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  1. Discording Enlightenment on China.Selusi Ambrogio - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):157-177.
    It is usually acknowledged that the core contribution of the Enlightenment is primarily twofold: the first being the introduction of reason and science as judgmental principles, and the second being the belief in the future progress of humankind as a shared destiny for humanity. This ‘modern’ reason—an exclusively human prerogative among creatures—could be applied to create a better society from the political, civil, educational, scientific, and religious points of view. What is usually less known is that for most of the (...)
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  2. The Body of Rights: The Right to the Body.Debra Berghoffen - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):19-37.
    This paper examines the ways that feminists have built on and transformed Mary Wollstonecraft’s Enlightenment idea that women’s rights are human rights. It argues that Wollstonecraft’s marginal attention to the issue of sexual violence reflects the mind-body dualism of her era where reason divorced from the body established our dignity as persons. Today’s feminists reject this dualism. They have adopted and retooled Wollstonecraft’s idea that women’s rights are human rights to create solidarity among women of different places, races, classes, religions (...)
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  3. Shitao and the Enlightening Experience of Painting.David Chai - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):93-112.
    Having reached its zenith in the Song dynasty, Chinese landscape painting in the dynasties that followed became highly formulaic as artists simply copied the old masters to perfect their skills. This orthodox approach was not accepted by everyone however; some painters criticized it, arguing it was better to learn the ideas behind the techniques of the old masters than to blindly copy them. Shitao was one such critic and his Manual on Painting exemplifies his desire to disassociate himself from the (...)
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  4. Ideology or History as “Idéologie:” C. F Volney and the Uses of the Past in Revolutionary France.Alexander Cook - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):179-196.
    The French Revolution had a complex relationship with historical thought. In a significant sense, the politics of 1789 was built upon a rejection of the authority of the past. As old institutions and practices were swept away, many champions of the Revolution attacked conventional historical modes for legitimating authority, seeking to replace them with a politics anchored in notions of reason, natural law and natural rights. Yet history was not so easily purged from politics. In practice, symbols and images borrowed (...)
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  5.  6
    Restoring Catharine Macaulay’s Enlightenment Republicanism?Karen Green - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):39–57.
    Can Catharine Macaulay’s enlightenment, democratic, republicanism be justified from the point of view of contemporary naturalism? Naturalist accounts of political authority tend to be realist and pessimistic, foreclosing the possibility of enlightenment. Macaulay’s utopian political philosophy relies on belief in a good God, whose existence underpins the possibility of moral and political progress. This paper attempts a restoration of her optimistic utopianism, in a reconciliation, grounded in a revision of natural law, of naturalist and utopian attitudes to political theory. It (...)
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  6. Light Through Time and Space.Xing Guozhong & Shang Chen - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):75-92.
    Chinese Confucianism, which emerged during the Axial Age, has had a profound influence on many intellectual and cultural movements in history, including the European Enlightenment. This article analyzes the influence of Confucianism on the European Enlightenment from four perspectives: human rights, a benevolent government, religion and nature. The humanist spirit propagated by Confucianism was similar to the views expressed by Enlightenment thinkers on reason and human rights and provided a powerful ideological weapon for Enlightenment thinkers to criticize religious theocracy and (...)
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  7.  1
    The Quest for a Global Age of Reason. Part II: Cultural Appropriation and Racism in the Name of Enlightenment.Dag Herbjørnsrud - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):133-155.
    The Age of Enlightenment is more global and complex than the standard Eurocentric Colonial Canon narrative presents. For example, before the advent of unscientific racism and the systematic negligence of the contributions of Others outside of “White Europe,” Raphael centered Ibn Rushd in his Vatican fresco “Causarum Cognitio” ; the astronomer Edmund Halley taught himself Arabic to be more enlightened; The Royal Society of London acknowledged the scientific method developed by Ibn Al-Haytham. In addition, if we study the Transatlantic texts (...)
