25 found

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  1.  1
    Ekonomia altruizmu – o racjonalności zachowań prospołecznych.Magdalena Adamus - 2018 - Diametros 57 (57):1-22.
    This paper presents considerations on altruism and prosocial behaviour formulated on the basis of some experiments with the ultimatum game. In the first part it will discuss relations between expected utility theories, the characteristics of homo oeconomicus and a modern understanding of altruism. It will focus in particular on conceptual differences, indicating that we can find more than one definition of altruism in modern literature. The second part of the text will provide an overview of selected behavioural theories of prosocial (...)
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  2.  1
    Stanowisko nieredukcyjne w sporze o tożsamość osobową.Mariusz Grygianiec - 2018 - Diametros 57 (57):23-38.
    In the debate on personal identity, different criteria of identity are proposed and defended. The criteria of identity have usually been taken to state the necessary and sufficient conditions of identity and are interpreted as providing truth conditions for relevant identity statements. The Simple View of personal identity is the thesis that there are no noncircular and informative metaphysical criteria of identity for persons. The paper intends to first deliver a precise and general formulation of the Simple View, and, second, (...)
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  3.  2
    Wiele twarzy konceptualizmu.Piotr Kozak - 2018 - Diametros 57 (57):88-100.
    A Review of Paweł Sikora’s Pojęciowa treść percepcji w filozofii nowożytnej, Wyd. UMCS, Lublin 2016.
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  4.  1
    Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57 (57):39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  5.  2
    Kurs pozaformalny w edukacji moralnej studentów medycyny i młodych lekarzy.Kazimierz Szewczyk - 2018 - Diametros 57 (57):61-87.
    In the article I discuss three types of non-formal curriculum: the hidden, informal and null curriculum. Their negative impact on the moral education of medical students and physicians is documented through the choice of examples from Polish medical schools and the statements of Polish physicians. I also justify the thesis that the teaching of medical ethics as ethics-as-tools is deeply rooted within the Polish moral cultural tradition. The polemic with Władysław Biegański serves as a means of showing the relation between (...)
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  6. Pluralizm logiczny a relatywizm w logice.Bożena Czernecka-Rej - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):51-68.
    The aim of the article is to analyze the situation of contemporary logic with reference to the issue concerning connections between the pluralism of logical systems and relativism in logic. Accordingly, I seek answers to the following questions: Can the plurality of logic, more specifically, a large number and variety of systems constructed by logicians, be justified in a rational way? Does pluralism in logic imply the thesis of relativism? Is logical relativism in the contemporary philosophy of logic just a (...)
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  7.  2
    Why Rewilding is Crucial for Human Health.Jan Deckers - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):142-150.
    Review of the book Feral: Rewilding the Land, Sea, and Human Life by George Monbiot, Penguin Books, London 2014.
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  8.  1
    Amerykańska religia obywatelska Richarda Rorty’ego.Jakub Gużyński - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):69-88.
    The article presents Richard Rorty’s religious metaphors in the context of the concept of civil religion derived from The Social Contract of Jean Jacques Rousseau and primarily used today for the sociological analysis of the relationship between religion and the state. It is paired with Rorty’s conception of pragmatism as romantic polytheism and its fundamental notions of romance, polytheism, and poetry. Parallels between social and religious institutions formulated by the American neo-pragmatist, such as priesthood and sanctuary, provide the details of (...)
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  9.  1
    Relacja pomiędzy absolutnym a względnym wymiarem rzeczywistości w klasycznych Upaniszadach.Marta Kudelska - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):1-16.
    The above problem is discussed with the use of the example of selected canonical Upanishads. The analysis starts with a fragment from the Mundaka Upanishad : “When he [ brahman ] that is both high [ para ] and low [ apara ] is seen”. In my opinion, this very conjoining of the absolute and relative reality, which is considerably rare in the canonical texts, requires in-depth analysis. In the discussed texts, the para / apara dimensions of reality are strictly (...)
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  10. Etyka konsumenta w perspektywie aretologicznej.Anna Lewicka-Strzałecka - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):89-109.
    The paper examines the moral choices of consumers from the perspective of virtue ethics. The paper starts with an outline of consumption ethics in the context of a critique of consumerism assuming a lack of consumer autonomy. I dispute the latter assumption, which leads me to consider the consumer as a moral agent and focus on the role that specific dispositions of character can play in consumer choices. The question of subjective or situational conditioning of consumer choices is answered by (...)
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  11. Śmierć mózgowa – zmiana w rozumieniu człowieka?Jacek Meller - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):151-156.
    Review of the book: Człowiek na granicy istnienia. Dyskusje o śmierci mózgowej i innych aspektach umierania, Grzegorz Hołub, Piotr Duchliński, Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 2017.
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  12. Problematyka medytacyjnego wglądu i wiedzy wyzwalającej w soteriologii wczesnego buddyzmu. Krytyczna analiza problemu przy zastosowaniu podejścia interdyscyplinarnego.Grzegorz Polak - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):17-38.
    The relation of the meditative state of jhāna to the development of insight and liberating knowledge is one of the most controversial issues in studies on early Buddhism. In the Suttapitaka and later Buddhist meditative texts, one can find discrepancies which are difficult to reconcile. In this paper, I propose a new model of meditative insight using an interdisciplinary approach based both on critical philological studies of the Suttapitaka and the results of the dynamically developing cognitive science. I also highlight (...)
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  13.  1
    Czy można pragnąć poznania Brahmana?Paweł Sajdek - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):39-50.
