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  1. The Baconian Background of Hogben’s Scientific Humanism.Başak Aray - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):171-187.
    This essay examines the impact of Baconian utilitarianism on Lancelot Thomas Hogben, a biologist whose view of science was heavily intertwined with his support of socialist planning. Like Bacon and Marx, Hogben considered science to be a collective tool of utmost importance for empowering people and improving life conditions through a conscious and methodical intervention on our surroundings. Convinced by the fundamentally applied nature of science, Hogben successfully used the principles of the emerging Marxist historiography of science in his popular (...)
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  2. Bacon’s Inductive Method and Material Form.Ori Belkind - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):57-68.
    This paper contends that Bacon’s inductive method depends crucially on his general account of matter. I argue that Bacon develops a dynamic form of corpuscularianism, according to which aggregates of corpuscles undergo patterns of change that derive from active inclinations and appetites. The paper claims that Bacon’s corpuscularianism provides him with a theory of material form that enables him to theorize bodily change and possible material transformations. The point of natural histories and experiments is then to find the processes of (...)
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  3.  1
    Bacon’s Novum Organum.Elodie Cassan - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):38-46.
    Dan Garber’s paper provides materials permitting to reply to an objection frequently made to the idea that the Novum Organum is a book of logic, as the allusion to Aristotle’s Organon included in the very title of this book shows it is. How can Bacon actually build a logic, considering his repeated claims that he desires to base natural philosophy directly on observation and experiment? Garber shows that in the Novum Organum access to experience is always mediated by particular questions (...)
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  4.  1
    A Baconian Historiola Mentis in Spinoza’s Method.Omar Del Nonno - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):188-205.
    Bacon’s influence on Spinoza’s thought is controversial, since this latter seems to underestimate the role of experience in achieving true knowledge. In this paper, I will investigate Spinoza’s reference in Letter 37** to a historiola mentis a la Bacon as an empirical-historical method to distinguish between different kinds of perceptions. My aim is to explain why Spinoza considers Bacon’s little history of mind a useful tool to proceed towards the knowledge of the excellent things [praestantissimae res]. I will suggest that (...)
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  5. Francis Bacon, Between Myth and History.Daria N. Drozdova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):6-21.
    Over the last 400 years, attitudes toward Francis Bacon's philosophy have changed considerably: the 17-century interest and the 18-century enthusiasm have been replaced by the 20-century criticism and reevaluation. However, both the praise and the rejection of the Lord Chancellor’s philosophical ideas often originate from the isolation and absolutization of particular features of his philosophy that can sometimes be in opposition to each other. These partial readings are justified by the fact that the reference to Bacon’s methodological and epistemological legacy (...)
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  6.  1
    The Prophetic Bacon.Steve Fuller - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):78-86.
    This paper is both a reflection on Francis Bacon’s social epistemology and a meta-reflection on how we should be think about historical figures such as Bacon, who are of continuing philosophical, scientific and even political relevance. The impetus for this paper is provided by Daniel Garber’s ‘Bacon’s Metaphysical Method’, which depicts Bacon as making various moves in the scholastic debates of his time. In contrast, I draw two sorts of conclusions: At the historiographical level, I argue against the sort of (...)
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  7.  1
    Bacon’s Metaphysical Method.Daniel Garber - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):22-37.
    In this paper, I would like to examine the method that Bacon proposes in Novum organum II.1-20 and illustrates with the example of the procedure for discovering the form of heat. One might think of a scientific method as a general schema for research into nature, one that can, in principle, be used independently of the particular conception of the natural world which one adopts, and independently of the particular scientific domain with which one is concerned. Indeed, Bacon himself suggested (...)
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  8. Responses to Cassan, Iorizzo, Belkind, Lynch and Fuller.Daniel Garber - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):87-97.
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  9. Self-Preservation and the Transformation of Nature.Dolores Iorizzo - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):47-56.
    Garber demonstrates the shortcomings of a popular and idealised version of Baconian scientific method set against his close reading of Bacon’s Novum Organum II. The results of Garber’s analysis show that Bacon had not one but two philosophies, both of which were informed by his matter theory and speculative cosmology. This paper draws out the implications of Garber’s reading of Baconian induction in physics transferred to the natural sciences, and draws attention to the ultimate aim of Bacon’s philosophical programme as (...)