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  8.  90
    The Quest for a Global Age of Reason. Part I: Asia, Africa, the Greeks, and the Enlightenment Roots.Dag Herbjørnsrud - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):113-131.
    This paper will contend that we, in the first quarter of the 21st century, need an enhanced Age of Reason based on global epistemology. One reason to legitimize such a call for more intellectual enlightenment is the lack of required information on non-European philosophy in today’s reading lists at European and North American universities. Hence, the present-day Academy contributes to the scarcity of knowledge about the world’s global history of ideas outside one’s ethnocentric sphere. The question is whether we genuinely (...)
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  9. Do We Need a New Nathan the Wise?Brian Klug - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):233-248.
    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s “dramatic poem” Nathan the Wise stood out at the time because it showed a Jew, Nathan, in a good light—a better light than the average Christian. Nathan is presented as a figure of wisdom largely on account of his approach to religious difference, especially among the religions represented by the three main protagonists: the Sultan Saladin, the Knight Templar and Nathan himself. In the context of the conflicts of early modern Europe, his message—on the nature of religious (...)
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  10.  1
    Spinoza’s Ode to Reason.Ollie Koistinen - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):265-279.
    In this paper, the main features of Spinoza’s conception of Reason are laid out. First, how Reason differs on the one hand from opinion and imagination and on the other hand from intuitive knowledge. After that the validation of Reason is considered. As I interpret Benedict de Spinoza, even finite subjects enjoy freedom of Reason. I will give the reasons for this doctrine which seems to be inconsistent with Spinoza’s universal determinism. One of the most fascinating aspects of Spinoza’s rationalism (...)
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  11.  4
    Do We Need a Metaphysics of Morals?Alessandro Pinzani - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):249-264.
    This paper argues that Kant’s project of a metaphysics of morals represents a normative ideal grounded on the core ideas of Enlightenment. In the first section, it analyzes Kant’s concept of metaphysical principles of morals by establishing a connection between a metaphysics of morals and Kant’s concept of metaphysics in general and of metaphysics of nature in particular. It then discusses what is metaphysical in the Doctrine of Right and the Doctrine of Virtue. In its last section, it tackles the (...)
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  12. Reading Diderot’s Novels and Correspondence.Odile Richard - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):59-74.
    This study deals with the contemporary relevance of Diderot’s ideas in matters of education. Neither a treatise nor an essay, Diderot’s practical observations are scattered throughout his letter correspondence and his fictional novels. According to our enquiry, the more physiological aspects are dealt with in the Encyclopedia. We will see that Diderot’s position is unconventional but does not necessarily follow in Rousseau’s wake. He rather tries to reach a fair balance between freedom and duty, focusing on women and sexual emancipation.
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  13.  1
    Spinoza’s Critique and the Making of Modern Religion in the Enlightenment Era.Anna Tomaszewska - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):217-232.
    In recent publications on the Enlightenment, Baruch Spinoza is often associated with the radical “fringe,” advocating against Christianity and giving rise to the incipient process of secularization. In this paper, it is argued that we should look for Spinoza’s influence on the Enlightenment in his ideas inspiring heterodox theologians: radical reformers aiming to “rationalize” revelation but not to dismiss it altogether. Several cases of such thinkers are adduced and shortly discussed: Jarig Jelles, Johan Christian Edelmann, Carl Friedrich Bahrdt and Immanuel (...)
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  14. Passionate Enlightenment Redeeming Modernity Through David Hume.Meng Zhang - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):197-215.
    This paper aims to redeem part of the Enlightenment project through a critical appreciation of David Hume’s practical philosophy. It argues that Hume’s practical philosophy, if interpreted correctly, is immune to two major charges leveled against the Enlightenment in critical theories and in philosophical ethics, respectively. One trend is represented by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, who claim that inherent to the advocacy of rationality typical of the Enlightenment is the irrational adoration of instrumental reason, which obliterates individual particularity, commodifies (...)
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  15.  3
    Understanding the Virtues of Enlightenment Epistemology.Ana Bazac - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):211-230.
