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  1.  18
    HRI Ethics and Type-Token Ambiguity: What Kind of Robotic Identity is Most Responsible?Thomas Arnold & Matthias Scheutz - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):357-366.
    This paper addresses ethical challenges posed by a robot acting as both a general type of system and a discrete, particular machine. Using the philosophical distinction between “type” and “token,” we locate type-token ambiguity within a larger field of indefinite robotic identity, which can include networked systems or multiple bodies under a single control system. The paper explores three specific areas where the type-token tension might affect human–robot interaction, including how a robot demonstrates the highly personalized recounting of information, how (...)
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  2.  99
    Mind the Gap: Responsible Robotics and the Problem of Responsibility.David J. Gunkel - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):307-320.
    The task of this essay is to respond to the question concerning robots and responsibility—to answer for the way that we understand, debate, and decide who or what is able to answer for decisions and actions undertaken by increasingly interactive, autonomous, and sociable mechanisms. The analysis proceeds through three steps or movements. It begins by critically examining the instrumental theory of technology, which determines the way one typically deals with and responds to the question of responsibility when it involves technology. (...)
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  3.  45
    From Responsible Robotics Towards a Human Rights Regime Oriented to the Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.Hin-Yan Liu & Karolina Zawieska - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):321-333.
    As the aim of the responsible robotics initiative is to ensure that responsible practices are inculcated within each stage of design, development and use, this impetus is undergirded by the alignment of ethical and legal considerations towards socially beneficial ends. While every effort should be expended to ensure that issues of responsibility are addressed at each stage of technological progression, irresponsibility is inherent within the nature of robotics technologies from a theoretical perspective that threatens to thwart the endeavour. This is (...)
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  4. Responsible Research for the Construction of Maximally Humanlike Automata: The Paradox of Unattainable Informed Consent.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):297-305.
    Since the Nuremberg Code and the first Declaration of Helsinki, globally there has been increasing adoption and adherence to procedures for ensuring that human subjects in research are as well informed as possible of the study’s reasons and risks and voluntarily consent to serving as subject. To do otherwise is essentially viewed as violation of the human research subject’s legal and moral rights. However, with the recent philosophical concerns about responsible robotics, the limits and ambiguities of research-subjects ethical codes become (...)
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  5.  14
    Urban Robotics and Responsible Urban Innovation.Michael Nagenborg - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):345-355.
    Robots are leaving factories and entering urban spaces. In this paper, I will explore how we can integrate robots of various types into the urban landscape. I will distinguish between two perspectives: the responsible design and use of urban robots and robots as part of responsible urban innovations. The first viewpoint considers issues arising from the use of a robot in an urban environment. To develop a substantive understanding of Responsible Urban Robotics, we need to focus on normative implications of (...)
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  6.  94
    Automated Cars Meet Human Drivers: Responsible Human-Robot Coordination and the Ethics of Mixed Traffic.Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):335-344.
    In this paper, we discuss the ethics of automated driving. More specifically, we discuss responsible human-robot coordination within mixed traffic: i.e. traffic involving both automated cars and conventional human-driven cars. We do three main things. First, we explain key differences in robotic and human agency and expectation-forming mechanisms that are likely to give rise to compatibility-problems in mixed traffic, which may lead to crashes and accidents. Second, we identify three possible solution-strategies for achieving better human-robot coordination within mixed traffic. Third, (...)
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  7.  64
    Can We Program or Train Robots to Be Good?Amanda Sharkey - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):283-295.
    As robots are deployed in a widening range of situations, it is necessary to develop a clearer position about whether or not they can be trusted to make good moral decisions. In this paper, we take a realistic look at recent attempts to program and to train robots to develop some form of moral competence. Examples of implemented robot behaviours that have been described as 'ethical', or 'minimally ethical' are considered, although they are found to only operate in quite constrained (...)
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  8.  5
    Special Issue on Responsible Robotics: Introduction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Noel Sharkey - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):281-282.
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  9.  9
    Digital Platforms and Responsible Innovation: Expanding Value Sensitive Design to Overcome Ontological Uncertainty.Mark de Reuver, Aimee van Wynsberghe, Marijn Janssen & Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):257-267.
    In this paper, we argue that the characteristics of digital platforms challenge the fundamental assumptions of value sensitive design. Traditionally, VSD methods assume that we can identify relevant values during the design phase of new technologies. The underlying assumption is that there is only epistemic uncertainty about which values will be impacted by a technology. VSD methods suggest that one can predict which values will be affected by new technologies by increasing knowledge about how values are interpreted or understood in (...)