    Śankara did not comment on the first s ū tra in his Brahmas ū trabh āṣ ya, which was a common practice in such cases; rather, he started by defining two terms: ‘superimposition’ and ‘ignorance’, in a special introductory chapter known to a wider audience as Adhy ā sabh āṣ ya. The question arises as to why he deemed it necessary to precede his commentary to the initial s ū tra with these additional elucidations. Bh ā mat ī, Vācaspati Miśra’s (...)
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  14.  1
    Współczesna analityczna filozofia języka: wybrane zagadnienia.Piotr Stalmaszczyk - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):131-141.
    This is a review article of a recently published guide to the philosophy of language, Przewodnik po filozofii języka, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 2016). The article presents this publication against a background of other monographs and guides devoted to the topic of the contemporary philosophy of language which have been published in English. It aims at highlighting the main issues discussed by this philosophy, as well as its relation to linguistics.
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  15.  4
    On Unjust Forms of Marriage. Comments on the Discussion on Discrimination Against Same-Sex Couples.Andrzej Waleszczyński - 2018 - Diametros 56 (56):110-130.
    This article defends the thesis that, in light of the postulates of liberal ethics, it is not possible to put forward universal arguments in support of any form of marriage. The existing forms of marriage should be either deemed unjust or founded on specific arguments recognized within a particular political community and determining the understanding of justice in a particular society. It defends the thesis that the requirement of universality, and consequently of impartiality, is not met, since behind every form (...)
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  16.  7
    Wykładnia kategorii Boga ukrytego na podstawie dialogu Mikołaja z Kuzy De deo abscondito.Dorota Brylla - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):91-111.
    The paper presents the theological and philosophical category of Deus absconditus and shows it in the perspective of Nicholas of Cusa’s ideas contained in his dialogue De Deo Abscondito. The hidden God is the totally transcendent God that is beyond creation both ontologically and logically. Deus absconditus is God that cannot be the object of rational cognition and positive knowledge, hence the only way to acquire any knowledge of him is the method of negative theology. Therefore, the hidden God is (...)
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  17.  3
    Niebo gwiaździste nad Królewcem a prawo moralne. Dyskusja Gadamera z estetyką Kanta wokół kwestii doświadczenia piękna i jego odniesienia do etyki.Paweł Dybel - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):112-131.
    In the article, I engage with H.G.Gadamer’s reading of Kant’s aesthetic theory. Gadamer accused Kant of subjectivizing the aesthetic experience so that it would be reduced to the free play of the cognitive faculties of the subject. Consequently, the ethical dimension of aesthetic experience that played such an important role in the preceding tradition of European humanism has been lost. Yet, this charge of Gadamer is not quite right. The connection between the experience of beauty and ethics has been maintained (...)
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  18.  6
    Defining Death: Beyond Biology.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):1-19.
    The debate over whether brain death is death has focused on whether individuals who have sustained total brain failure have satisfied the biological definition of death as “the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism as a whole.” In this paper, I argue that what it means for an organism to be integrated “as a whole” is undefined and vague in the views of those who attempt to define death as the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism (...)
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  19.  9
    In Defense of Brain Death: Replies to Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):68-90.
    In this paper, I defend brain death as a criterion for determining death against objections raised by Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan. I argue that any definition of death for beings like us relies on some sortal concept by which we are individuated and identified and that the choice of that concept in a practical context is not determined by strictly biological considerations but involves metaphysical, moral, social, and cultural considerations. This view supports acceptance of (...)
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  20.  6
    In Defense of Brain Death: Replies to Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Sullivan.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):68-90.
    In this paper, I defend brain death as a criterion for determining death against objections raised by Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Sullivan. I argue that any definition of death for beings like us relies on some sortal concept by which we are individuated and identified and that the choice of that concept in a practical context is not determined by strictly biological considerations but involves metaphysical, moral, social, and cultural considerations. This view supports acceptance of a (...)
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  21.  9
    Teoria praw przyrody Armstronga wobec problemów identyfikacji i inferencji.Joanna Luc - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):132-157.
    One of the modern approaches to the laws of nature regards them as relations between universals. The most advanced version of such an approach has been presented by D. M. Armstrong. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct and interpret Armstrong’s conception but also to evaluate his theory and to point out what expectations from it are inadequate. My point of reference are two objections to Armstrong’s ideas, namely the problems of identification and inference. I claim that Armstrong’s theory (...)
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  22.  5
    Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  23.  5
    A Biological Theory of Death: Characterization, Justification, and Implications.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):27-43.
    John P. Lizza has long been a major figure in the scholarly literature on criteria for death. His searching and penetrating critiques of the dominant biological paradigm, and his defense of a theory of death of the person as a psychophysical entity, have both significantly advanced the literature. In this special issue, Lizza reinforces his critiques of a strictly biological approach. In my commentary, I take up Lizza’s challenge regarding a biological concept of death. He is certainly right to point (...)
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  24.  9
    A Holistic Understanding of Death: Ontological and Medical Considerations.Doyen Nguyen - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):44-62.
    In the ongoing ‘brain death’ controversy, there has been a constant push for the use of the ‘higher brain’ formulation as the criterion for the determination of death on the grounds that brain-dead individuals are no longer human beings because of their irreversible loss of consciousness and mental functions. This essay demonstrates that such a position flows from a Lockean view of human persons. Compared to the ‘consciousness-related definition of death,’ the substance view is superior, especially because it provides a (...)
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  25.  4
    What Does a Definition of Death Do?Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Diametros 55 (55):63-67.
    In his article, “Defining Death: Beyond Biology,” John Lizza argues in favor of a civil definition of death, according to which the potential for consciousness and social interaction marks us as the “kind of being that we are.” In this commentary, I critically discuss this approach to the bioethical debate on the definition of death. I question whether Lizza’s account is based on a full recognition of the “practical, moral, religious, philosophical, and cultural considerations” at play in this debate. I (...)
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