    The paper tries to demonstrate the hypothesis that the Enlightenment epistemology is the unity of the constructivist theory of knowledge—that developed the transcendental conditions of knowing—and the ethical maximalism of the categorical imperative. Actually, the ethical maximalism was conceived of and is conceivable only in tandem with and as a result of the epistemological constructivism that alone enables the responsibility without which the ethical stakes remain an exterior normative speculation. The unity supported the development of the concept of critique as (...)
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  16. The Idea of Miracle in the Enlightenment and Enlightenment in the Idea of Miracle.Evgeniy Bubnov - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):163-184.
    The article is devoted to the problem of comprehension of the idea of miracle by the encyclopaedists and other enlighteners. The definitions of the concepts we use to designate the miraculous, the amazing and the magic change with the time. This fact may seem trivial at first glance. However, if we draw our sight to the material world we will see that the evolutionary changes taking place with some engineering devices do not affect the functions these devices were invented for. (...)
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  17.  1
    Mendelssohn’s Jerusalem (1783) and The Jewish Vision of Tolerance.Shmuel Feiner - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):89-106.
    Moses Mendelssohn wrote Jerusalem with his back to the wall. His Jewish identity and liberal outlook were challenged in the public sphere of the German Enlightenment, and this was his last opportunity to write a book that would perpetuate the essence of his faith and his values as the first modern Jewish humanist. The work, which moves between apologetics for his faith and political and religious philosophy was primarily a daring essay that categorically denied the rule of religion and advocated (...)
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  18. Separating Politics From Institutional Religion.Diego Lucci - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):67-87.
    Nowadays, more than three centuries after John Locke’s affirmation of the separation between state and church, confessional systems of government are still widespread and, even in secular liberal democracies, politics and religion often intermingle. As a result, some ecclesiastical institutions play a significant role in political affairs, while minority groups and individuals having alternative worldviews, values, and lifestyles are frequently discriminated against. Locke’s theory of religious toleration undeniably has some shortcomings, such as the exclusion of Roman Catholics and atheists from (...)
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  19. Appraisal of Steven Pinker’s Position on Enlightenment.Ashok Kumar Malhotra - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):263-283.
    Steven Pinker presents four ideals of Enlightenment in his popular book Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress. He argues his case brilliantly and convincingly through cogent arguments in a language comprehensible to the reader of the present century. Moreover, whether it is reason or science or humanism or progress, he defends his position powerfully. He justifies his views by citing 75 graphs on the upswing improvement made by humanity in terms of prosperity, longevity, education, equality of (...)
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  20. Productive Misunderstanding.German Melikhov - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):231-245.
    The article focuses on understanding some of the self-evident premises of the philosophy of the 17th–19th centuries that make up the horizon of the Enlightenment. One of these premises is Immanuel Kant’s idea of independent thinking. Based on the analysis of the polemics of Kant and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi about the “extrasensible abilities” of the reason, the question is raised about the possibility of understanding someone else’s concept based on other existential preferences. Answering this question, we distinguish between the concept (...)
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  21. A Historicist Critique of Steven Pinker’s Interpretation of Progress.Omer Moussaly - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):285-306.
    This article presents an alternative account of the Enlightenment project than the one offered by Steven Pinker in Enlightenment Now. It also offers some insights into how historic changes concretely occurred. Based on a Marxian reading of history we attempt to complete the portrait of human progress that Pinker provides. The main arguments in support of our alternative explanation of social progress are based on insights taken from important works written by such intellectuals as Giovanni Arrighi, Andre Gunder Frank, Antonio (...)
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  22.  5
    John Locke—Theorist of Limiting and Supervising Political Power by Citizens.Adriana Neacșu - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):49-65.
    This paper aims to analyze John Locke’s ideas on the limited political mandate of the institutions of power, and the need for their supervision and sanctioning by citizens when they violate their duties. It emphasizes the topicality of these ideas, pointing out that they represent two fundamental principles in the functioning of the rule of law, defining the current democracies. Locke justified them starting from the hypothesis that society was founded by people through a deliberate pact, so that the common (...)
