Year:

  1. Complex-Valued Classical Behavior from the Correspondence Limit of Quantum Mechanics with Two Boundary Conditions.Yakir Aharonov & Tomer Shushi - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-7.
    The two-state-vector formalism presents a time-symmetric approach to the standard quantum mechanics, with particular importance in the description of experiments having pre- and post-selected ensembles. In this paper, using the correspondence limit of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the two-state-vector formalism, we produce harmonic oscillators that possess a classical behavior while having a complex-valued position and momentum. This allows us to discover novel effects that cannot be achieved otherwise. The proposed classical behavior does not describe the classical physics in the (...)
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  2.  1
    From EPR-Schrödinger Paradox to Nonlocality Based on Perfect Correlations.Jean Bricmont, Sheldon Goldstein & Douglas Hemmick - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-14.
    We give a conceptually simple proof of nonlocality using only the perfect correlations between results of measurements on distant systems discussed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen—correlations that EPR thought proved the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. Our argument relies on an extension of EPR by Schrödinger. We also briefly discuss nonlocality and “hidden variables” within Bohmian mechanics.
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  3.  1
    Status of the Wave Function of Quantum Mechanics, or, What is Quantum Mechanics Trying to Tell Us?D.-M. Cabaret, T. Grandou & E. Perrier - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-29.
    The most debated status of the wave function of Quantum Mechanics is discussed in the light of the epistemological vs ontological opposition.
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  4.  5
    Dark Energy Explained by a Bias in the Measurements.Vincent Deledicque - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-19.
    Typical cosmological models are based on the postulate that space is homogeneous. Space however contains overdense regions in which matter is concentrating, leaving underdense regions of almost void. The evolution of the scale factor of the universe has been established from measurements on SNIa. Since such events occur in regions were matter is present, we may expect that most of the SNIa are located in overdense regions. This means that the evolution of the scale factor has been established in a (...)
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  5. From Bohm’s Vision of Quantum Processes to Quantum Field Theory... to the Transactional Approach. Variations on the Theme. [REVIEW]Davide Fiscaletti - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-25.
    The vision of quantum physics developed by David Bohm, and especially the idea of the implicit order, can be considered the true epistemological foundation of quantum field theory and the idea of a quantum vacuum that underlies the observable forms of matter, energy and space-time. Assuming the non-locality as the crucial visiting card of quantum processes, it is thus possible to arrive directly to the transactional interpretation and to the idea of a non-local quantum vacuum in which the behaviour of (...)
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  6. The Bell Experiment and the Limitations of Actors.Inge S. Helland - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-22.
    The well known Bell experiment with two actors Alice and Bob is considered. First the simple deduction leading to the CHSH inequality under local realism is reviewed, and some arguments from the literature are recapitulated. Then I take up certain background themes before I enter a discussion of Alice’s analysis of the situation. An important point is that her mind is limited by the fact that her Hilbert space in this context is two-dimensional. General statements about a mind’s limitation during (...)
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  7. Epistemic Uncertainty from an Averaged Hamilton–Jacobi Formalism.M. J. Kazemi & S. Y. Rokni - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-7.
    In recent years, the non-relativistic quantum dynamics derived from three assumptions; probability current conservation, average energy conservation, and an epistemic momentum uncertainty. Here we show that, these assumptions can be derived from a natural extension of classical statistical mechanics.
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  8.  2
    Preparation in Bohmian Mechanics.Carlo Rovelli - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-6.
    According to Bohmian mechanics, we see the particle, not the pilot wave. But to make predictions we need to know the wave. How do we learn about the wave to make predictions, if we only see the particle? I show that the puzzle can be solved, but only thanks to decoherence.
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  9.  1
    Mechanical Model of Maxwell’s Equations and of Lorentz Transformations.Lachezar S. Simeonov - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-22.
    We present a mechanical model of a quasi-elastic body which reproduces Maxwell’s equations with charges and currents. Major criticism against mechanical models of electrodynamics is that any presence of charges in the known models appears to violate the continuity equation of the aether and it remains a mystery as to where the aether goes and whence it comes. We propose a solution to the mystery—in the present model the aether is always conserved. Interestingly it turns out that the charge velocity (...)
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  10.  1
    Reverse Physics: From Laws to Physical Assumptions.Christine A. Aidala & Gabriele Carcassi - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-10.
    To answer foundational questions in physics, physicists turn more and more to abstract advanced mathematics, even though its physical significance may not be immediately clear. What if we started to borrow ideas and approaches, with appropriate modifications, from the foundations of mathematics? In this paper we explore this route. In reverse mathematics one starts from theorems and finds the minimum set of axioms required for their derivation. In reverse physics we want to start from laws or more specific results, and (...)
