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  1. A Study and Explanation of the Theory of General Justice in the View of St. Thomas Aquinas.Abdollah Abedifar & Mohsen Javadi - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (4):27-49.
    General Justice is a virtue that leads people to the community order and goods through which they can achieve well-being. This article explains the theory of general justice from the perspective of Aquinas and examines the common good and its role as the subject of general justice in directing and regulating the law. Aquinas counts general justice with the influence of Aristotle and Christian theology as a general virtue that has a particular subject, i.e., the common good. General Justice is (...)
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  2.  1
    The Libertarian Approaches in Response to the Luck Argument.Jamal Kadkhodapour & Asgar Dirbaz - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (4):5-26.
    The argument that free will and indeterminism are incompatible is known as the Luck Argument. This argument has been put forward against the libertarians who deny determinism to prove free will. The basic idea of the argument is that in an undetermined world, free will cannot be imagined. There are various formulations for this argument. They all seek to explain why, if the choice is undetermined, it is by chance; but the focus of this article is on the explanatory formulation. (...)
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  3.  1
    The Place of Ethical Subjectivism in Nietzsche and Levinas’s Thought.Bayan Karimy & Mohamad Asghari - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (4):71-91.
    Nietzsche and Levinas are the most prominent contemporary philosophers who have emphasized on the necessity of passing over rational subjectivity. They tried to rethink the meaning of ethics in a world where neither religion nor other moral philosophies could create a strict and reliable source for the crisis of the contemporary human being. In an attempt to overcome rational subjectivism, Nietzsche and Levinas redefined concepts such as morality and the subject. The purpose of the paper is to describe the attitudes (...)
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  4. An Appraisal of Rorty’s Approach to Epistemology From a Critical Rationalist Perspective.Mostafa Shaabani & Alireza Mansouri - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (4):51-70.
    A large part of Richard Rorty’s works focus on criticizing the received view about philosophy. He argues, in his historical reconstruction of philosophical activity, that there has always been a misconception about philosophy in the history of philosophy. This misconception assumes that philosophy aims to grasp the ultimate knowledge, so it desperately engages in an attempt to achieve “truth”. In this view, which he calls representationalism and points to it by the metaphor of the mirror of nature, knowledge aims to (...)
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  5. A Critique and Evaluation of the Methodological Foundations of Open Theism According to Clark Pinnock.Mohammad Ebrahim Torkamani, Ahmad Karimi & Rasoul Razavi - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (4):115-1136.
    In this article, we try to study Clark Pinnock’s point of view in explaining the methodological foundations of the Open Theism Theory with a descriptive-analytical method so that we can have a fair critique of the strengths and weaknesses of this theory while also understanding it correctly. Pinnock can be considered one of the most important theorists and founders of Open Theism. In his view, Open Theism is one of the theological-philosophical theories that have emerged in the critique of the (...)
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  6.  1
    The Coceivability of a Disembodied Personal Life Beyond Death Based on David Lund’s Views.Zainab Amiri, Abdolrasoul Kashfi & Amir Abbas Alizamani - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):69-88.
    As science focuses exclusively on the physical, it seems to assume that the brain has a key role in the origin if not also the constitution of our consciousness; and thus the destruction of the brain, the nervous system, and the body makes it pointless or even absurd to think of any personal consciousness after death. But one need not be convinced by this. However, any effort to investigate a possible post-mortem life depends on forming a coherent conception of what (...)
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  7. Characteristics of an Islamic View of Cyber-Ethics.Hamidreza Ayatollahy - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):35-49.
    The current Cyber-ethics in Western societies have been compiled based on secularist presupposition. This presupposition has different principles in comparison with the Islamic attitude which can lead one to take a different approach toward ethical problems. This paper is an attempt to propose principles of Islamic cyber-ethics upon which we can prepare answers for the problems of cyber-ethics, having evident characteristics of an Islamic approach that are distinguished from secularist answers. After a prefatory study on the background of the Islamic (...)
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  8. Reflections on Jennifer Saul’s View of Successful Communication and Conversational Implicature.Kazemi Oskooei & Seyyed Abbas - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):89-105.
    Saul criticizes a view on the relationship between speaker meaning and conversational implicatures according to which speaker meaning is exhaustively comprised of what is said and what is implicated. In the course of making her points, she develops a couple of new notions which she calls “utterer-implicature” and “audience-implicature”. She then makes certain claims about the relationship between the intersection of those two notions and successful communication and also about the difference between conversational implicature and the intersection of utterer and (...)
