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  1.  1
    A Critique of the Principle of ‘Respect for Autonomy’, Grounded in African Thought.G. Behrens Kevin - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    I give an account how the principle of ‘respect for autonomy’ dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, ‘respect for persons’ and ‘respect for free power of choice’. I argue that ‘respect for autonomy’ is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within (...)
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  2. Measurement, “Scriptural Economies,” and Social Justice: Governing HIV/AIDS Treatments by Numbers in a Fragile State, the Central African Republic.Pierre‐Marie David - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):32-39.
    Fragile states have been raising increasing concern among donors since the mid-2000s. The policies of the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis have not excluded fragile states, and this source has provided financing for these countries according to standardized procedures. They represent interesting cases for exploring the meaning and role of measurement in a globalized context. Measurement in the field of HIV/AIDS and its treatment has given rise to a private outsourcing of expertise and auditing, thereby creating a (...)
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  3.  1
    Power Difference and Risk Perception: Mapping Vulnerability Within the Decision Process of Pregnant Women Towards Clinical Trial Participation in an Urban Middle-Income Setting.C. den Hollander Geerte, lBrowne Joyce, Arhinful Daniel, Graaf Rieke & Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    To address the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, research with pregnant women in these settings is increasingly common. Pregnant women in LMIC-context may experience vulnerability related to giving consent to participate in a clinical trial. To recognize possible layers of vulnerability this study aims to identify factors that influence the decision process towards clinical trial participation of pregnant women in an urban middle-income setting. This qualitative research used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group (...)
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  4.  3
    Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World – The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.Diependaele Lisa, Cockbain Julian & Sterckx Sigrid - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):11-21.
    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional ‘regulatory’ protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the (...)
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  5. Opt‐in or Opt‐Out to Increase Organ Donation in South Africa? Appraising Proposed Strategies Using an Empirical Ethics Analysis.Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn & Jennifer Watermeyer - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa. We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with ‘required transplant referral’ in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor (...)
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  6.  2
    Reconsidering Counselling and Consent.David R. Hall & Anton A. Niekerk - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):4-10.
    In the current era patient autonomy is enormously important. However, recently there has also been some movement back to ensure that trust in the doctor's skill, knowledge and virtue is not excluded in the process. These new nuances of informed consent have been referred to by terms such as beneficent paternalism, experience-based paternalism and we would add virtuous paternalism. The purpose of this paper is to consider the history and current problematic nature of counselling and consent. Starting with the tradition (...)
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  7.  1
    Dilemmas in International Research and the Value of Practical Wisdom.Kimberly Jarvis - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):50-58.
    When conducting research in an international setting, in a country different than that of the researcher, unpredictable circumstances can arise. A study conducted by a novice North American researcher with a vulnerable population in northern Ghana highlights these happenings with an emphasis placed on the ethical challenges encountered. An illustration from the research is used to highlight an ethical dilemma while in the field, and how utilizing a moral decision-making framework can assist in making choices about a participant's right to (...)
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  8. Age‐Related Inequalities in Health and Healthcare: The Life Stages Approach.Nancy S. Jecker - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and indicating (...)
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  9. Mapping Research Ethics Committees in Africa: Evidence of the Growth of Ethics Review of Health Research in Africa.Mokgatla Boitumelo, IJsselmuiden Carel, Wassenaar Doug & Kasule Mary - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    Health research initiatives worldwide are growing in scope and complexity, particularly as they move into the developing world. Expanding health research activity in low- and middle-income countries has resulted in a commensurate rise in the need for sound ethical review structures and functions in the form of Research Ethics Committees. The urgent need for continued capacity development in Africa has necessitated research initiatives to identify existing capacity. This discussion paper describes the mapping of RECs in Africa through MARC project, second (...)
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  10. H3Africa: An Africa Exemplar? Exploring its Framework on Protecting Human Research Participants.Nnamuchi Obiajulu - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    The Human Heredity and Health in Africa Consortium is a conglomeration of research and infrastructure projects spread throughout Africa whose aim is to apply genomic methodology to diseases affecting the people in the region. Its operation is innovative in the sense that it is doing something new; that is, filling a hitherto existing void in genomic research capability of African scientists and infusing resources and manpower to institutions and investigators across Africa. But aside from developing and sustaining capacity in genomic (...)