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  11.  2
    On the Equivalence Between Rotation and Gravity: “Gravitational” and “Cosmological” Redshifts in the Laboratory.Christian Corda - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-17.
    The Mössbauer rotor effect recently gained a renewed interest due to the discovery and explanation of an additional effect of clock synchronization which has been missed for about 50 years, i.e. starting from a famous book of Pauli, till some recent experimental analyses. The theoretical explanation of such an additional effect is due to some recent papers in both the general relativistic and the special relativistic frameworks. In the first case the key point of the approach is the Einstein’s equivalence (...)
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  12.  1
    A Machian Reformulation of Quantum Mechanics.Kostas Glampedakis - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-13.
    The widely known but also somewhat esoteric Mach principle envisages a fully relational formulation of physical theories without any reference to a concept of ‘absolute space’. When applied to classical mechanics, under the guise of an extended symmetry group, this procedure is known to lead to an equation of motion with inertial-like forces that are sourced by the mass distribution of the system itself. In this paper we follow a similar procedure and reformulate the Schrödinger equation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (...)
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  13. Schrödinger’s Equation as a Consequence of the Central Limit Theorem Without Assuming Prior Physical Laws.P. M. Grinwald - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-22.
    The central limit theorem has been found to apply to random vectors in complex Hilbert space. This amounts to sufficient reason to study the complex–valued Gaussian, looking for relevance to quantum mechanics. Here we show that the Gaussian, with all terms fully complex, acting as a propagator, leads to Schrödinger’s non-relativistic equation including scalar and vector potentials, assuming only that the norm is conserved. No physical laws need to be postulated a priori. It thereby presents as a process of irregular (...)
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  14.  6
    Reconsidering the Relation Between “Matter Wave Interference” and “Wave–Particle Duality”.Lukas Mairhofer & Oliver Passon - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-15.
    Interference of more and more massive objects provides a spectacular confirmation of quantum theory. It is usually regarded as support for “wave–particle duality” and in an extension of this duality even as support for “complementarity”. We first give an outline of the historical development of these notions. Already here it becomes evident that they are hard to define rigorously, i.e. have mainly a heuristic function. Then we discuss recent interference experiments of large and complex molecules which seem to support this (...)
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  15.  4
    Can There be a Process Without Time? Processualism Within Timeless Physics.Emilia Margoni - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-19.
    Process ontology is making deep inroads into the hard sciences. For it offers a workable understanding of dynamic phenomena which sits well with inquiries that problematize the traditional conception of self-standing, definite, independent objects as the basic stuff of the universe. Process-based approaches are claimed by their advocates to yield better ontological descriptions of various domains of physical reality in which dynamical, indefinite activities are prior to definite “things” or “states of things”. However, if applied to physics, a main problem (...)
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  16. Emergence of the Fused Spacetime From a Continuum Computing Construct of Reality.Heather A. Muir - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-28.
    Since the emergence of computing as a mode of investigation in the sciences, computational approaches have revolutionised many fields of inquiry. Recently in philosophy, the question has begun rendering bit by bit—could computation be considered a deeper fundamental building block to all of reality? This paper proposes a continuum computing construct, predicated on a set of core computational principles: computability, discretisation, stability and optimisation. The construct is applied to the set of most fundamental physical laws, in the form of non-relativistic (...)
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  17.  2
    Trying an Alternative Ansatz to Quantum Physics.Arend Niehaus - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-19.
    We report to which extent elementary particles and the nucleons can be described by an Ansatz that is alternative to the established standard model, and can still yield predicted results that reproduce the observed ones, without using the formalism of quantum mechanics. The different Ansatz is motivated by the attempt to explain known properties of elementary particles as a consequence of an inner structure, in contrast to the approach of the standard model, where the properties are ascribed to point-like particles. (...)
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  18.  1
    Comment on the paper of A. K. Singal ‘Contribution of pressure to the energy-momentum density in a moving perfect fluid: A physical perspective.’. [REVIEW]Vladimir Onoochin - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-4.
    In this short Comment, it is shown why the fluid concept of A.K. Singal is not applicable to analysis of the electrodynamical systems.
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  19.  3
    Gravity Expands Space: An Analysis of the Effects of Gravity on Space.Stefano Re Fiorentin - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-11.