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  23. Benedict de Spinoza’s Virtue.Columbus N. Ogbujah - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):107-122.
    Benedict de Spinoza was about the most radical of the early modern philosophers who developed a unique metaphysics that inspired an intriguing moral philosophy, fusing insights from ancient Stoicism, Cartesian metaphysics, Hobbes and medieval Jewish rationalism. While helping to ground the Enlightenment, Spinoza’s thoughts, against the intellectual mood of the time, divorced transcendence from divinity, equating God with nature. His extremely naturalistic views of reality constructed an ethical structure that links the control of human passion to virtue and happiness. By (...)
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  24. On the Very Idea of Civilisation.Luke O’Sullivan - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):307-321.
    The concept of civilisation is a controversial one because it is unavoidably normative in its implications. Its historical associations with the effort of Western imperialism to impose substantive conditions of life have made it difficult for contemporary liberalism to find a definition of “civilization” that can be reconciled with progressive discourse that seeks to avoid exclusions of various kinds. But because we lack a way of identifying what is peculiar to the relationship of civilisation that avoids the problem of domination, (...)
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  25.  1
    From Toleration to Laïcité.Gerhardt Stenger - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):145-161.
    This paper traces the history of the philosophical and political justification of religious tolerance from the late 17th century to modern times. In the Anglo-Saxon world, John Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration gave birth to the doctrine of the separation of Church and State and to what is now called secularization. In France, Pierre Bayle refuted, in his Philosophical Commentary, the justification of intolerance taken from Saint Augustine. Following him, Voltaire campaigned for tolerance following the Calas affair, and the Declaration of (...)
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  26. Understanding Is Not Enough.Emilia A. Tajsin - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):27-48.
    John Locke was one of the first empiricists of the age of modernity who created a masterpiece on systematic gnoseology, and the first Enlightener whose ideas on ethics, law, and politics, preceded and made possible the 18th century and the Great French Revolution, and inspired the key wordings in the American Declaration of Independence. The slogan “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” influenced the course of history becoming the banner “Freedom, Equality, Fraternity” for all revolutionary movements. However, “Possessions” as (...)
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  27.  1
    Philosophy and Theological Rationalism.Gabriela Tănăsescu - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):123-144.
    The paper aims to circumscribe, through a specific history of ideas approach, the relevance of Benedict Spinoza’s theological rationalism to the major debate which generated the Early Enlightenment, the radical conception on the new status of philosophy in relation to theology, on libertas philosophandi and rational philosophizing. The main lines of Spinoza’s theological rationalism are sustained as being inspired and encouraged by Hobbes’ “negative theology,” the only theology considered consonant with the “true philosophy.” The paper also indicates the originality of (...)
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  28. Education Project: Utopia or New Reality?Elena Tashlinskaya - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):247-261.
    The article reveals the main specific features of Russian philosophy of the Enlightenment. The activity of the outstanding scientist Mikhail V. Lomonosov, his contribution to the development of domestic and world science and philosophy come to the forth. Russian Enlightenment is distinguished by the originality of the intellectual tradition. Knowledge of Western ideas leads to the emergence of domestic science, philosophy, literature. The desire for freedom, autonomy and progress in science during the century of Enlightenment was combined with adherence to (...)
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  29.  1
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the Context of the Enlightenment and the Contemporary Era.Halina Walentowicz - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):185-210.
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau is a special personage in the history of Enlightenment philosophy and European thought in general. This is so, because, on the one hand, he propounded ideas that were typical for the Enlightenment and greatly influenced his contemporaries—after all, it was he who inspired Kant with the idea of the autonomy of the will as a source of moral and juridical law, a conception which became the foundation of Kantian practical philosophy—but on the other criticised many popular ideas of (...)
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  30.  11
    Unmasking Color Racism.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):41-67.
