History of European Ideas

ISSNs: 0191-6599, 1873-541X

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  1.  1
    Freedom, Silent Power and the Role of an Historian in the Digital Age – Interview with Quentin Skinner.Filip Biały - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):871-878.
    ABSTRACT How should we use intellectual history to inform our thinking about freedom in the advent of digital technologies? Quentin Skinner argues that prevalent liberal idiom is unable to address the political challenges in the world of big tech. While liberals consider these challenges in terms of invasion of individual privacy, in Skinner's neo-Roman – and once widely accepted – perspective, the growing datafication of contemporary societies should be considered an affront to liberty. By invoking the figure of ‘paths not (...)
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  2.  6
    Digging Jung: Analytical Psychology and Philosophical Archaeology.Paul Bishop - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):960-979.
    ABSTRACT Taking as its starting-point the interest in archaeological metaphors evinced by Freud and by Jung, this paper considers the project of analytical psychology under the rubric of the recently discussed term, ‘philosophical archaeology’. Noting the shared methodological assumptions and procedures between these two areas, the paper goes on to examine the extent to which Jung’s project can legitimately be considered as an archaeological pursuit in respect of two key aspects: its humanism, and its hermeneutics. In this second case, the (...)
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  3. Antonio Negri and the Discourse on Poverty – on Two Motifs in Kairòs, Alma Venus, Multitudo.Brook M. Blair - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):998-1020.
    ABSTRACT In opposition to any notion of poverty as privation, or ‘bare life’, Negrian discourse poses the problem of poverty as a precondition for innovation and self-constitution, that is, for the critical appropriation of the immeasurable. This appropriation, as depicted in Kairòs, Alma Venus, and Multitudo, occurs in the event of adequation, when the monstrous store of potentia exposes itself to the void in the projection of the ‘to-come’. This essay seeks in turn to resolve a series of vexing questions (...)
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  4. Who Translated Into French and Annotated Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman?Isabelle Bour - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):879-891.
    ABSTRACT This article sets out to show that Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman was translated by Félicité Brissot de Warville, the wife of the prominent Girondin leader, Jacques-Pierre Brissot de Warville, and annotated by both. The demonstration is carried out through a study of the works translated by them, together or singly, before 1792: the annotation of those earlier works is echoed by the themes of the notes in the later chapters of the Vindication. These notes reflect (...)
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  5.  2
    Anthony Collins on Toleration, Liberty, and Authority.Elad Carmel - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):892-908.
    ABSTRACT Anthony Collins is known mostly as an eighteenth-century freethinker who contributed to ideas of rational religion and religious toleration, as a close friend of John Locke, and as a necessitarian and materialist who held a significant correspondence with Samuel Clarke. Yet, his political philosophy has rarely received serious attention, and he remains a neglected figure in the history of political thought. This article attempts to recover Collins as a philosopher who developed a complex political theory, by focusing on his (...)
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  6.  2
    Reading Lipsius in Early Modern Italy: Ercole Cato and the Transformation of the Politicorum Libri Sex.Lisa Kattenberg - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):1021-1038.
    ABSTRACT Navigating the tension between moral virtue and realism in a ruler’s effort to preserve power, Justus Lipsius’ Politicorum libri sex was a foundational text in Catholic reason of state, but its ambiguous form and content leave it open for interpretation. The present article shows how in his Italian translation, the Ferrarese secretary and scholar Ercole Cato offers an individual reading of the Politica, transforming it to underline its usefulness and enhance its orthodoxy. Through a creative use of examples from (...)
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  7.  4
    La Peyrère’s Influence on Vico’s Historical Reconstruction: From Pre-Adamism to the Plurality of History.Donghyun Lim - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):948-959.
    ABSTRACT This study aims to analyse La Peyrère’s traditionally denied or under-estimated influence on Vico’s universal historiography. While Vico criticized La Peyrère’s impiety, his description of the cultural exchange between sacred and profane history, represented by the Jews and the Gentiles, corresponded with La Peyrère’s thoughts. Thus, one could interpret Vico’s criticism of La Peyrère as a strategy for saving his major work from the suspicion of heterodoxy. Vico refuted the existence of pre-Adamites, but accepted La Peyrère’s idea of the (...)
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  8.  2
    Eighteenth-Century German Empirical Psychology and the Historiography of Scientific Objectivity.Andreas Rydberg - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):980-997.
    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the historiography of scientific objectivity as well as to the broader attempt to historicize basic epistemic categories by examining the case of empirical psychology in eighteenth-century Germany. From the time when the philosopher Christian Wolff first presented empirical psychology in the late 1720s until Kantian philosophers elaborated on the topic towards the end of the century, the discourse hinged on discussions of how to obtain scientific knowledge of the soul. Whereas the work of Wolff and (...)
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  9.  3
    Listening to Difference: J.G. Herder’s Aural Theory of Cultural Diversity in the ‘Treatise on the Origin of Language’.Tanvi Solanki - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):930-947.