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  10.  8
    Privacy, Transparency, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.Adam D. Moore & Sean Martin - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):211-222.
    Aside from making a few weak, and hopefully widely shared claims about the value of privacy, transparency, and accountability, we will offer an argument for the protection of privacy based on individual self-interest and prudence. In large part, this argument will parallel considerations that arise in a prisoner’s dilemma game. After briefly sketching an account of the value of privacy, transparency, and accountability, along with the salient features of a prisoner’s dilemma games, a game-theory analysis will be offered. In a (...)
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  11.  6
    Exploring Solutions to the Privacy Paradox in the Context of E-Assessment: Informed Consent Revisited.Ekaterina Muravyeva, José Janssen, Marcus Specht & Bart Custers - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):223-238.
    Personal data use is increasingly permeating our everyday life. Informed consent for personal data use is a central instrument for ensuring the protection of personal data. However, current informed consent practices often fail to actually inform data subjects about the use of personal data. This article presents the results of a requirements analysis for informed consent from both a legal and usability perspective, considering the application context of educational assessment. The requirements analysis is based on European Union law and a (...)
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  12.  18
    Virtual Competitions and the Gamer’s Dilemma.Karim Nader - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):239-245.
    This paper expands Rami Ali’s dissolution of the gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 17:267-274, 2015). Morgan Luck’s gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 11(1):31-36, 2009) rests on our having diverging intuition when considering virtual murder and virtual child molestation in video games. Virtual murder is seemingly permissible, when virtual child molestation is not and there is no obvious morally relevant difference between the two. Ali argues that virtual murder and virtual child molestation are equally permissible/impermissible when considered under different modes of (...)
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  13.  15
    Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Moral Equality of Combatants.Michael Skerker, Duncan Purves & Ryan Jenkins - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):197-209.
    To many, the idea of autonomous weapons systems killing human beings is grotesque. Yet critics have had difficulty explaining why it should make a significant moral difference if a human combatant is killed by an AWS as opposed to being killed by a human combatant. The purpose of this paper is to explore the roots of various deontological concerns with AWS and to consider whether these concerns are distinct from any concerns that also apply to long-distance, human-guided weaponry. We suggest (...)
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  14.  20
    Social Media, Interpersonal Relations and the Objective Attitude.Michael-John Turp - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):269-279.
    How do social media affect interpersonal relationships? Adopting a Strawsonian framework, I argue that social media make us more likely to adopt the objective attitude towards persons. Technologically mediated communication tends to inhibit interpersonal emotions and other reactive attitudes. This is due to a relative lack of the social cues that typically enable us to read minds and react to them. Adopting the objective attitude can be harmful for two reasons. First, it tends to undermine the basis of interpersonal relationships. (...)
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  15.  7
    Robots Responding to Care Needs? A Multitasking Care Robot Pursued for 25 Years, Available Products Offer Simple Entertainment and Instrumental Assistance.Lina Van Aerschot & Jaana Parviainen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):247-256.
    Twenty-five years ago, robotics guru Joseph Engelberger had a mission to motivate research teams all over the world to design the ‘Elderly Care Giver’, a multitasking personal robot assistant for everyday care needs in old age. In this article, we discuss how this vision of omnipotent care robots has influenced the design strategies of care robotics, the development of R&D initiatives and ethics research on use of care robots. Despite the expectations of robots revolutionizing care of older people, the role (...)
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  16.  8
    Edward Snowden: Permanent Record: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2019, Pp. 340, ISBN 978-1250237231.Patrick D. Anderson - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):129-132.
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  17.  6
    The Ethics of Smart City (EoSC): Moral Implications of Hyperconnectivity, Algorithmization and the Datafication of Urban Digital Society.Patrici Calvo - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):141-149.
    Cities, such as industry or the universities, are immersed in a process of digital transformation generated by the possibility and technological convergence of the Internet of Things, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence and its consequences: hyperconnectivity, datafication and algorithmization. A process of transformation towards what has come to be called as Smart Cities. The aim of this paper is to show the impacts and consequences of digital connectivity, algorithmization and the datafication of urban digital society to outline possible ways of (...)
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  18. Robot Betrayal: A Guide to the Ethics of Robotic Deception.John Danaher - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):117-128.