    One reason Aristotle is distinguished as a philosopher is that he thought the philosopher investigated the causes of things. This paper raises the question: What are the causes of racial prejudice and racial discrimination. All ethical beings know that racial prejudice and racial discrimination are morally wrong, deplorable and should be completely eradicated. Deanna Jacobsen Koepke refers to Holt’s definitions in distinguishing racism from prejudice: “Racism is defined as hostility toward a group of people based on alleged inferiorities. Racism is (...)
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  31.  9
    The Problem of the Coexistence of the Concept of Human Nature and Racism.Ana Bazac - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):139-156.
    Although the concept of human nature may seem problematic, its a-historical essentialism can be used to show the fall of modern European philosophy into the historical pit of unsolvable contradictions. This paper explores the problems of logical contradictions between the modern and universalistic concept of human nature and the discriminative model of inferior-superior humans, mainly illustrated by racism. First, this paper shows that the concept of human nature is valid beyond the arguments related to evolution and social contexts, although the (...)
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  32.  10
    Andrew Jackson, Black American Slavery, and the Trail of Tears.Earnest N. Bracey - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):119-138.
    Many revisionist historians today try to make the late President Andrew Jackson out to be something that he was not—that is, a man of all the people. In our uninhibited, polarized culture, the truth should mean something. Therefore, studying the character of someone like Andrew Jackson should be fully investigated, and researched, as this work attempts to do. Indeed, this article tells us that we should not accept lies and conspiracy theories as the truth. Such revisionist history comes into sharp (...)
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  33.  11
    The Religious and Quasi-Religious Genealogy of the Theology of Nazism.Evgeniy Bubnov - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):69-86.
    The article is dedicated to the understanding of the Nazi anthropology as an element of the quasi-religious concept. Adolf Hitler’s racial theory unequivocally rejected the human status of persons not belonging to the Caucasian race, labeling them as Untermensch. Such an attitude was due to several prerequisites. However, the core reason is manifested not in the rational sphere. In the twentieth century, concepts of quasi-religions and political religions became widespread due to the reign of two totalitarian ideologies in Eurasia—Nazism and (...)
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  34.  10
    Theistic and Non-Theistic Modes of Detachment From the Presence of the Infinite.Michel Dion - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):233-254.
    In this article, we will describe two theistic modes of “paradoxical detachment” from the Presence of the Infinite, implying the coexistence of attachment and detachment. We will analyze two forms of Christianity-based paradoxical detachment: being dependent on the Ground of soul, while being detached from the representations of the Infinite ; being absolutely dependent on the Infinite, while being detached from any religious morality. The nontheistic mode of detachment from the Presence of the Infinite requires an absolute detachment. We will (...)
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  35.  11
    Western Racist Ideologies and the Nigerian Predicament.Maraizu Elechi - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):87-104.
    Racism is responsible for discrimination against some citizens in Nigeria. It influences government's policies and actions and militates against equity and equal opportunity for all. It has effaced indigenous values and ebbed the country into groaning predicaments of shattered destiny and derailed national development. Racism hinges on superciliousness and the assumed superiority of one tribe and religion over the others. These bring to the fore two forms of racism in Nigeria: institutional and interpersonal racisms. The Western selfish motive to dominate, (...)
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  36.  11
    How Sense-Phenomenal Theory of Personal Identity Might Legitimize Racism.Maduka Enyimba - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):177-190.
    The major concern of the problem of personal identity gravitates around the question of whether a person’s identity is located in the mind or in the body. Scholars have developed different theories such as survivalist and physicalist criteria among others in response to this question. In this paper, I engage with the theory of sense-phenomenalism as an aspect of the physicalist criterion of personal identity to show how it might legitimize racism and colour-branding. Sense-phenomenalism is a body-only model of personal (...)
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  37.  12
    Eliminating Racism.Clement Chimezie Igbokwe - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):191-202.
