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  1.  9
    Theory Comparison and Choice in Chemistry, 1766–1791.Geoffrey Blumenthal & James Ladyman - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):169-189.
    This is the second of a pair of papers, of which the first showed how each of the main late phlogistic theories effectively reached impasses due to internal problems or included features which made them unacceptable even to other phlogistians. This paper deals with theory comparison and theory change. It gives an unprecedentedly detailed comparison between the available theories in 1790–1791, and shows that this was overwhelmingly in favour of the new chemistry. This time period correlates well with many chemists (...)
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  2. Let Us Build Better Boats: An Answer to Jeffrey Seeman’s “Moving Beyond Insularity in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Chemistry”.Sebastian Fortin, Olimpia Lombardi & Juan Camilo Martínez González - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):261-264.
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  3.  2
    On the Position of Helium and Neon in the Periodic Table of Elements.Wojciech Grochala - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):191-207.
    Helium and neon, the two lightest noble gases, have been traditionally positioned by IUPAC in the Group 18 of the Periodic Table of Elements, together with argon, and other unreactive or moderately reactive gaseous elements, and oganesson. In this account we revive the old discussion on the possible placement of helium in the Group 2, while preserving the position of neon in Group 18. We provide quantum-chemical arguments for such scenario—as well as other qualitative and quantitative arguments—and we describe previous (...)
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  4.  1
    “Climate Change” and the “Butterfly Effect” in an Eighteenth Century Monograph.KelleyAnne Malinen & Chérif F. Matta - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):265-268.
    Long before the phrases “climate change” and “butterfly effect” were incorporated into the mainstream literature, these phrases appeared in an appropriate context almost verbatim in the first Chapter of a book entitled “The Emigrant” published in the mid-nineteenth century by Sir Francis Bond Head. Head was Upper Canada’s sixth Lieutenant Governor under King George IV and Queen Victoria. Head claimed that forest wildfires were “changing the climate” of North America as manifested in a warming effect “on the thermometer”. In that (...)
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  5.  2
    On the ‘True Position’ of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table.Vladimir M. Petruševski & Julijana Cvetković - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):251-260.
    Several attempts have recently been made to point to ‘the proper place’ for hydrogen in the Periodic Table of the elements. There are altogether five different types of arguments that lead to the following conclusions: hydrogen should be placed in group 1, above lithium; hydrogen should be placed in group 17, above fluorine; hydrogen is to be placed in group 14, above carbon; hydrogen should be positioned above both lithium and fluorine and hydrogen should be treated as a stand-alone element, (...)
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  6.  8
    From “Multiple Simultaneous Independent Discoveries” to the Theory of “Multiple Simultaneous Independent Errors”: A Conduit in Science.Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):219-249.
    Multiple simultaneous independent discoveries, so well enunciated by Robert K. Merton in the early 1960s but already discussed for several hundreds of years, is a classic concept in the sociology of science. In this paper, the concept of multiple simultaneous independent errors is proposed, analyzed, and discussed. The concept of Selective Pessimistic Induction is proposed and used to connect MIDs with MIEs. Five types of MIEs are discussed: multiple errors in the interpretation of experimental data or computational results; multiple misjudgments (...)
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  7.  6
    The Atomic Number Revolution in Chemistry: A Kuhnian Analysis.K. Brad Wray - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):209-217.
    This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process of addressing anomalies, chemists who were trained to see elements as defined by their atomic weight discovered that their theoretical assumptions were impediments to understanding the chemical world. The only way to normalize the (...)
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  8.  7
    The Periodic Table: Revelation by Quest Rather Than by Revolution.Peter Hodder - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):99-110.
    The concept of major scientific advances occurring as a short-term ‘revolutionary’ change in thinking interspersed by long periods of so-called ‘normal’ science seems to be losing ground to more ecological models, which are more inimical of the twists and turns of life. From this idea it is a short step to charting science’s progress against stages used in fictional storytelling, which after all is life-based. This paper explores the development of the periodic table in terms of the achievement of a (...)
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  9.  3
    Early Industrial Roots of Green Chemistry and the History of the BHC Ibuprofen Process Invention and its Quality Connection.Mark A. Murphy - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):121-165.