    This paper discusses the physical effect of gravity on space, a rather treacherous topic that has not gained much attention in the literature, unlike the effect of gravity on time which has been clearly established from the beginning as a consequence of the Equivalence Principle and also experimentally tested. The difficulties encountered in analysing the effect of gravity on space can be represented by the need to compare vectors associated with different spatial points in a curved manifold, where the parallel-transport (...)
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  20.  1
    The physicist inside the ambiguous room: an argument against the need of consciousness in the quantum mechanical measurement process.Carlo Roselli - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-12.
    The aim of this paper is to invalidate the hypothesis that human consciousness is necessary in the quantum measurement process. In order to achieve this target, I propose a considerable modification of the Schrödinger’s cat and the Dead-Alive Physicist thought experiments, called “PIAR”, short for “Physicist Inside the Ambiguous Room”. A specific strategy has enabled me to plan the experiment in such a way as to logically justify the inconsistency of the above hypothesis and to oblige its supporters to rely (...)
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  21.  2
    Universal Constants as Manifestations of Relativity.A. A. Sheykin - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-12.
    We study the possible interpretation of the "universal constants" by the classification of J.-M. Lévy-Leblond. The Planck constant and the speed of light in vacuum are the most common examples of constants of this type. Using Fock’s principle of the relativity w.r.t. observation means, we show that these two constants can be viewed as manifestations of certain relativity. We also show that there is a possibility to interpret the Boltzmann constant in a similar way, and make some comments about the (...)
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  22.  1
    The Time-Identity Tradeoff.Nadav M. Shnerb - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-13.
    Distinguishability plays a major role in quantum and statistical physics. When particles are identical their wave function must be either symmetric or antisymmetric under permutations and the number of microscopic states, which determines entropy, is counted up to permutations. When the particles are distinguishable, wavefunctions have no symmetry and each permutation is a different microstate. This binary and discontinuous classification raises a few questions: one may wonder what happens if particles are almost identical, or when the property that distinguishes between (...)
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  23.  1
    The Common Logic of Quantum Universe—Part II: The Case of Quantum Gravity.Massimo Tessarotto & Claudio Cremaschini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-37.
    The logical structure of quantum gravity is addressed in the framework of the so-called manifestly covariant approach. This permits to display its close analogy with the logics of quantum mechanics. More precisely, in QG the conventional 2-way principle of non-contradiction holding in Classical Mechanics is shown to be replaced by a 3-way principle. The third state of logical truth corresponds to quantum indeterminacy/undecidability, i.e., the occurrence of quantum observables with infinite standard deviation. The same principle coincides, incidentally, with the earlier (...)
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  24. Macroscopic Reality from Quantum Complexity.Don Weingarten - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-103.
    Beginning with the Everett–DeWitt many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, there have been a series of proposals for how the state vector of a quantum system might split at any instant into orthogonal branches, each of which exhibits approximately classical behavior. Here we propose a decomposition of a state vector into branches by finding the minimum of a measure of the mean squared quantum complexity of the branches in the branch decomposition. In a non-relativistic formulation of this proposal, branching occurs repeatedly (...)
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  25. Entanglement, Complexity, and Causal Asymmetry in Quantum Theories.Porter Williams - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-38.
    It is often claimed that one cannot locate a notion of causation in fundamental physical theories. The reason most commonly given is that the dynamics of those theories do not support any distinction between the past and the future, and this vitiates any attempt to locate a notion of causal asymmetry—and thus of causation—in fundamental physical theories. I argue that this is incorrect: the ubiquitous generation of entanglement between quantum systems grounds a relevant asymmetry in the dynamical evolution of quantum (...)
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  26. The Equiareal Archimedean Synchronization Method of the Quantum Symplectic Phase Space: II. Circle-Valued Moment Map, Integrality, and Symplectic Abelian Shadows.Elias Zafiris - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-32.
    The quantum transition probability assignment is an equiareal transformation from the annulus of symplectic spinorial amplitudes to the disk of complex state vectors, which makes it equivalent to the equiareal projection of Archimedes. The latter corresponds to a symplectic synchronization method, which applies to the quantum phase space in view of Weyl’s quantization approach involving an Abelian group of unitary ray rotations. We show that Archimedes’ method of synchronization, in terms of a measure-preserving transformation to an equiareal disk, imposes the (...)
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  27. Particulate Exotica.Fan Zhang - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-22.
    Recent advances in differential topology single out four-dimensions as being special, allowing for vast varieties of exotic smoothness structures, distinguished by their handlebody decompositions, even as the coarser algebraic topology is fixed. Should the spacetime we reside in takes up one of the more exotic choices, and there is no obvious reason why it shouldn’t, apparent pathologies would inevitably plague calculus-based physical theories assuming the standard vanilla structure, due to the non-existence of a diffeomorphism and the consequent lack of a (...)