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  9. Philosophy and The Human Inheritance in a Post-Western World.Anthony F. Shaker - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):51-68.
    The dissolution of the Western-dominated Postwar Order, and the Eurocentric myths that sustain it, presents a unique opportunity to ponder an old question posed by every new generation: How can philosophy, which Islamic and ancient Greek learning traditions have long defined as the pursuit of “wisdom,” resume its millennial civilizing role? This paper looks beyond passing political events to reconsider why philosophy was viewed in this role. As different as al-Fārābī, Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Khaldūn, Mullā Ṣadrā, Hegel and Heidegger are (...)
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  10. A Study of Frege’s Influence on A. J. Ayer’s Theory of Emotivism.Mohsen Shiravand - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):107-120.
    No doubt, Gottlob Frege and A. J. Ayer are considered to be among the most prominent contemporary philosophers. Insofar as one of them has revolutionized the linguistic domain while the other has influenced the domain of ethics in a diametrical fashion. Ayer’s theory of emotivism is regarded as one of the most controversial moral theories in the past century. We believe that Frege, as a linguistic philosopher, has influenced emotivism in the methodological, logical, semantic, and epistemological domains. The emphasis on (...)
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  11.  7
    How to Define ‘Moral Realism’.Richard Swinburne - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):15-33.
    Moral realism is the doctrine that some propositions asserting that some action is ‘morally’ good are true. This paper examines three different definitions of what it is for an action to be ‘morally’ good which would make moral realism a clear and plausible view. The first defines ‘morally good as ‘overall important to do’; and the second defines it as ‘overall important to do for universalizable reasons’. The paper argues that neither of these definitions is adequate; and it develops the (...)
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  12.  2
    God, Love, and Interreligious Dialogue.William J. Wainwright - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):5-13.
    The monotheistic religions that valorize love typically believe that their love for God should be extended to God's creatures and, in particular, to one's fellow human beings. Yet, in practice, the love of the Christian or Muslim or Hindu monotheist doesn't always extend to the love of the religious other. Precisely how, then, should the adherents of the major monotheistic religions respond to the obvious diversity of these religions? The arguments of philosophical theology largely depend on what John Henry Newman (...)
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  13.  1
    The Dilemma of Reincarnation and its Solution in Al-Razi’s Theory of Perfection of the Soul.Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, MohammadMehdi Montaseri & Zeinab Barkhordari - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):5-25.
    Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, the famous physician and philosopher of the Islamic world, has been considered by many researchers in different aspects. His theory of perfection of the soul, however, is not much appreciated in recent scholarship. Without learning philosophy, he believes the soul cannot be perfected and released from the body after death. This proposition begs the question: What will be the fate of the soul after death if it is not sufficiently perfected? Reincarnation, responds al-Razi. His view on (...)
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  14.  1
    A Critical Evaluation of Value-Free Science Based on the Induction Risk Argument.Gholam Hossien Javadpoor - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):73-95.
    One of the most important issues in the philosophy of science in recent decades is to assess the permissibility of the involvement of background and non-scientific factors in science and to place them next to evidence or to involve them in the process of weighing evidence. Proponents of the value-free science ideal have considered any intervention of this kind as a blow to the objectivity of science and slipping in the process of science. One of the important arguments in criticizing (...)
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  15.  3
    Daniel Dennett’s and Sam Harris’ Confrontation on the Problem of Free Will.Zahra Khazaei, Nancey Murphy & Tayyebe Gholami - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):27-48.
    This paper seeks to explain and evaluate, by an analytic method, the conflict between determinism and free will from the viewpoint of two physicalist reductionist philosophers, namely, Daniel Dennett and Sam Harris. Dennett is a compatibilist philosopher who tries to show compatibility between determinism and free will, while Sam Harris is a non-compatibilist philosopher who turns to determinism with the thesis that our thoughts and actions have been pre-determined by the neurobiological events associated with them, and thus, considers free will (...)
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  16. Reality According to Muhammad Baqir Sadr and Mulla Sadra.Hasan Lahootiyan & Jamal Sorush - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):97-118.
    According to Mulla Sadra and his Transcendental Wisdom which considers reality being equal to existence to be a self-evident matter, ontology means recognizing reality. However, Muhammad Baqir Sadr tries to show reality to be general and inclusive of existence by denying the self-evidence of this equality. Even though this claim has other advocates like the Muʿtazilites in Islamic thought; however, Sadr is distinguished from them in the purpose of declaring such a claim, its content, and in the arguments presented for (...)