    Conventional wisdom and many published histories of “Green Chemistry” describe its start as being a result of governmental and/or regulatory actions at the US Environmental Protection Agency during the early 1990’s. But there were many Real World industrial examples of environmentally friendly commercial processes in the oil and commodity chemicals industries for decades prior to the 1990s. Some early examples of commercial “Green Chemistry” are briefly described in this article. The Boots/Hoechst Celanese Ibuprofen process was one of the earliest multiple-award-winning (...)
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  10.  1
    Tetrahedral and Spherical Representations of the Periodic System.Philip J. Stewart - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):111-120.
    The s, p, d and f blocks of the elements, as delimited by Charles Janet in 1928, can be represented as parallel slices of a regular tetrahedron. They also fit neatly on to the surface of a sphere. The reasons for this are discussed and the possible objections examined. An attempt is made to see whether there are philosophical implications of this unexpected geometrical regularity. A new tetrahedral design in transparent plastic is presented.
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  11.  2
    The Orbital: A Pivotal Concept in the Relationship Between Chemistry and Physics? A Comment to the Work by Fortin and Coauthors.Giovanni Villani, Elena Ghibaudi & Luigi Cerruti - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):89-97.
    The present work is a comment of a recent paper by Fortin and coauthors in which the authors propose the introduction of Bohmian mechanics in the philosophy of chemistry and the use of standard quantum mechanics as a mere instrument of prediction. This way would allow overcoming the obstacles found in linking molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics. Starting from some remarks on the orbital concept, we highlight and discuss some general issues that need to be taken into account when two (...)
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  12.  2
    Chemistry as a Creative Science.Le Grande O. Dolino - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):3-13.
    How do we teach chemistry as a different science from physics? This paper looks into a fundamental distinguishing property of chemistry as a science. It is characterized in this paper that chemistry, unlike many other sciences that are largely descriptive, is primarily creative. In this sense, the various fields of chemistry may seek to create as an end goal, and not merely to create as a means to an end as commonly seen in allied sciences. This distinction is important as (...)
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  13.  3
    An Allegory on Molecular Periodicity.Ray Hefferlin - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):43-49.
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  14.  1
    Basic Principles of the Strategy Concerning the Elucidation of Configuration of Chiral Centers of Linear Isomeric Aldohexoses.Dumitru Petru Iga - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):31-41.
    Fischer’s approach for structure elucidation of linear aldohexoses is still the most widespread alternative in textbooks for carbohydrates. However, in post-Fischer era, a series of remarkable discoveries and inventions were made in different laboratories, and by their use a more comprehensive and coherent strategy for structure elucidation of linear isomeric aldohexoses can be elaborated. Fischer used the exceptional properties of d-mannose for the knowledge of configuration of C-2 and called it the key of the gate to stereochemistry. We bring the (...)
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  15.  2
    Erratum To: Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):29-30.
    The authors regret that there are errors in equation and subsequent discussion.
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  16.  1
    Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):15-27.
    The valencies of the lanthanides vary more than was once thought. In addition to valencies associated with a half-full shell, there are valencies associated with a quarter- and three-quarter-full shell. This can be explained on the basis of Slater’s theory of many-electron atoms. The same theory explains the variation in complexing constants in the trivalent state. Valency in metallic and organometallic compounds is also discussed.
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  17.  4
    Moving Beyond Insularity in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Chemistry.Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):75-86.
    This essay supports and encourages multiple disciplinary interactions for practitioners of the disciplines of chemistry, history of chemistry, philosophy of chemistry, and sociology of chemistry.
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  18.  9
    A Representation of the Periodic System Based on Atomic-Number Triads.Alfio Zambon - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):51-74.
    In the last decade, the notion of triad was reintroduced by Eric Scerri, who suggested it as a possible categorical criterion to represent chemical periodicity. In particular, he reformulated the notion of triad in terms of atomic number instead of atomic weights; in this way, the value of the intermediate term of the triad became the exact average of the values of the two extremes. Following the inspiration of Scerri’s work, the main purpose of this article is to obtain a (...)
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