    ABSTRACT In this article, I develop the concept and practice of ‘listening to difference,’ examining J.G. Herder’s aural theory of cultural diversity as primarily worked out in the ‘Treatise on the Origin of Language’. I examine the sources Herder critiqued to outline his aural theory of linguistic and cultural difference, which have thus far only been summarily mentioned if at all in scholarship despite the prominence of the ‘Treatise’ in intellectual history and philosophy. These sources comprise the travelogues of seventeenth- (...)
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  10.  50
    Empire and Liberty in Adam Ferguson’s Republicanism.Elena Yi-Jia Zeng - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (7):909-929.
    Adam Ferguson’s imperial thought casts new light on the age-old republican dilemma of the tension between empire and liberty. Generations of republican writers had been haunted by this issue as the decline of Rome proved that imperial expansion would eventually ruin the liberty of a state. Many eighteenth-century Scottish thinkers regarded this as an insoluble conundrum and thus became critics of empire. Ferguson shared their basic views but, paradoxically, was still able to defend the British Empire in the debates over (...)
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  11.  6
    Liberty and Representation in Hobbes: A Materialist Theory of Conatus.Andrea Bardin - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):698-712.
    ABSTRACT The concepts of liberty and representation reveal tensions in Hobbes's political anthropology that only a study of the development of his philosophical materialism can fully elucidate. The first section of this article analyses the contradictory definitions of liberty offered in De cive, and explains them against the background of Hobbes's elaboration of a deterministic concept of conatus during the 1640s. Variations in the concepts of conatus and void between De motu and De corpore will shed light on ideas of (...)
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  12.  4
    Calculated Values: Finance, Politics and the Quantitative Age.Gábor Bíró - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):865-867.
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  13.  1
    Calculated Values: Finance, Politics and the Quantitative Age: By William Deringer, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2018, Xxiv + 413 Pp., $48.00, ISBN 9780674971875. [REVIEW]Gábor Bíró - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):865-867.
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  14.  1
    From Red Spirit to Underperforming Pyramids and Coercive Institutions: Michael Polanyi Against Economic Planning.Gábor István Bíró - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):811-847.
    ABSTRACT This paper examines the evolution of Michael Polanyi’s critique of economic planning. It portrays how the focal point of his critique shifted from addressing the ‘spirit,’ ‘social consciousness,’ and ‘public emotion’ of the people supporting planned economies to addressing the administrative ‘unmanageability’ and the logical impossibility of economic planning. Polanyi developed thought experiments of imaginary economies, contrasted the ‘pyramid of authority’ with the polygons of liberty, and explained organic and inorganic ways of adjusting economic relations. He attempted to relax (...)
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  15.  6
    Transatlantic Relations and Public Diplomacy: The Council on Foreign Relations, Jean Monnet, and Post-WWII France and Europe.Enrico Ciappi - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):848-864.
    ABSTRACT The Second World War offered an excellent opportunity for some U.S. think tanks to influence foreign-policy-making processes and get involved in transatlantic diplomacy. This study seeks to demonstrate that the Council on Foreign Relations challenged the stalemate between the U.S. and French authorities by gathering together U.S. experts and non-collaborationist French leaders. A first-hand reconstruction of this informal network is based on the unreleased Peace Aims Group’s records. This was a unique CFR exchange programme for European governments-in-exile’s representatives. In (...)
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  16.  2
    Reading and Translating Algernon Sidney’s Discourses in Early Modern Germany.Gaby Mahlberg - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):713-730.
    ABSTRACT The manuscript of Algernon Sidney’s Discourses Concerning Government was used in evidence against him in the 1683 treason trial which cost the republican his life. The work’s attack on absolute monarchy and its justification of rebellion against tyrannical rulers were considered so inflammatory that it could not be published with impunity in England until after the Glorious Revolution and the lapse of the Licensing Act. It was eventually prepared for the press in 1698 by the Commonwealthman John Toland in (...)
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  17.  2
    Sovereignty Beyond Natural Law: Adam Blackwood’s Catholic Royalism.Sarah Mortimer - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):682-697.
    ABSTRACT The political works of Adam Blackwood offer a powerful defence of absolute monarchy, and one which explicitly sets political power within a religious framework. Critiquing the resistance theories of his contemporaries, Blackwood was sceptical about the political value of natural law and of any appeal to popular sovereignty, at least in contemporary Europe. Blackwood was deeply troubled by the way Christianity was being used to justify resistance, often in Protestant texts that aligned Christianity and natural law, and he insisted (...)
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  18.  5
    Machiavelli’s Ironic Discourse to Defend a Radical Republic.Alessandro Mulieri - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):665-681.