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  17. A Fresh Look at the Position of the Thing-in-Itself According to Kant and Hegel Based on the Metaphysical Foundations of David Bohm’s Quantum Physics.Issa Najmabadi, Sattar Tahmasebie & Mahdi Dehbashi - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):49-71.
    Kant addressed the distinction between the two domains of phenomena and the thing-in-itself by considering time and space as two conditions of cognition. The result of such a distinction, which is the basis of his transcendental idealism school, was limiting cognition to the domain of phenomena and the impossibility of cognition of reality and the thing-in-itself. As the greatest philosopher of the modern period, and by adopting such an approach, Kant left unanswered the acute duality which he had inherited from (...)
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  18. Bernard Williams’s Different View of Moral Responsibility.Fatemeh TamaddonFard - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (2):119-143.
    The present article studies Bernard Williams’s view on moral responsibility using an analytical-critical approach. The discussion of moral responsibility includes the definition, conditions, and problem of moral responsibility. In Western philosophical texts, moral responsibility refers to the praise and blame of the agent by himself or others for an act he has committed. This is while, according to our moral appetites and the theories based on them such as Kant’s, moral responsibility is conditioned on free action and every healthy human (...)
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  19.  3
    Quasi-Occasionalistic Causation in the Philosophy of René Descartes.Hasan Ahmadizade - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):127-146.
    Introduction The discussion of “self-knowledge” as a philosophical issue begins with an intuition. This intuition is based on the fact that our knowledge of our mental states or our knowledge in relation to statements like: “I know that I am happy,” is a particular knowledge that is distinct from the rest of our knowledge. It seems that in order to gain knowledge of ourselves, we do not need to go through those processes that we go through in order to gain (...)
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  20.  2
    A Study and Critique of John Schellenberg’s Divine Hiddenness Argument Based on the Finiteness of Divine Active Attributes and Wisdom.Behrouz Asadi, Enshaallah Rahmati & Babak Abbasi - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):5-26.
    Introduction Man’s request for God’s revelation, His visibility, a direct connection to Divine angels or at least, being shown with more experiential evidence by God has been one of man’s historical demands from Divine prophets. Human beings’ great inclination to make idols or choosing totems rises from this very demand for the tangibility and visualization of gods. John Schellenberg, an analytic philosopher, taking inspiration from this historical demand, for the first time in 1993 presented the Divine Hiddenness Argument as a (...)
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  21.  2
    Pure Monotheism: Analysis and Explanation of the Components and a Comparison with Rival Views.Seed Eshaghnia - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):79-99.
    In the matter of the Unity of God which is the base of Divine teachings, different views have been presented by the theologians and philosophers of various inclinations and the Sufis and mystics regarding real existence and there is a specific understanding of it in the minds of the public who believe and profess the Unity of God which conforms to the views of the Peripatetic philosophers and theologians. They believe in the plurality of existence and plurality of existents based (...)
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  22.  2
    A Study of Paul Thagard’s Conceptual Change Theory and its Results on Scientific Progress.Ehsan Javadi Abhari & Hossein Sheykhrezaee - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):101-126.
    Introduction The Publication of Kuhn’s influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most important points in the history and philosophy of science studies and has raised many debates among philosophers and historians of science. One of the most interesting implications of Kuhn’s thesis is the incommensurability of scientific paradigms and its related concepts. Paul Thagard is one of the philosophers who reacted to Kuhn’s incommensurability thesis and tried to show how, by appealing to cognitive computational theories, (...)
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  23.  8
    A Study of John Martin Fischer’s View Regarding Divine Foreknowledge and Man’s Moral Responsibility.Tavakkol Kuhi Giglou & Javad Danesh - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):147-163.
    Summary The possible incompatibility between God’s foreknowledge and the free will of the agent shows that this issue is wide-ranging: if God has infallible knowledge of all of man’s actions before he has performed them, essentially, is there the possibility of the free will of the agent and his choice between alternative actions? According to John Martin Fischer, God, as a person, is absolutely knowledgeable, such that at all times, like t and in all propositions like P, He is completely (...)
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  24.  1
    The Elements of Exclusivism in Christian Tradition.Qodratullah Qorbani - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):27-52.
    Introduction Religious exclusivism is based on some Christian theological teachings that are derived from the Bible which were introduced through some early Christian theologians’ viewpoints; like Saint Paul. This theological approach emphasizes on exclusive religious truthfulness and salvation, and denies and deprives other religious traditions of participating in divine truthfulness and salvation. In this paper, we try to show some essential roots and elements of Christian exclusivism and some outcomes that it can introduce for the Christian world and Christians’ dialogue (...)