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  10. On Metaphysics and Method, Or How to Read Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum.Dana Jalobeanu - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):98-118.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer a preliminary survey of one of the most widely discussed problems in Bacon’s studies: the problem of the interplay between the speculative and operative layers of Bacon’s works. I propose to classify the various answers in three categories. In the first category I place attempts claiming that Bacon’s inquiries display his appetitive metaphysics. In the second category are those seeing Bacon’s more “scientific” works as disclosing some of the inner metaphysical layers and (...)
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  11. Method and Control.William Lynch - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):69-77.
    It has been widely noted that rules for scientific method fail to produce results consistent with those rules. Daniel Garber goes further by showing not only that there is a gap between Francis Bacon’s methodological rules, outlined in the Novum organum, and his natural philosophical conclusions, but that his conception of natural forms informs the method in the first place. What needs further examination is why Bacon’s application of his method manifestly violates his rules. Garber appeals to the spirit of (...)
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  12. Bacon’s Anthropocene.Pietro Daniel Omodeo - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):149-170.
    The current predicament, marked by an unprecedented environmental crisis and novel debates on the anthropic-technological transformation of the earth-system, calls for a reassessment of the historical-epistemological question of the entanglement between power, knowledge, and nature. Francis Bacon is the classical reference point for this thematic cluster – a focal point for both historical reconstructions and epistemological reflections, for both those who extol the merits of scientific progress and those who criticize the risks posed by its abuse. I begin this essay (...)
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  13. Language of Reality and Reality of Language in Francis Bacon’s Philosophy.Natalia A. Osminskaya - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):119-131.
    The most important of Francis Bacon’s argument against Aristotelian syllogistic logic as a main method of investigation was his doctrine of Idols, closely connected to the contemporary Anglican theological views on imperfect human nature. In his criticism of the first notion of human mind, based on mistaken abstraction, Bacon separated “ars inveniendi”, “ars judicandi” and “ars tradendi” and argued for a new nonverbal form of communication, based on “real characters”. Bacon's conventional concept of the universal language, strongly influenced by Aristotle, (...)
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  14. Francis Bacon and His Fate in the History and Philosophy of Science, 2010–2020.Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):206-220.
    In this review I analyse new trends in Bacon-scholarship over the last decade. Bacon’s role in the history and philosophy of science has been the topic of debate since the second half of the seventeenth century. Scholars took him to be either a key figure in the emergence of experimental sciences, or the opposite of what science is supposed to be. However, most of these bold claims were based on distortions and misunderstandings of Bacon’s programme. Starting in the last couple (...)
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  15. The Owner of the Right over Nature, or Expert Mediators in the Modern Era and at Present.Lada V. Shipovalova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (3):132-148.
    F. Bacon in his work New Organon proposes a project of a new science, which ensures the desire of human race “to recover its right over nature”. The article examines the work on the universal owner of “the right over nature” in two historical contexts. The first context determines the emergence of modern science. Here Bacon plays the role of an expert mediator who introduces the new scientific method in its broader social meaning. His work on the universal owner of (...)
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  16. Difficult Points of Chess Metaphor in the Theoretical Questions of Language and Mind.Pavel N. Baryshnikov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):95-112.
    This review article reveals the structural components of the chess metaphor, which represent in an unusual perspective the properties of a linguistic sign and its connection with mental processes. Strict rule-following and the conventionality of the material plane of expression turn chess into a convenient illustration of a universal linguistic structure. Particular attention is paid to the computer profile of the chess metaphor, since it reflects a whole complex of philosophical problems of computer science about mind, thinking and intelligence. In (...)
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  17. Abstraction Through the Lens of Neuroscience.Valentin A. Bazhanov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):6-18.
    The interpretation of the abstraction process and the use of various abstractions are consistent with the trends associated with the naturalistic turn in modern cognitive and neural studies. Logic of dealing with abstractions presupposes not only acts of digress from the insignificant details of the object, but also the replenishment of the image due to idealization, endowing the object with properties that are absent from it. Thus, abstraction expresses not only the activity of the subject but the fact of “locking” (...)
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  18.  1
    Introspection.Artem P. Besedin, Dmitry B. Volkov, Anton V. Kuznetsov, Evgeny V. Loginov & Andrey V. Mertsalov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):195-215.
    The article is a review of the philosophical problems of introspection as a method of cognition that are actively discussed in the contemporary analytic philosophy of mind. The article is the result of discussions that were held during the Summer School “Consciousness and Introspection” organized in July 2020 by the Moscow Center for Consciousness Studies and led by Professor D. Stoljar, one of the top experts in this field. The purpose of the article is to describe to readers the current (...)
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  19. From “Nomos” to “Physis” and Back.Igor S. Dmitriev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):170-194.