    ABSTRACT The Discourse on Florentine Affairs contains a proposal for constitutional reform in which Machiavelli directly addresses Pope Giovanni de’ Medici. With the aim of contributing to the recent radical republican readings of Machiavelli, this paper argues that the best way to understand the Discourse is to read it as an example of Machiavelli’s use of irony. Machiavelli disguises his radical republican ideas in the Discourse with paradoxes, omissions and implausible reforms that, though clearly leaning towards a popular republic, are (...)
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  19.  1
    Denial of Coevalness: Charges of Dogmatism in the Nineteenth-Century Humanities.Herman Paul & Caroline Schep - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):778-794.
    ABSTRACT Since the seventeenth century, scholars have been accusing each other of ‘dogmatism’. But what exactly did this mean? In exploring this question, this article focuses on philosophy and Biblical scholarship in nineteenth-century Germany. Scholars in both of these fields habitually contrasted Dogmatismus with Kritik, to the point of emplotting the history of their field as a gradual triumph of critical thinking over dogmatic belief. The article shows that charges of dogmatism derived much of their rhetorical force from such progressive (...)
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  20.  2
    Marriage, Morals, and Progress: J.S. Mill and the Early Feminists.Janelle Pötzsch - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):795-810.
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the background to Mill’s feminist thought by relating his Subjection of Women to his early piece ‘On Marriage’ and three contemporary essays that were written among the radical Unitarian community of South Place Chapel by Harriet Taylor Mill, William Bridges Adams, and William Johnson Fox. It seeks to demonstrate that Mill’s Subjection of Women still has close ties with the earlier feminist thought of the South Place Chapel circle. Specifically, it will show that key arguments like (...)
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  21.  2
    Jefferson’s Unknown Informant on Necker in 1789: An Episode of Diplomatic History Involving Condorcet.Nicolas Rieucau & Gabriel Sabbagh - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):764-777.
    ABSTRACT The American envoy in Paris, Jefferson, sent on 17 June 1789 to Jay, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, an assessment of Necker, then at the apex of his political fortune, provided by an informant whose name was not disclosed by Jefferson. This paper intends to show that the author of this report was the philosopher, mathematician and economist Condorcet – certainly the French friend who had with Jefferson the most intense intellectual intercourse – and sketches a history of the (...)
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  22.  6
    Slaying Vampires in Eighteenth-Century Sweden.Damian Shaw & Matthew Gibson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):744-763.
    ABSTRACT In this article, the first author provides a summary and translation from the Latin of an important early medical lecture on vampires by Nils Retzius. The lecture was delivered in Sweden, at Lund University, in 1737, and was published almost immediately thereafter. This important text has been overlooked by modern scholars of vampires. This article will bring the lecture back into circulation in its first English translation. The second author then offers an analysis of the intellectual background to this (...)
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  23.  1
    La science des moeurs au siècle des lumières. Conceptions et expérimentations: by Laurie Bréban, Séverine Denieul and Elise Sultan-Villet, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2021, 367pp. 38€. ISBN: 2-406-11900-5. [REVIEW]Michael Sonenscher - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):867-869.
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  24.  9
    The Aesthetics of the Invisible: George Berkeley and the Modern Aesthetics.Endre Szécsényi - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (6):731-743.
    ABSTRACT George Berkeley is usually not discussed in the canonical histories of modern aesthetics. Similarly, Berkeley scholars do not seem to have paid attention to his possible contribution to modern aesthetics. Berkeley exploited certain theoretical potentials of the emerging aesthetic experience that was invented and formulated especially by his contemporaries like Joseph Addison, Richard Steele and Lord Shaftesbury. He applied these elements in shaping a theologico-aesthetic language in the very same period when Francis Hutcheson and Alexander Baumgarten wrote their widely (...)
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  25.  3
    Diplomatic Personae: Torquato Tasso on the Ambassador.Michele Chiaruzzi - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):481-498.
    ABSTRACT This article examines Torquato Tasso’s Il Messaggiero [The Messenger], by focusing on the political subject matter, as discussed in the final part of the text through an imaginary dialogue, that is, the figure of the ambassador, the framework of his office and its relationship with power. Tasso’s dialogue features the nature of the ambassador as a figure incarnating his own ‘self’, while simultaneously representing his prince and acting on his own behalf within a specific political context, an external dimension, (...)
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  26.  3
    Maturity and Individuality in the Later Writings of J.S. Mill: A Unified Account.Théophile Deslauriers - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):536-554.
    ABSTRACT This paper offers an integrated account of maturity and the requisites of individuality in the political thought of John Stuart Mill, bridging his writings on the individual and society. To do so, it focuses on Mill's account of the relationship between civilization, democracy, class, individuality and custom in his later political thought. Mill draws on these concepts to flesh out his account of maturity in both individuals and societies. Mill's conception of custom, in particular, bridges the individual and society. (...)
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  27. Karl Korsch and Marxism’s Interwar Moment, 1917–1933.Nicholas Devlin - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):574-593.