    Slavery and slave trade gave birth to racism and society has been struggling towards its prevention and possible elimination with little success. Martin Luther King Jr wrote in his letter from the Birmingham jail: “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.” Until this undeniable fact is understood and emphasized our contemporary society is heading towards a state of an uncontrollable wildfire of anarchy. It (...)
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  38.  10
    The Role of the Christian Church in Combating 21st Century Racism.Clara M. Austin Iwuoha - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):219-231.
    The demons of racism, bigotry, and prejudice found in society at large are also found in the Christian Church. Despite the very nature of Christianity that calls on Christians to be a counter voice in the world against evil, many have capitulated to various strains of racism. Some Christian denominations have begun to explore racism in the Church and have developed responses to addressing the issues in both the Church and the world. This article examines the historical context of race (...)
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  39.  12
    The Sleep of the “Moon Man”.Andrey I. Matsyna - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):203-217.
    Racism cannot be ousted by external social manipulations without philosophical reflection on distinguishing between the structure of this phenomenon and the possibilities of its cultural overcoming. This essay analyzes Russian traveler Nicolai Miklouho-Maclay’s heroic struggle against racism. His nap on the outskirts of a Papuan village is presented as an existential act of throwing off any objectivities of one’s personal “I” in an effort to overcome racist insanity using a universal dialogue between accepting each other as equals. As a xenophobic (...)
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  40.  16
    Racism, Vulnerability, and the Youth Struggle in Africa.Paul K. Michael - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):105-118.
    Because youths are particularly vulnerable to social problems, philosophers since Plato to date have continued to show interest in developing, empowering, and protecting the youths. African youths are particularly far more than ordinarily vulnerable to various social problems including racism especially from outside the continent, mainly because of the shortfall in youth development and empowerment strategies in most African countries. Consequently, young people are pulled to countries with resources and infrastructures that provide them with opportunities to enlarge their capabilities and (...)
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  41.  9
    The Illusion of a Post-Racialised World.Isaiah Aduojo Negedu - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):9-21.
    The presidential election of 2007 that sworn in Barack Obama as president of the United States of America heightened the idea that rightly, or wrongly, suggests the world has become post-racialised. I will explain how the notion of post-raciality is a distraction to the demands of racial diversity in the twenty-first century. I use the conversational thinking as an alternative method to show how the possibility of both nuances in the form of racial conflict/diversity can subsist. The difference I envisage (...)
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  42.  11
    Colourism, Ethnicism and the Logic of Domination in 21st Century Nigeria.Columbus N. Ogbujah - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):23-39.
    The 2016 launch of the courier giant—Dalsey, Hillblom, and Lynn’s Advanced Regional Centre in Singapore—was significant not just for the scale of the facility and its impressive level of innovation, but for the visual identity and branding of DHL’s red and yellow corporate colours. These colours, as is evident in all branding, set it out from the rest, and have become a symbol of power and domination. This resonates with the use of colour categories to isolate human beings into unjust (...)
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  43.  10
    Populism as the Cause of Legitimising Racism in Western Societies.Krzysztof Przybyszewski - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):157-175.
    The article aims at demonstrating that a spike in populist narratives in Western societies leads to the legitimization of a new type of racism, xenoracism. Societies belonging to the so-called Western culture in the second half of the 20th century were attached to the liberal values where every sign of racism was negatively perceived as pejorative and attempts were made at eradicating it. In the 21st century, in turn, various economic and social crises caused by, inter alia, globalizing processes, were (...)
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  44.  10
    Paul K. Feyerabend’s Method Against Method.Aivaras Stepukonis - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):271-290.
    The article examines and criticizes Paul Karl Feyerabend’s seminal work entitled, “How to Be a Good Empiricist—A Plea for Tolerance in Matters Epistemological” which persuasively argued for a pluralistic view of scientific knowledge and theoretical truth. Throughout the article, a number of polemical points, analytic elaborations, and broader philosophical concerns are raised regarding the notions of consistency condition, meaning invariance, theoretical alternatives, and the very principle of theoretical pluralism. The article concludes that Feyerabend’s call for a plurality of theories as (...)
