness such as cancer can bring about much existential suffering and a disconnect to self in spite of surviving cancer. In my recent research project, I interviewed 14 long-term cancer survivors on being post cancer. Contrary to common assumptions about long-term survivorship, my interviewees reported grave existential difficulties in finding a firm footing in their sense of self, fostering a variety of stories of despair. This article examines long-term cancer survivors’ suffering from the vantage point of selfhood and (...)
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  8.  11
    The Right to Refuse Diagnostics and Treatment Planning by Artificial Intelligence.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):107-114.
    In an analysis of artificially intelligent systems for medical diagnostics and treatment planning we argue that patients should be able to exercise a right to withdraw from AI diagnostics and treatment planning for reasons related to the physician’s role in the patients’ formation of and acting on personal preferences and values, the bias and opacity problem of AI systems, and rational concerns about the future societal effects of introducing AI systems in the health care sector.
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  9. Schrödinger’s Fetus.Joona Räsänen - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):125-130.
    This paper defends and develops Elizabeth Harman’s Actual Future Principle with a concept called Schrödinger’s Fetus. I argue that all early fetuses are Schrödinger’s Fetuses: those early fetuses that survive and become conscious beings have full moral status already as early fetuses, but those fetuses that die as early fetuses lack moral status. With Schrödinger’s Fetus, it becomes possible to accept two widely held but contradictory intuitions to be true, and to avoid certain reductiones ad absurdum that pro-life and pro-choice (...)
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  10.  6
    Automated Vehicles, Big Data and Public Health.David Shaw, Bernard Favrat & Bernice Elger - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):35-42.
    In this paper we focus on how automated vehicles can reduce the number of deaths and injuries in accident situations in order to protect public health. This is actually a problem not only of public health and ethics, but also of big data—not only in terms of all the different data that could be used to inform such decisions, but also in the sense of deciding how wide the scope of data should be. We identify three key different types of (...)
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  11.  14
    Autism, Autonomy, and Authenticity.Elisabeth M. A. Späth & Karin R. Jongsma - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):73-80.
    Autonomy of people on the autism-spectrum has only been very rarely conceptually explored. Autism spectrum is commonly considered a hetereogenous disorder, and typically described as a behaviorally-defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism research mainly focuses on the behavior of autistic people and ways to teach them skills that are in line with social norms. Interventions such as therapies are being justified with the assumption that autists lack the capacity to be (...)
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  12.  6
    Health and Capabilities: A Conceptual Clarification.Per-Anders Tengland - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):25-33.
    There are great health disparities in the world today, both between countries and within them. This problem might be seen as related to the access to various kinds of capabilities. It is not fully clear, however, what the exact relation is between health and capabilities. Neither Amartya Sen nor Martha Nussbaum has explicitly formulated a theory of health to go with their theories of capabilities. This paper attempts to present a clarification of the conceptual relation between health and capabilities. Health, (...)
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  13.  11
    Mechanisms in Clinical Practice: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Jon Williamson - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):115-124.
    While the importance of mechanisms in determining causality in medicine is currently the subject of active debate, the role of mechanistic reasoning in clinical practice has received far less attention. In this paper we look at this question in the context of the treatment of a particular individual, and argue that evidence of mechanisms is indeed key to various aspects of clinical practice, including assessing population-level research reports, diagnostic as well as therapeutic decision making, and the assessment of treatment effects. (...)
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  14.  21
    Can Self-Validating Neuroenhancement Be Autonomous?Jukka Varelius - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):51-59.
    Consider that an individual improves her capacities by neuroscientific means. It turns out that, besides altering her in the way(s) she intended, the enhancement also changes her personality in significant way(s) she did not foresee. Yet the person endorses her new self because the neuroenhancement she underwent changed her. Can the person’s approval of her new personality be autonomous? While questions of autonomy have already gathered a significant amount of attention in philosophical literature on human enhancement, the problem just described—henceforth (...)
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  15.  13
    Is It Ever Morally Permissible to Select for Deafness in One’s Child?Jacqueline Mae Wallis - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):3-15.
    As reproductive genetic technologies advance, families have more options to choose what sort of child they want to have. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis, for example, allows parents to evaluate several existing embryos before selecting which to implant via in vitro fertilization. One of the traits PGD can identify is genetic deafness, and hearing embryos are now preferentially selected around the globe using this method. Importantly, some Deaf families desire a deaf child, and PGD–IVF is also an option for them. Selection (...)
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  16.  2
    The Hippocratic Oath and the Declaration of Geneva: Legitimisation Attempts of Professional Conduct.Urban Wiesing - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):81-86.
    The Hippocratic Oath and the Declaration of Geneva of the World Medical Association are compared in terms of content and origin. Their relevance for current medical practice is investigated. The status which is ascribed to these documents will be shown and the status which they can reasonably claim to have will be explored. Arguments in favor of the Hippocratic Oath that rely on historical stability or historical origin are being examined. It is demonstrated that they get caught up in paradoxes. (...)
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  17.  71
    Can Reproductive Genetic Manipulation Save Lives?G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    It has recently been argued that reproductive genetic manipulation technologies like mitochondrial replacement and germline CRISPR modifications cannot be said to save anyone’s life because, counterfactually, no one would suffer more or die sooner absent the intervention. The present article argues that, on the contrary, reproductive genetic manipulations may be life-saving (and, from this, have therapeutic value) under an appropriate population health perspective. As such, popular reports of reproductive genetic manipulations potentially saving lives or preventing disease are not necessarily mistaken, (...)
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  18.  2
    Doctors That “Doctor” Sickness Certificates: Cunning Intelligence as an Ability and Possibly a Virtue Among Swedish GPs.Mani Shutzberg - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    The relations of power between healthcare-related institutions and the professionals that interact with them are changing. Generally, the institutions are gaining the upper hand. Consequently, the intellectual abilities necessary for professionals to pursue the internal goods of healthcare are changing as well. A concrete case is the struggle over sickness benefits in Sweden, in which the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and physicians are important stakeholders. The SSIA has recently consolidated its power over the sickness certificates that doctors issue for their (...)
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