    ABSTRACT This article offers a major reinterpretation of the nature of interwar Marxist theory. It does so by offering a new reading of the work of Karl Korsch in the context of a network of ex-communist intellectuals. In Marxism and Philosophy, Korsch responded to the split in the labour movement with a radical new claim to Marxist orthodoxy. Rather than engaging in Marx exegesis, he aimed to turn the Marxist ‘method’ on Marxism's own history. In the narrative he constructed, Bolshevik-inspired (...)
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  28.  3
    Scheler and Zambrano: On a Transformation of the Heart in Spanish Philosophy.Karolina Enquist Källgren & Íngrid Vendrell Ferran - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):634-649.
    ABSTRACT This paper compares the concept of the heart in the works of Max Scheler and María Zambrano. Both authors use the heart as a metaphor for distinct human affective phenomena that have a central anthropological, epistemological, and ontological significance. The comparison between authors’ use of the metaphor is organised around three main topics: the order of the heart; the idea of a primordial feeling and its place in the affective life; and the primacy of love in relation to negative (...)
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  29.  9
    Camus and Rousseau: Freedom, Justice and ‘the Despotism of the General Will’.John Foley - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):614-633.
    ABSTRACT Despite being generally recognised as Camus’ most important philosophical essay, L’Homme révolté is rather neglected in the scholarship and enjoys a limited readership, especially among Anglophone critics and readers – a fact brightly reflected in the questionable quality of the only English translation, by Anthony Bower, and in the decision of Hamish Hamilton and Penguin, Camus’ publishers in the UK, to cut about thirty pages of text from their edition, ‘in the interests of economy.’. This essay examines one brief (...)
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  30. Classified by Their Classifications: Nineteenth-Century Library Classifications in Context.John R. Hodgson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):499-517.
    ABSTRACT This paper investigates influences upon the development of library classification systems in nineteenth-century Britain. Two case studies – Edward Edwards's ‘scheme of classification for a town library’ of 1859 and the Bibliotheca Lindesiana of the earls of Crawford who made a number of significant contributions to the development of library classification over a fifty-year period – are deployed to explore how classification schemes reflected the habituses of their creators and how they were shaped by their socio-economic, epistemological and geographical (...)
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  31.  1
    ‘Fervent Spenglerians:’ Romanising the Historic Morphology of Cultures in Spain.Carl Antonius Lemke Duque - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):594-613.
    ABSTRACT This study analyses the impact of Oswald Spengler’s work in Spain during the interwar period. It proceeds with three steps as follows: The first part investigates the reception of Spengler’s historic morphology of cultures in the so-called circle of the Revista de Occidente. The second part delves into the early echo of Spengler’s work among the Spanish left up to the Second Spanish Republic. The third part focuses on the impact of Spengler’s historic morphology among conservative traditionalists and members (...)
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  32.  3
    Stalin Versus Stalinism: Uncovering Stalin's Edits to the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course.Joe Pateman & John Pateman - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):661-664.
  33.  1
    Stalin Versus Stalinism: Uncovering Stalin's Edits to the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course : Stalin’s Master Narrative: A Critical Edition of the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), Short Course, Edited by David Brandenberger and Mikhail Zelenov, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2019, 768pp (Hardback), £45, ISBN 978-0300155365. [REVIEW]John Pateman & Joe Pateman - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):661-664.
  34.  7
    ‘A Psychological Riddle Demanding a Solution’. Crowd Psychology and the Finnish Civil War of 1918.Petteri Pietikainen - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):555-573.
    ABSTRACT Right after the Finnish Civil War of 1918, the first treatises discussing the insurgents in crowd psychological terms were published. Between 1918 and the early 1920s, several Finnish authors used Gustave Le Bon's and other crowd psychologists’ ideas of suggestion, mental epidemics, and the dangers of socialism in their interpretations of the aborted revolution. The article argues that the use of crowd psychology in the years following the Finnish Civil War was an attempt to articulate in objective, scientific language (...)
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  35.  2
    Aspirational Fascism Versus Postfascism: A Conceptual History of a Far-Right Politics.Takamichi Sakurai - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):650-660.
    ABSTRACT This paper seeks an integral part of the two concepts of the political theorist William E. Connolly's ‘aspirational fascism’ and the intellectual historian Enzo Traverso's ‘postfascism’, thereby revealing the conceptual relevance of each concept. Its primary purpose is to give details of why movements as depicted by these concepts should be categorised as postfascism, rather than as aspirational fascism, and thereby to unravel these movements that have prospered in advanced countries under liberal democracy. Since fascism emerged in the first (...)
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  36.  1
    Beyond ‘Civil Religion’ – on Pascalian Influence in Tocqueville.Yuji Takayama - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (5):518-535.
    ABSTRACT In volume two of his work Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville argued that religion could guarantee individual liberties against the tyranny of the majority. However, in volume one of this work, Tocqueville presented a conventional ‘civil religion’ as a phenomenon that was identical to or subsumed by American social mores or opinions. Thus, the following questions are raised: How can such a religion represent a brake on potential tyranny? How can genuine religion be distinguished from common opinion? Consequently, (...)