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  45.  10
    The Beginnings of the Anarchist Concept of Freedom in the Teaching of the Greek Cynics and Chinese Philosophical Daoists.Žilvinas Vareikis - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):255-270.
    This paper links the beginnings of anarchism to the works of some ancient Greek Cynic philosophers. Its reflections are also visible in the Chinese Daoist civilizational paradigm, so comparatively relevant ideas developed by the Greek Cynics are analysed in relation to the Chinese Daoists ideas. Basing on the surviving works by the representatives of the above-mentioned schools or only fragments of these works, the author of the paper draws attention to the aspects of social behaviour and social activities of the (...)
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  46.  2
    The Confucian and Marxian Ways: Ironic Affinities.Kevin M. Brien - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:39-66.
    This essay explores significant affinities with respect to the humanism of the Marxian and Confucian Ways. Although orthodox Marxism suppresses the humanistic dimensions of Marx’s thought, they are foremost in his earlier writing, and were never abandoned in his later thought. All varieties of Confucianism recognize its humanism. The essay argues that both perspectives involve process modes of understanding; that both have a convergent understanding of abstract general terms; that both view the human being as a community being; that both (...)
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  47.  1
    The Duality of the Cognitive Subject in the Conception of Max Scheler.Małgorzata Czarnocka - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:113-135.
    The object of my inquiry is Max Scheler’s cognitive subjectivity conception, which in particular addresses the problem of subjectivity in science. Scheler introduces two kinds of subject: the first is the standard cognitive subject encountered in epistemological theories—an individual subject which really carries out cognitive acts. The second, collective subject, controls the first, imposing upon it the cognitive forms it has developed; I call this subject the creating subject. In Scheler’s theory, the creating subject is represented by the ethos of (...)
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  48. Max Scheler’s Pluralistic Conception of Knowledge.Stanisław Czerniak - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:83-94.
    This article aims to reconstruct Max Scheler’s conception of three types of knowledge, outlined in his late work Philosophical Perspectives. Scheler distinguished three kinds of knowledge: empirical, used to exercise control over nature, eidetic and metaphysical. The author reviews the epistemological criteria that underlie this distinction, and its functionalistic assumptions. In the article’s polemic part he accuses Scheler of a) crypto-dualism in his theory of knowledge, which draws insufficient distinctions between metaphysical and eidetic knowledge; b) totally omitting the status of (...)
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  49. The Public Sphere, Deweyan Democracy and Rational Discourse in Africa.Temisanren Ebijuwa - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:67-81.
    The quest for a decent political order in many societies is imperative today because of the heterogeneous nature of our social existence and the complexity of our ever increasing socio-economic and political experiences. Since the public sphere is a domain of freedom exemplified by dialogical engagements, the outcome of such encounter must involve the intelligible thoughts of all discussants with the sole aim of dealing with the concerns and commanding the commitment of all to the decisions reached. In this study, (...)
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  50. Possibility of Friendship Between Religions.Michael Mitias - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:9-38.
    The majority of theologians, philosophers, and religious leaders have, during the past five decades, either argued or taken it for granted that the primary aim of interreligious dialogue is mutual understanding and that the purpose of realizing this aim is mitigation of alienation, hatred, and violence between the religions and cooperation on worthwhile projects. On the contrary, the author of this paper argues that the primary aim of interreligious dialogue should be to create a bond of friendship between the various (...)
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  51.  1
    The Functionalization of Essential (A Priori) Knowledge.Aivaras Stepukonis - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31:137-150.
    The article explores a special mode of the human mind outlined in the writings of Max Scheler under the notion of the functionalization of essential knowledge. While the concept of a priori was given its profound elaboration in the writings of Immanuel Kant, Scheler applies it with a number of significant modifications. Along with the a priori of objective reality, which is the mind’s first step in grasping the autonomous world, Scheler comes to posit a species of a priori that (...)
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