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  25.  4
    Self Knowledge and its Relationship with Rationality; Defending Richard Moran’s Transparency Theory.Zahra Sarkarpour - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (1):53-77.
    Introduction The discussion of “self-knowledge” as a philosophical issue begins with an intuition. This intuition is based on the fact that our knowledge of our mental states or our knowledge in relation to statements like: “I know that I am happy,” is a particular knowledge that is distinct from the rest of our knowledge. It seems that in order to gain knowledge of ourselves, we do not need to go through those processes that we go through in order to gain (...)
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  26.  3
    A Critical Study of Karl Barth’s Opposition to Natural Theology.Michel Aghamalian, Amir Abbas Alizamani & Abbas Yazdani - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):5-27.
    Critical analysis of Karl Barth’s opposition to natural theology shows that it is demonstrably based on a narrow understanding of natural theology and is mostly shaped through his reaction to the misuse of theological concepts during the heydays of Hitler’s rule over Germany. In his increasing opposition to natural theology in its various implications and forms, Barth seems to have been basing his arguments on ontological, epistemological, biblical and practical grounds as he leaned heavily on revelation as the sole basis (...)
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  27.  5
    Form of Life: A Foundational Concept for Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy.Aaskar Dirbaz & Mojtaba Tasdighi Shahrezaie - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):55-80.
    “Form of life” is considered one of the most significant concepts in Wittgenstein's later philosophy. This term is one of his most ambiguous philosophical concepts. This paper tries to explain the specific and fundamental role of “form of life” as a cornerstone for the whole of Wittgenstein's later philosophy; a role that has not attracted much attention in Wittgenstein scholarship. From the author's perspective, describing the form of life as a condition for the possibility of language can put an end (...)
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  28.  5
    Late Islamic Philosophy and Knowledge by Presence.Taheri Khorramabadi & ُSeyed Ali - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):120-140.
    Some of the contemporary advocates of Islamic Philosophy believe that the view of the modern Islamic philosophers regarding knowledge by presence can solve some of the issues present in the theory of knowledge. The origins of this belief are probably two popular theories: Allama Tabatabai’s view that acquired knowledge comes back to knowledge by presence and Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi’s view regarding the reference of basic axioms to knowledge by presence. According to the first view, all acquired knowledge is rooted in (...)
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  29.  10
    Nihilism and Information Technology.Alireza Mansouri & Ali Paya - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):29-54.
    Søren Kierkegaard, in his essay "The Present Age," takes a hostile stance towards the press. This is because he maintains that the press prepares the ground for the emergence of nihilism. Hubert Dreyfus extends this idea to other information technologies, especially the Internet. Since Kierkegaard-Dreyfus’ attitude towards various forms of information technology originates from philosophical anthropology and a particular conception of the meaning of life, assessing the viability of the attitude they hold requires further critical scrutiny. This paper aims to (...)
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  30.  1
    Dependency of the Mean Upon the Right Rule; A Critique of the Aristotelian Mean’s Interpretation as an Autonomous Ethical Action’s Criterion.Seyed Jamaleddin Mirsharafoddin - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):153-176.
    The mean has mostly been considered in the history of Aristotelian Ethics’ commentaries as the main idea of his ethical thought so that it transformed from an ethical concept to his ethical theory. Thus, the validity of the Aristotelian ethical attitude is evaluated by the mean as the central thesis. However, it becomes apparent by pursuing the procedure of the Aristotelian investigation in the text of the Nicomachean Ethics that the mean is first presented as a possibility for the necessity (...)
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  31.  2
    A Critical Study of Four Definitions of Privacy From The Viewpoint of Western Ethics.Hamid Shahriari - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):103-128.
    This article addresses four definitions of privacy. Initially, the literal meaning of privacy is mentioned; It then discusses the meaning of the term “privacy” in Ethics. The first meaning is the right to be alone and free. The second meaning of privacy is informational and is divided into two types: one is the definition based on expectation and another is a definition based on the state of awareness. The third type is the definition that defines privacy based on control. In (...)
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  32.  6
    A Study and Explanation of the Teleological Theory of Mental Content with Emphasis on the Views of Dretske and Millikan.Mahdi Zakeri & Hossein Esfandiar - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (4):81-102.
    One of the issues of Philosophy of Mind is the intentionality of the mind. The topic of this article is the study of the two related aspects of this issue, i.e. the possibility of intentionality and how mind content is determined in the Teleological Theory of Mental Content. According to this theory, the natural evolution of a living organism and the teleological functions based on this determines mental content and one can present a natural and physical explanation of intentionality and (...)
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