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  37.  6
    The Pacifism of Bertrand Russell During the Great War.Claudio Giulio Anta - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):438-453.
    ABSTRACT Through a brief analysis of the reflections of some prestigious contemporary philosophers such as Norberto Bobbio, Mulford Quickert Sibley, Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann, Michael Allen Fox, David Cortright, Larry May, John Rawls, Eric Reitan, Johan Galtung and David Boersema, this essay reconstructs Russell's pacifist commitment during the First World War. This dramatic event represented a real watershed for his multifaceted and ingenious personality, leading to his new political and civil commitment. Through a series of articles and lectures, he fought against (...)
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  38.  1
    A Different Antifascism. An Analysis of the Rise of Nazism as Seen by Anarchists During the Weimar Period.David Bernardini - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):454-471.
    ABSTRACT The article examines some thoughts on the rise of National Socialism by Rudolf Rocker and Gerhard Wartenberg, two figures of fundamental significance in the anarchism of the Weimar Republic, militant in the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands, active from 1919 to 1933. A systematic reading of the period's anarchist press, in particular of the weekly ‘Der Syndikalist’ and the monthly ‘Die Internationale’ will show that their rejection of Hitler was based on the theoretical principles of anarchism and a criticism (...)
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  39.  4
    The Passion for Equality and Merit in the Modern Regime: Les Meilleurs N’Auront Pas le Pouvoir. Une Enquête À Partir D’Aristote, Pascal Et Tocqueville [The Best Won’T Have the Power: An Inquiry on the Basis of Aristotle, Pascal and Tocqueville], by Adrien Louis, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2021, P. 203, 19 Euros. [REVIEW]Alexis Carré - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):477-479.
  40.  1
    Widening the Idea of Profit in the Hobbesian Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre?Andrea Catanzaro - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):335-350.
    ABSTRACT Scholars have analysed in-depth the famous three greatest things linking Thomas Hobbes and Thucydides. As is well known, the ideas of fear, honour and profit – that is, timé, déos and opheléia – play a fundamental role in showing the latter’s influences on the former. With particular regard to ophelía it has been suggested that it has to be conceived ‘as economic advantage or interest’ [Slomp Gabriella, ‘Hobbes, Thucydides and the Three Greatest Things’, History of Political Thought 11 : (...)
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  41.  1
    The Sphinx of Modern Democracy: Œuvres Complètes XVII: Correspondance À Divers (3 Volumes), by Alexis de Tocqueville, Edited by Françoise Mélonio and Anne Vibert, Paris, Gallimard, 2021, Vol. 1, 402 Pp., 39 €, ISBN: 978-2-07-292637-2; Vol. 2, 762 Pp., 44 €, ISBN 978-2-07-292642-6; Vol. 3, 638 Pp., 42 €, ISBN 978-2-07-292647-1. [REVIEW]Aurelian Craiutu - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):472-477.
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  42.  3
    From ‘Pure Botany’ to ‘Economic Botany’ – Changing Ideas by Exchanging Plants: Spain and Italy in the Late Eighteenth and the Early Nineteenth Century.Martino Lorenzo Fagnani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):402-420.
    ABSTRACT At the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the 19th, Spain and the Italian States contributed to the development of European agricultural science and the improvement of manufacturing. They collaborated with each other and reworked the most advanced models of France, Central Europe and Great Britain. Despite their somewhat less prosperous economic status, they demonstrated great originality in research and experimentation. In this process, botanical knowledge served as a starting point for a new epistemological path. Through three (...)
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  43.  5
    The Early Modern Corporation as Nursery of Democratic Thought: The Case of the Virginia Company and Thomas Hobbes.Andrew Fitzmaurice - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):309-334.
    ABSTRACT This paper examines early modern discussions of democracy in the context of a chartered company: namely, the Virginia Company. It examines descriptions of the Company’s constitution and politics as democratic. It focuses, in particular, upon a petition that William Cavendish presented to the Virginia Company assembly defending the democratic constitution of the Company. Cavendish's secretary, Thomas Hobbes, may or may not have assisted with drafting that petition, but he was closely involved in the debates to which it contributed. The (...)
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  44.  1
    Pierre Bayle and Richard Simon: Toleration, Natural Law, and the Old Testament.James Michael Hooks - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):382-401.
    ABSTRACT Pierre Bayle developed an expansive theory of toleration in his Commentaire philosophique by arguing that tolerance is a universal principle of natural law. However, by situating toleration in natural law rather than positive law, Bayle was brought into theoretical conflict with the Old Testament injunction that the state should punish idolatry. To resolve this conflict, Bayle drew upon the work of early modern Hebraists, particularly the Catholic biblical scholar Richard Simon. Bayle adapted Simon’s idea that theocracy uniquely shaped the (...)