    The article focuses on the following three issues: the characteristic features of understanding and using the term “law of nature” before F. Bacon, the novelty of F. Bacon’s approach to the interpretation of this concept, theological and legal origins of the concept. It is shown that in works related to the Middle Ages the term “law of nature” had either a purely descriptive or mixed prescriptive-descriptive character. It is shown that in the works of medieval authors the term “law of (...)
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  20. Rhetoric of Science.Irina N. Griftsova & Natalia Yu Kozlova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):132-150.
    This contribution examines the status of the rhetoric of science in two contexts. The first one is the effect that the changing interpretation of logic has had on the status of the rhetoric of science. The second is the role that imagery has in scientific discourse. It is argued that the very possibility of a rhetorical interpretation of science depends on how the logic of science is understood. Informal logic, which acts here as a variant of argumentation theory or a (...)
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  21. Conceptualizing Computer Simulations in Philosophy of Science.Timur V. Khamdamov & Mikhail Yu Voloshin - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):151-169.
    In the modern Russian philosophy, discussions about the phenomenon of computer simulations in the scientific research practice of conducting experiments are just beginning to pass the stage of initiation in small interdisciplinary groups studying this new direction for the philosophy of science. At the same time, in Western philosophy by the current moment there have been formed entire directions for the study of computer simulations. Different groups of researchers in different ways form ideas about the basic characteristics of simulations: from (...)
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  22. Criteria for Replication of Psychological Knowledge in the Context of the Cultural-Historical Epistemology.Natalia E. Kharlamenkova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):51-58.
    The author considers some methodological problems of contemporary psychological research in the context of the concept of cultural-historical epistemology, as it is represented in the paper by B.I. Pruzhinin and T.G. Shchedrina. The author claims that the key problem of the modern science lies not in the question of how to conduct research correctly, but how to express the results so that another scientist can reproduce them. What are the criteria for their validity and reliability? With this problem in the (...)
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  23. Metaphysics and Realism.Vitaly G. Kosykhin & Svetlana M. Malkina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):216-224.
    The article deals with the problem of the return of metaphysics within the framework of the ontological turn of philosophy and the situation of post-metaphysical thinking. The conditions for the possibility of modern metaphysical discourse in the projects of empirical metaphysics and historical ontology are revealed. Historical ontology as a meta-reflexion of philosophy over its own historical foundations is able to bridge the gap between the epistemological static nature of transcendental subjectivity and the ontological dynamism of the growth of scientific (...)
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  24. Descriptive Turn in Epistemology.Natalia I. Kuznetsova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):27-33.
    The article shows that cultural-historical epistemology erroneously puts forward the thesis of a global crisis in the sphere of modern epistemology and philosophy of science. The key error of such a diagnosis is rooted in the confusion of basic concepts. In the development of epistemological studies, the period of the last decades of the twentieth century, which was called the “descriptive turn”, is very important. In the philosophy of science, the task was set to reflect the real practice of scientific (...)
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  25. Social Position of an Expert as a New Element of Science.Evgeny V. Maslanov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):113-131.
    The article focuses on analyzing the changes that have occurred in the procedures for assessing scientific knowledge during the period of their massive introduction into the economy, politics and everyday life, as well as the formation of a new social position of the expert. Up to this point, the assessment of scientific knowledge often took place within the scientific community. In that case, a special role was played by “authority” able to evaluate projects basing on criteria intrinsic to the scientific (...)
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  26. Transcendentalism as a Program for the Development of Epistemology.Igor D. Nevvazhay - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):70-94.
    The author discusses some tensions between realism and constructivism in the theory of knowledge and the corresponding research programs in the philosophy of science. In this paper, he argues that the development of transcendentalism can help reduce these tensions. He considers the way for Kant’s transcendentalism development, which is connected with the semiotic interpretation proposed by K.-O. Apel. The author suggests the new interpretation of transcendentalism according to which the transcendental exists as a proto-norm, which is a spontaneous act that (...)
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  27. Towards the Reform of the System of Epistemological Goals and Values.Vladimir N. Porus - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):34-42.
    Cultural and historical epistemology is not only a special branch of philosophical researches of science, but also the base of reform of a system of the epistemological categories expressing the purposes and values of scientific knowledge. Its need follows from the nature of development of modern science. Preservation of the traditional epistemological categories applied to the analysis of this development results in rough relativism. This danger can be eliminated, having developed the holistic system of epistemological values proceeding from the principle (...)