    If a robot sends a deceptive signal to a human user, is this always and everywhere an unethical act, or might it sometimes be ethically desirable? Building upon previous work in robot ethics, this article tries to clarify and refine our understanding of the ethics of robotic deception. It does so by making three arguments. First, it argues that we need to distinguish between three main forms of robotic deception (external state deception; superficial state deception; and hidden state deception) in (...)
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  19.  4
    Cybervetting Job Applicants on Social Media: The New Normal?Jenna Jacobson & Anatoliy Gruzd - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):175-195.
    With the introduction of new information communication technologies, employers are increasingly engaging in social media screening, also known as cybervetting, as part of their hiring process. Our research, using an online survey with 482 participants, investigates young people’s concerns with their publicly available social media data being used in the context of job hiring. Grounded in stakeholder theory, we analyze the relationship between young people’s concerns with social media screening and their gender, job seeking status, privacy concerns, and social media (...)
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  20.  21
    Meaningful Human Control as Reason-Responsiveness: The Case of Dual-Mode Vehicles.Giulio Mecacci & Filippo Santoni de Sio - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):103-115.
    In this paper, in line with the general framework of value-sensitive design, we aim to operationalize the general concept of “Meaningful Human Control” in order to pave the way for its translation into more specific design requirements. In particular, we focus on the operationalization of the first of the two conditions investigated: the so-called ‘tracking’ condition. Our investigation is led in relation to one specific subcase of automated system: dual-mode driving systems. First, we connect and compare meaningful human control with (...)
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  21.  34
    Introducing the Pervert’s Dilemma: A Contribution to the Critique of Deepfake Pornography.Carl Öhman - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):133-140.
    Recent technological innovation has made video doctoring increasingly accessible. This has given rise to Deepfake Pornography, an emerging phenomenon in which Deep Learning algorithms are used to superimpose a person’s face onto a pornographic video. Although to most people, Deepfake Pornography is intuitively unethical, it seems difficult to justify this intuition without simultaneously condemning other actions that we do not ordinarily find morally objectionable, such as sexual fantasies. In the present article, I refer to this contradiction as the pervert’s dilemma. (...)
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  22.  10
    Could Robots Strengthen the Sense of Autonomy of Older People Residing in Assisted Living Facilities?—A Future-Oriented Study.Jari Pirhonen, Helinä Melkas, Arto Laitinen & Satu Pekkarinen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):151-162.
    There is an urge to introduce high technology and robotics in care settings. Assisted living is the fastest growing form of older adults’ long-term care. Resident autonomy has become the watchword for good care. This article sheds light on the potential effects of care robotics on the sense of autonomy of older people in AL. Three aspects of the residents’ sense of autonomy are of particular interest: interaction-based sense of autonomy, coping-based sense of autonomy, and potential-based sense of autonomy. Ethnographical (...)
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  23.  41
    Internet Privacy, Technology, and Personal Information.Marjorie S. Price - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):163-173.
    Computer programs are used to obtain and store information about the online activities of users of the web. Many people are concerned about this practice because they believe that it can violate users' rights to privacy or result in violations of them. This belief is based on the assumption that the information obtained and stored with the use of the programs includes personal information. My main aim in this paper is to argue that this assumption is false. I discuss the (...)
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  24.  45
    Kevin Macnish: The Ethics of Surveillance: An Introduction: Routledge, London and New York, 2018, ISBN 978-1138643796, $45.95.Tony Doyle - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):39-42.
  25.  18
    The Interpersonal is Political: Unfriending to Promote Civic Discourse on Social Media.Alexis Elder - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):15-24.
    Despite the initial promise of social media platforms as a means of facilitating discourse on matters of civic discourse, in practice it has turned out to impair fruitful conversation on civic issues by a number of means. From self-isolation into echo chambers, to algorithmically supported filter bubbles, to widespread failure to engage politically owing to psychological phenomena like the ‘spiral of silence’, a variety of factors have been blamed. I argue that extant accounts overlook the importance of interpersonal relationships to (...)
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  26.  12
    Trust and Resilient Autonomous Driving Systems.Adam Henschke - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):81-92.
    Autonomous vehicles, and the larger socio-technical systems that they are a part of are likely to have a deep and lasting impact on our societies. Trust is a key value that will play a role in the development of autonomous driving systems. This paper suggests that trust of autonomous driving systems will impact the ways that these systems are taken up, the norms and laws that guide them and the design of the systems themselves. Further to this, in order to (...)
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  27. Presumptuous Aim Attribution, Conformity, and the Ethics of Artificial Social Cognition.Owen C. King - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):25-37.