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  45.  1
    Cocceji on Sociality.Martin Otero Knott - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):351-366.
    This essay examines the early writings of Samuel Cocceji on the foundations of natural law. A key focus of this study is his criticism of the ‘principle of sociality’. It situates Cocceji in a debate about sociality that took place in the 1690s and early years of the 1700s throughout various German universities. This was a debate with its own language and integrity. Reconstructing this language and explaining the key terms of contention is central to this enquiry. This aspect of (...)
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  46.  1
    Towards a More Natural Structure of Italy? The Federalist Thought of Carlo Cattaneo, Giuseppe Ferrari, Alberto Mario and Gaetano Salvemini.Rafał Lis - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):421-437.
    ABSTRACT The article presents the federalist thought of Carlo Cattaneo, Giuseppe Ferrari and Alberto Mario and Gaetano Salvemini. Referring briefly to the recognised failures of the federal idea in Italy and the corresponding difficulties with its territorial puzzle’ as well, the author proposes to analyse their argumentation through the prism of their attempts to find a proper federal structure for this country. The article shows that despite their eagerness to make Italy perfectly compatible with its ‘natural’ diversity, they gave different (...)
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  47.  1
    Republics in Comparison. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Genoa, Venice and the United Provinces in Italian Literature.Enrico Zucchi - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (4):367-381.
    ABSTRACT Italian historiographers of the second half of the seventeenth century often establish parallels between early modern republics, comparing Genoa and Venice with the United Provinces, considered as similar political entities despite their evident political differences. The article, taking into account four different sources, investigates the meaning of those comparisons, published when the absolutist model was taking root all around Europe. In the twilight of the republican state, when the power and reputation of the Italian republics was maybe at its (...)
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  48.  1
    Hobbes, Constant, and Berlin on Liberty.Alan Cromartie - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):214-228.
    ABSTRACT Isaiah Berlin’s ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ regards both Hobbes and Constant as supporting the negative version. Both took a favourable view of the freedom to live as one pleases. But this shared preference arose from radically different overall philosophies. Hobbes’s support for freedom as ‘the silence of the laws’ reflected his view of happiness as preference-satisfaction. Constant’s support for freedom as a sphere of absolute rights was supplemented by support for active citizenship and connected with belief in ‘perfectibility’ that (...)
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  49.  4
    The Two Modern Liberties of Constant and Berlin.Maria Dimova-Cookson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):229-245.
    ABSTRACT The paper challenges the general perception that the positive–negative freedom discourse privileges negative liberty. It demonstrates that Constant and Berlin’s dual freedom conceptual scheme contains the blueprint of a modern concept of positive freedom and it reveals the nature of negative freedom in an entirely new light. Constant’s ancient and modern liberties have many similarities with Berlin’s two concepts of freedom – positive and negative. The paper shows that these similarities warrant a parallel study and allow us to examine (...)
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  50.  1
    From Constant to Spencer: Two Ethics of Laissez-Faire.Alan S. Kahan - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):296-307.
    ABSTRACT Both Constant and Spencer are moralists who want to encourage individual human perfection. But for Constant, politics has moral value even in a laissez-faire state, whereas for Spencer political participation has no moral value in itself. For Constant, from a moral perspective the historical change from an ancient to a modern conception of liberty is not absolute, and he wishes to retain, in a subordinate role, certain aspects of ancient liberty in modern societies. For Spencer, the historical evolution from (...)
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  51.  2
    Time, Modernity and Space: Montesquieu’s and Constant’s Ancient/Modern Binaries.Manjeet Ramgotra - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):263-279.
    ABSTRACT This article explores how our thinking about time shapes epistemological and ontological understandings of the world. It considers the idea of modernity as constituted by the ancient/modern binary through an examination of Montesquieu’s and Benjamin Constant’s development of this binary in relation to their understandings of commerce, the law of nations and conquest, political rule and freedom in the context of European colonial empire. Modernity demarcates a break in time between a past and a present that extends into a (...)
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  52. Beyond Binary Discourses on Liberty: Constant's Modern Liberty, Rightly Understood.Avital Simhony - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):196-213.
    ABSTRACT It is fruitless to interpret Constant's modern liberty from the binary perspective of either the negative/positive freedom opposition or the liberal/republican freedom opposition. Both oppositional perspectives reduce the relationally complex nature of modern liberty to one or another component of the relation. Such reduction inevitably results in an incomplete and, therefore, inadequate interpretation of Constant's modern liberty. Consequently, either of these binary frames of interpretation obscures rather than illuminates the full nature of Constant's modern liberty. Boxed into their irreconcilably (...)
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  53.  1
    Editors’ Introduction.Avital Simhony & Maria Dimova-Cookson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):193-195.
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  54.  3
    Benjamin Constant, Political Power, and Democracy.Nora Timmermans - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):246-262.