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  28. “There Is No Royal Way in Philosophy…”. Historical Reply to Critics.Boris I. Pruzhinin & Tatiana G. Shchedrina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):66-69.
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  29. Cultural-Historical Epistemology and Perspectives of the Philosophy of Science.Boris I. Pruzhinin & Tatiana G. Shchedrina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):19-26.
    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the methodological effectiveness of one of the directions in developing the philosophy of science – cultural and historical epistemology. Cultural-historical epistemology does not pretend at all to be any radical epistemological originality but offers a general view of science as a part of intellectual culture, where both individual historical cases and broad sociological generalizations find their methodologically significant place. The authors believe that it is the development of methodological norms capable of determining (...)
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  30. Sociocultural Landmarks of Cognition and Problems of Scientific Creativity in the Media World.Valery V. Savchuk & Konstantin A. Ocheretyany - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):43-50.
    In the article the thoughts about science as a creative process are presented in the context of the historical-cultural epistemology, specificity of which is presented in the material by B.I. Pruzhinin and T.G. Shchedrina. Tendencies in the modern world’s development – social, economic, political, communication – do not give rise to doubts about the presence of a paradox: the more globalized the world becomes, the more science gravitates towards the status of applied – this determines its effectiveness. Nonetheless, what is (...)
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  31. Cultural-Historical Epistemology and Individual Methodological Attitudes of a Scientist.Irina O. Shchedrina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (2):59-65.
    In this article, the author proceeds from the conceptual reversal of cultural-historical epistemology to the personal, historical, and social experience of a representative of an intellectual culture and his understanding and rethinking of his methodological attitudes. The idea of the article is that cultural-historical epistemology makes it possible to present natural-scientific and philosophical individual reflection as a specific component of the development of special tools, which are capable of recording and assessing the methodological effectiveness of research activities taking into account (...)
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  32.  40
    Group Belief: Defending a Minimal Version of Summativism.Domingos Faria - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):82-93.
    Beliefs are commonly attributed to groups or collective entities. But what is the nature of group belief? Summativism and nonsummativism are two main rival views regarding the nature of group belief. On the one hand, summativism holds that, necessarily, a group g has a belief B only if at least one individual i is both a member of g and has B. On the other hand, non-summativism holds that it is possible for a group g to have a belief B (...)
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  33.  4
    From Modernization to Greening.Irina A. Gerasimova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):8-21.
    The article discusses the problem of complex relationships between the two leading areas of scientific, technical and socio-cultural development – modernization and greening. The emergence of new general scientific methodologies and interdisciplinary types of knowledge is largely due to the release of human demiurgic activity to the planetary level. A new interdisciplinary area of research is gaining momentum – geoecology. Natural and socio-humanitarian sciences are involved in the study of geoecological problems. In social epistemology, the problem of interaction between science, (...)
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  34.  5
    Benacerraf and Set-Theoretic Reductionist Realism.Lev D. Lamberov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):142-160.
    The paper is devoted to analysis of P. Benacerraf’s argument against set-theoretic reductionist realism which is a fragment of a broader argument, know as the “identification problem”. The analyzed fragment of P. Benacerraf’s argument concerns the possibility of reducing of mathematical notions to set-theoretic notions. The paper presents a reconstruction of P. Benacerraf’s original argumentation, its analysis and also several possible objections proposed by P. Benacerraf himself about 30 years later after the original publication. Namely, he claimed that a set-theoretic (...)
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  35.  4
    Games With Space.Olga A. Lavrenova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):178-196.
    The culture beeing in the geographical space is one of the important problem fields of ontology. The process of understanding the environment has many levels and characteristics. Culture is an universal object of semiotics, in this case it is considered as a subject of the semioticization of geographical space, the formation of the image of the world. Culture inherits and constantly renews the main discourses associated with this ongoing process, the origins of which lie in the deep archaic. As a (...)
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  36.  5
    Ludwig Wittgenstein and Logical Positivism.Alexander L. Nikiforov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):22-30.
    The article examines the question of whether L. Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus had any influence on the formation and development of logical positivism. It is shown that the members of the Vienna Circle were familiar with the Tractatus, but practically did not accept anything from its content. Wittgenstein's reasoning about the world, about facts, about the structure of fact were rejected by them as a bad metaphysics, with which they fought. The denial of causality and the deprivation of the meaning of (...)
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  37.  5
    So, What Is Tractatus? Reply to Critics.Alexander L. Nikiforov - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):75-78.
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  38.  6
    Logical Positivism, Values, and Norms.Vitaly V. Ogleznev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):48-56.