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  11. Informed Consent, Community Engagement, and Study Participation at a Research Site in Kigali, Rwanda.Jennifer Ilo Nuil, Evelyne Kestelyn, Grace Umutoni, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Marie M. Umulisa, Janneke Wijgert & Raffaella Ravinetto - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    People enroll in medical research for many reasons ranging from decisions regarding their own or family members' health situation to broader considerations including access to health and financial resources. In socially vulnerable communities the choice to participate is often based on a risk-benefit assessment that goes beyond the medical aspects of the research, and considers the benefits received. In this qualitative study, we examined the motivations of Rwandan women to participate in a non-commercial collaborative research study examining the safety, acceptability, (...)
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  12. Conceptualizations of Fairness and Legitimacy in the Context of Ethiopian Health Priority Setting: Reflections on the Applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness.Kadia Petricca & Asfaw Bekele - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    A critical element in building stronger health systems involves strengthening good governance to build capacity for transparent and fair health planning and priority setting. Over the past 20 years, the ethical framework Accountability for Reasonableness has been a prominent conceptual guide in strengthening fair and legitimate processes of health decision-making. While many of the principles embedded within the framework are congruent with Western conceptualizations of what constitutes procedural fairness, there is a paucity in the literature that captures the degree of (...)
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  13.  1
    Factors Affecting Women's Autonomous Decision Making In Research Participation Amongst Yoruba Women Of Western Nigeria.Chitu Womehoma Princewill, Ayodele S. Jegede, Karin Nordström, Bolatito Lanre‐Abass & Bernice Simone Elger - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):40-49.
    Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in (...)
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  14. Ethics of Community Engagement in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes.B. Resnik David - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness. (...)
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  15.  2
    The Patient‐Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.Emma Ryman & Katy Fulfer - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    We propose the ‘patient-worker’ as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients (...)
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  16.  2
    Vulnerability and Dignity: Labeling Problems Away.Udo Schuklenk & William Rooney - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):2-3.
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  17. Beyond the Sterility of a Distinct African Bioethics: Addressing the Conceptual Bioethics Lag in Africa.Gerald M. Ssebunnya - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):22-31.
    In the current debate on the future of bioethics in Africa, several authors have argued for a distinct communitarian African bioethics that can counter the dominancy of Western atomistic principlism in contemporary bioethics. In this article I examine this rather contentious argument and evaluate its validity and viability. Firstly, I trace the contextual origins of contemporary bioethics and highlight the rise and dominance of principlism. I particularly note that principlism was premised on a content-thin notion of the common morality that (...)
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  18. Gillian Brock and Michael Blake, Debating Brain Drain – May Governments Restrict Emigration? New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. 312 Pp, $ 24; ISBN: 9780199315628. [REVIEW]Christine Straehle - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):59-60.
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  19.  1
    The Views of Ethics Committee Members and Medical Researchers on the Return of Individual Research Results and Incidental Findings, Ownership Issues and Benefit Sharing in Biobanking Research in a South Indian City.Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz & Srinivasan K. - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that individual research results (...)
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  20. Defining Health Research for Development: The Perspective of Stakeholders From an International Health Research Partnership in Ghana and Tanzania.Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane‐Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner & Bernice Elger - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    Objectives The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. Methods We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program,. The respondents included teams from four clinical research centres and various collaborating partners. This paper analyses responses to the (...)
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  21. Corruption or Professional Dignity: An Ethical Examination of the Phenomenon of “Red Envelopes” in Medical Practice in China.Wei Zhu, Lijie Wang & Chengshang Yang - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1).
    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking “red envelopes” is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why “red envelopes” have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of “red envelopes” in health care sector to the commercialization (...)
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  22.  2
    The Patient‐Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.Emma Ryman & Katy Fulfer - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (3).
    We propose the ‘patient-worker’ as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients (...)
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