    ABSTRACT For several decades now, a steady flow of scholarly contributions from both intellectual history and political theory has been reasserting Benjamin Constant as a theorist of liberal democracy. Constant’s visionary understanding of liberal democracy is usually conflated with his understanding of limited popular sovereignty. In this article, I reconstruct Constant’s positive conception of popular sovereignty, i.e. his conception of what popular sovereignty means within its limits and take it as the starting point of an analysis of Constant’s understanding of (...)
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  55.  1
    Rethinking Constant’s Ancient Liberty: Bosanquet’s Modern Rousseauianism.Colin Tyler - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):280-295.
    ABSTRACT Benjamin Constant was a vociferous critic of the political Rousseauianism that he saw underpinning French politics in the early nineteenth-century. Yet, his hostile reaction at the political level co-existed with a far more sympathetic attitude towards Rousseau’s critical analysis of modernity. This article reflects on that combination through the dual lens of the influence on Constant’s position of his ambivalent attitude towards Rousseau on the one hand and the modernisation of Rousseau undertaken eighty years later by the British idealist (...)
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  56.  1
    Response to Benedikt Stuchtey.Joshua Bennett - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):186-188.
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  57.  1
    Comment on The Veiled God: Friedrich Schleiermacher’s Theology of Finitude, by Ruth Jackson Ravenscroft, Leiden, Brill, 2019.Constanze Güthenke - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):163-167.
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  58.  6
    Phillipson’s Hume in Phillipson's Scottish Enlightenment.James A. Harris - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):145-159.
    ABSTRACT The subject of this paper is the place of Hume in Nicholas Phillipson's account of the Scottish Enlightenment. I begin with Phillipson's reading of Hume as ‘civic moralist’. I then turn to his account of Hume the author of The History of England. And from there I proceed to the place of Hume in his intellectual biography of Adam Smith. I conclude with a brief description of Phillipson's understanding of Hume's place in the history of the Scottish Enlightenment as (...)
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  59.  1
    Afterword.Paul E. Kerry - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):189-191.
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  60.  1
    Response to Adam Sutcliffe.Paul Michael Kurtz - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):176-179.
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  61.  1
    Introduction to the Forum:New Scholarship on Religion in Nineteenth-Century German and British Culture.Zachary Purvis - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):160-162.
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  62.  1
    Response to Constanze Güthenke.Ruth Jackson Ravenscroft - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):168-171.
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  63.  1
    Comment on God and Progress: Religion and History in British Intellectual Culture, 1845–1914, by Joshua Bennett, Oxford, University of Oxford Press, 2019. [REVIEW]Benedikt Stuchtey - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):180-185.
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  64.  1
    Comment on Kaiser, Christ and Canaan: The Religion of Israel in Protestant Germany, 1871–1918, by Paul Michael Kurtz, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2018. [REVIEW]Adam Sutcliffe - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (2):172-175.
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  65.  2
    Editor's Introduction: Nicholas Phillipson and the Sciences of Humankind in Enlightenment Scotland.Thomas Ahnert - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):1-2.
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  66.  11
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: Positive and Negative Norms.Timo Airaksinen - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):66-77.
    ABSTRACT In Berkeley’s Passive Obedience, moral duties are negative and positive as well as civil or legal and natural. Natural duties are from God and therefore valid norms. The supreme civil authority makes civil laws. We must obey the law because loyalty to supreme civil power is one of our natural duties: to be loyal is to obey, which means ‘do not rebel.’ This is a negative duty and as such categorical or unconditional. Positive duties are conditional on conscientious acceptance. (...)
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  67.  4
    Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ and Scottish Political Thought of the 1790s.Danielle Charette - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):78-96.
    ABSTRACT This article traces the reception of Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ among a circle of Scottish Whigs supportive of the French Revolution. While the influence of Hume's essay on American Federalists like James Madison has long been a subject of debate, historians have overlooked the appeal that the plan held for Hume's intellectual heirs in Scotland. In the early 1790s, theorists such as John Millar, James Mackintosh, and Dugald Stewart believed European governments – above all France – could (...)
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  68.  9
    Hermann Kantorowicz and Hans Kelsen: From Debating Legal Sociology to Constructing an International Legal Order.Jacob Giltaij - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):112-128.
    ABSTRACT In this article the development of the thought of two important twentieth-century legal theorists is compared. Although Hans Kelsen is primarily known for his Pure theory of law and Hermann Kantorowicz is one of the founders of the Free law movement, the article will revolve around their respective proposals for the post-War restoration of the international legal order. It is argued that these are based on their respective conceptions of ‘law’ and ‘the state’. By virtue of this comparison, it (...)
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  69.  2
    The Human Good and the Science of Man.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):23-32.