    During its hundred-year history, Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus has undergone a variety of interpretations and explanations. But the significance of this work cannot be limited to an assessment of whether it had an impact on the development of logical positivism or not. Similarly, the reading of Tractatus cannot be reduced to just an ethical or some other readings. This article proposes to study a possible reading of “Tractatus” in terms of legal philosophy, which is based on the relation between facts, (...)
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  39.  5
    Body As an Object of Experimentation and the Emergence of Biomedicine Ethos.Olga V. Popova - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):125-141.
    The purpose of the article is to study the influence of Nazi experiments on the formation of ideas about the ethos of science in the field of biomedicine. It is shown that the idea of discrediting a value-neutral science was often confronted with the resistance of the scientists themselves, who, in different contexts of condemning Nazi crimes, appealed to the fact that they acted for the good of science, and even of all mankind. The article discusses the strategy of American (...)
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  40.  4
    Generative and Perceptive Models of Volition.Danil N. Razeev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):112-124.
    In recent decades, scientists and philosophers have developed several naturalistic theories of consciousness, in which they try to work out some theoretical foundations for a satisfactory solution to the problem of voluntary acts, in particular the genesis of voluntary bodily movements. From the author’s point of view, depending on which concept of consciousness scientists rely on in their empirical studies of voluntary movements, volition can be understood either as a generative act or as a perceptual act. The first part of (...)
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  41.  5
    Ethical Reading of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.Kirill A. Rodin - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):31-39.
    The hundred-year history of interpretations of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus we examine in the article through a gradual approach to an ethical reading of the work. The latter explains Wittgenstein’s unambiguous indication of ethical meaning as the main meaning of the Tractatus and consistently reconciles various parts of the work with the latest so-called ethical and mystical statements of the Tractatus and with demanding silence. An ethical reading explains the continuing influence and relevance of the Tractatus and is presented in the (...)
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  42.  4
    Wittgenstein in the Camp of Logical Positivists. Reply to Critics.Kirill A. Rodin - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):79-81.
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  43.  6
    Ethics of Uncertainty As an Extension of Virtue Epistemology.Sergei Yu Shevchenko - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):161-177.
    Uncertainty can’t be understood without taking into account both properties of the problem situation and agent’s knowledge about it. The correspondence of knowledge and situation of decision-making is crucial for understanding the onto-epistemological nature of uncertainty. At the same time, this correspondence is the key topic in virtue epistemology, especially in its ‘non-classical’, regulatory, branch, related to works of R. Roberts and W.J. Wood. In this article, genetic consultation is chosen as an example of such a problematic situation since a (...)
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  44.  6
    Logical Positivism, Wittgenstein and Ethical Value of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.Valeriy A. Surovtsev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):57-66.
    The problem of interconnection of L. Wittgenstein and logical positivism is considered. It is proved that mutual influence did not exist and could not exist due to dissimilarities between the tasks proposed in the “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” and the goals that are basic for the representatives of the Vienna Circle. But the difference between the tasks and the goals does not diminish the value of the philosophy of early Wittgenstein, if even his philosophy cannot be interpreted from the point of view (...)
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  45.  4
    Russell and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Vitaly V. Tselishchev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):67-74.
    The author argues that Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus owes much to Russell’s early philosophy. This point of view is demonstrated in the article by referring to G. Landini’s recent research on Russell’s Substitution Theory, as well as by the evaluations of the Tractatus of the prominent researchers: L. Goldstein, J. Hintikka, and J. Hacking. A skeptical view on the influence of the Tractatus and Wittgenstein personally on the doctrines of the Vienna Circle is presented by A. Koffa. The author proposes to (...)
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  46.  5
    On Wittgenstein’s Influence on the Logical Positivists.Vadim V. Vasilyev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):40-47.
    In this article, I consider the influence of the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and above all the ideas of his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus on the philosophy of logical positivism. Agreeing that the question of such an influence is not a self-evident one, I clarify at first the concept of logical positivism and then turn to the evidence of the leading logical positivists about the influence of Wittgenstein upon them. An analysis of recollections of Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, Friedrich Waismann, (...)
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  47.  7
    Towards Protolanguage.Dmitry V. Zaitsev - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):94-111.
    In this paper, I attempt to offer a general outline of my views on the origin and evolution of language. I do not pretend in any way to a completely new conception of language evolution. It seems to me that all the most important and productive hypotheses about the origin of language have already been made before, and it is only a matter of putting the pieces of the puzzle together correctly. As far as I can see it, the evolution (...)
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