    Imagine you are casually browsing an online bookstore, looking for an interesting novel. Suppose the store predicts you will want to buy a particular novel: the one most chosen by people of your same age, gender, location, and occupational status. The store recommends the book, it appeals to you, and so you choose it. Central to this scenario is an automated prediction of what you desire. This article raises moral concerns about such predictions. More generally, this article examines the ethics (...)
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  28.  40
    Splintering the Gamer’s Dilemma: Moral Intuitions, Motivational Assumptions, and Action Prototypes.Jens Kjeldgaard-Christiansen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):93-102.
    The gamer’s dilemma :31–36, 2009) asks whether any ethical features distinguish virtual pedophilia, which is generally considered impermissible, from virtual murder, which is generally considered permissible. If not, this equivalence seems to force one of two conclusions: either both virtual pedophilia and virtual murder are permissible, or both virtual pedophilia and virtual murder are impermissible. In this article, I attempt, first, to explain the psychological basis of the dilemma. I argue that the two different action types picked out by “virtual (...)
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  29. Measuring Morality in Videogames Research.Malcolm Ryan, Paul Formosa, Stephanie Howarth & Dan Staines - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):55-68.
    There has been a recent surge of research interest in videogames of moral engagement for entertainment, advocacy and education. We have seen a wealth of analysis and several theoretical models proposed, but experimental evaluation has been scarce. One of the difficulties lies in the measurement of moral engagement. How do we meaningfully measure whether players are engaging with and affected by the moral choices in the games they play? In this paper, we survey the various standard psychometric instruments from the (...)
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  30.  25
    Quarantining Online Hate Speech: Technical and Ethical Perspectives.Stefanie Ullmann & Marcus Tomalin - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):69-80.
    In this paper we explore quarantining as a more ethical method for delimiting the spread of Hate Speech via online social media platforms. Currently, companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Google generally respond reactively to such material: offensive messages that have already been posted are reviewed by human moderators if complaints from users are received. The offensive posts are only subsequently removed if the complaints are upheld; therefore, they still cause the recipients psychological harm. In addition, this approach has frequently been (...)
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  31.  8
    Drones in Humanitarian Contexts, Robot Ethics, and the Human–Robot Interaction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Tina Comes - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):43-53.
    There are two dominant trends in the humanitarian care of 2019: the ‘technologizing of care’ and the centrality of the humanitarian principles. The concern, however, is that these two trends may conflict with one another. Faced with the growing use of drones in the humanitarian space there is need for ethical reflection to understand if this technology undermines humanitarian care. In the humanitarian space, few agree over the value of drone deployment; one school of thought believes drones can provide a (...)
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  32.  47
    Autonomous Vehicles, Trolley Problems, and the Law.Stephen S. Wu - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):1-13.
    Autonomous vehicles have the potential to save tens of thousands of lives, but legal and social barriers may delay or even deter manufacturers from offering fully automated vehicles and thereby cost lives that otherwise could be saved. Moral philosophers use “thought experiments” to teach us about what ethics might say about the ethical behavior of AVs. If a manufacturer designing an AV decided to make what it believes is an ethical choice to save a large group of lives by steering (...)
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  33. Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Moral Equality of Combatants.Michael Skerker, Duncan Purves & Ryan Jenkins - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (6).
    To many, the idea of autonomous weapons systems (AWS) killing human beings is grotesque. Yet critics have had difficulty explaining why it should make a significant moral difference if a human combatant is killed by an AWS as opposed to being killed by a human combatant. The purpose of this paper is to explore the roots of various deontological concerns with AWS and to consider whether these concerns are distinct from any concerns that also apply to long- distance, human-guided weaponry. (...)
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  34.  44
    Three Contextual Dimensions of Information on Social Media: Lessons Learned From the COVID-19 Infodemic.Lavinia Marin - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied on social media by an explosion of information disorders such as inaccurate, misleading and irrelevant information. Countermeasures adopted thus far to curb these informational disorders have had limited success because these did not account for the diversity of informational contexts on social media, focusing instead almost exclusively on curating the factual content of user’s posts. However, content-focused measures do not address the primary causes of the infodemic itself, namely the user’s need to post content (...)
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  35.  23
    The Immorality of Computer Games: Defending the Endorsement View Against Young’s Objections.Sebastian Ostritsch & Samuel Ulbricht - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology:1-7.
    Garry Young has made three objections against Sebastian Ostritsch’s endorsement view on the immorality of computer games. In this paper, we want to defend the endorsement view against all three of them.
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