    ABSTRACT David Hume and Adam Smith are often regarded as preeminent contributors to the eighteenth-century Scottish ‘science of man.’ For our understanding of Hume’s and Smith’s contributions to this project, scholars today are especially indebted to Nicholas Phillipson, who influentially and persuasively demonstrated how the science of man that they developed sought to account for social progress as the result of man’s natural love of improvement in the face of conditions of indigence and want. Yet Phillipson’s work also helps us (...)
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  70.  4
    Nicolas de Condorcet as a Forerunner of John Rawls.Sven Ove Hansson - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):97-111.
    ABSTRACT John Rawls proposed two criteria for the delimitation of acceptable inequalities. The universal gain principle requires inequalities to be beneficial for all, and the difference principle requires them to be beneficial for the least advantaged. These principles are commonly believed to have originated in Rawls’s work, but they were both clearly expressed in the writings of Nicolas de Condorcet. Contrary to Rawls, Condorcet did not imbed them in the framework of a social contract, but instead sought their foundations in (...)
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  71.  3
    Beyond Anglicised Politeness: Addison in Eighteenth-Century Scotland.R. J. W. Mills - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):3-22.
    ABSTRACT Joseph Addison played a key role in Nicholas Phillipson's pioneering studies of eighteenth-century Scottish culture and philosophy. Post-Union Scots were in search of renewed civic purpose now political power had headed to Westminster. They found it in Addison's Spectator essays discussing virtuous living. This article pays homage to Phillipson's work by expanding the scope of the study of Addison's reception in eighteenth-century Scotland. A survey of the publishing history of Addison's works north of the border indicates additional roles for (...)
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  72.  2
    An Activist Stage Craft? Performative Politics in the First British New Left.Sophie Scott-Brown - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):129-143.
    ABSTRACT The First British New Left formed around two journals, The New Reasoner edited by E.P.Thompson and John Saville, and the Universities and Left Review edited by Stuart Hall, Gabriel Pearson, Raphael Samuel and Charles Taylor. Both sought a ‘new’ socialism which, based on a loose concept of socialist humanism, restored the role of the individual and revitalised a popular left movement. Early commentators critiqued its lack of robust theory and organisational structure. More recently, others have proposed that, particularly amongst (...)
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  73.  2
    Monboddo’s ‘Ugly Tail’: The Question of Evidence in Enlightenment Sciences of Man.Silvia Sebastiani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):45-65.
    ABSTRACT The erudite James Burnet, Lord Monboddo, member of the Select Society and judge of the Court of Session in Edinburgh, wrote many pages about the existence of ‘men with tails’ and orang-utans’ humanity. For this reason, he has been labelled as ‘credulous’, ‘bizarre’ and ‘eccentric’ both by his contemporaries and by modern scholars. In this paper, I shall try to take his argument seriously and to show that throughout his work Monboddo searched for evidence. If his belief in mermaids, (...)
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  74.  4
    The Art of Being in the Eighteenth Century: Adam Smith on Fortune, Luck, and Trust.Sylvana Tomaselli - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):33-44.
    ABSTRACT This article offers some reflections on the importance Adam Smith accorded to luck in The Wealth of Nations. While the place of moral luck in The Theory of Moral Sentiments has been the subject of some scholarly attention, this has not been the case for luck in his best-known work. It focuses on what Smith thought particularly striking about our estimation of our own good fortune and argues that it accentuated the need for trustworthiness and trusted friends.
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  75.  15
    Scheler and Zambrano: On a Transformation of the Heart in Spanish Philosophy.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran & Karolina Enquist Källgren - 2022 - History of European Ideas 47.
    This paper compares the concept of the heart in the works of Max Scheler and María Zambrano. Both authors use the heart as a metaphor for distinct human affective phenomena that have a central anthropological, epistemological, and ontological significance. The comparison between authors’ use of the metaphor is organised around three main topics: the order of the heart; the idea of a primordial feeling and its place in the affective life; and the primacy of love in relation to negative affective (...)
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  76.  26
    Marquard Freher and the Presumption of Goodness in Legal Humanism.Andreas Blank - 2022 - History of European Ideas 1 (1):1-15.
    One of the most detailed early modern discussions of the morality of esteem can be found in the work of the reformed jurist and historian Marquard Freher (1565–1614). Since the question of how much esteem others deserve is fraught with a high degree of uncertainty, Freher relied on the work of other legal humanists, who discussed questions of esteem from the perspective of arguments from the presumption of goodness. The humanist approach to the presumption of goodness integrated considerations about presumed (...)
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  77.  67
    Marquard Freher and the Presumption of Goodness in Legal Humanism.Andreas Blank - 2022 - History of European Ideas 1 (Online first):1-15.
    One of the most detailed early modern discussions of the morality of esteem can be found in the work of the reformed jurist and historian Marquard Freher (1565–1614). Since the question of how much esteem others deserve is fraught with a high degree of uncertainty, Freher relied on the work of other legal humanists, who discussed questions of esteem from the perspective of arguments from the presumption of goodness. The humanist approach to the presumption of goodness integrated considerations about presumed (...)
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