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  28.  2
    The Fate of Tensor-Vector-Scalar Modified Gravity.Shannon Sylvie Abelson - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-19.
    The 2017 codetection of electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves was the first of its kind and marked the beginning of multimessenger astronomy. But this event has been treated within recent literature as something of an end as well. The 2017 detection is often regarded as an instance of falsification for all theories of modified gravity which postulate gravitational waves propagate along separate geodesics from electromagnetic radiation, perhaps most notably Jacob Bekenstein’s Tensor-Vector-Scalar gravity. I critically examine this explicit endorsement of falsification (...)
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  29.  21
    Laws of Nature as Constraints.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-41.
    The laws of nature have come a long way since the time of Newton: quantum mechanics and relativity have given us good reasons to take seriously the possibility of laws which may be non-local, atemporal, ‘all-at-once,’ retrocausal, or in some other way not well-suited to the standard dynamical time evolution paradigm. Laws of this kind can be accommodated within a Humean approach to lawhood, but many extant non-Humean approaches face significant challenges when we try to apply them to laws outside (...)
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  30.  1
    On the Equivalence of Causal Propagators of the Dirac Equation in Vacuum-Destabilising External Fields.Jonathan J. Beesley - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-30.
    In QED, an external electromagnetic field can be accounted for non-perturbatively by replacing the causal propagators used in Feynman diagram calculations with Green’s functions for the Dirac equation under the external field. If the external field destabilises the vacuum, then it is a difficult problem to determine which Green’s function is appropriate, and multiple approaches have been developed in the literature whose equivalence, in many cases, is not clear. In this paper, we demonstrate for a broad class of external fields (...)
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  31.  11
    (Re)Interpreting ????=????????².Federico Benitez, Diego Romero-Maltrana & Pablo Razeto-Barry - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-19.
    We propose a new interpretation of the equation ????=????????² in special relativity by generalizing ideas of ontological emergence to fundamental physics. This allows us to propose that mass, as a property, can be considered to emerge from energy, using a well-known definition of weak ontological emergence. Einstein’s famous equation gains in this way a clearer philosophical interpretation, one that avoids the problems of previous attempts, and is fully consistent with the kinematic properties of special relativity, while yielding fresh insights concerning (...)
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  32.  4
    Jácome (Jay) Armas (Ed.): Review of “Conversations on Quantum Gravity”: Cambridge University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Alexander S. Blum - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-4.
  33.  2
    The Heisenberg Limit at Cosmological Scales.Salvatore Capozziello, Micol Benetti & Alessandro D. A. M. Spallicci - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-9.
    For an observation time equal to the universe age, the Heisenberg principle fixes the value of the smallest measurable mass at mH=1.35×10-69\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$m_\mathrm{H}=1.35 \times 10^{-69}$$\end{document} kg and prevents to probe the masslessness for any particle using a balance. The corresponding reduced Compton length to mH\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$m_\mathrm{H}$$\end{document} is, and represents the length limit beyond which masslessness cannot be proved using a metre ruler. In turns, is (...)
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  34.  1
    Correction to: A Numbers‑Based Approach to a Free Particle’s Proper Spacetime.R. Ferber - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-2.
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  35.  4
    Is Retrocausal Quantum Mechanics Consistent with Special Relativity?Shan Gao - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-4.
    Retrocausal quantum mechanics provides a local causal explanation of Bell correlations. It is widely thought that RQM is consistent with special relativity. In this paper, I point out that this view is not wholly right. It is argued that RQM violates the Lorentz invariance of the temporal relation between cause and effect for certain spacelike separated events in Bell-type experiments.
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  36.  3
    A Realistic Theory of Quantum Measurement.Alan K. Harrison - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-32.
    We propose that the ontic understanding of quantum mechanics can be extended to a fully realistic theory that describes the evolution of the wavefunction at all times, including during a measurement. In such an approach the wave equation should reduce to the standard wave equation when there is no measurement, and describe state reduction when the system is measured. The general wave equation must be nonlinear and nonlocal, and we require it to be time-symmetric; consequently, this approach is not a (...)
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  37.  1
    Anomalous Weak Values Are Caused by Disturbance.Asger C. Ipsen - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-18.
    In combination with post-selection, weak measurements can lead to surprising results known as anomalous weak values. These lie outside the bounds of the spectrum of the relevant observable, as in the canonical example of measuring the spin of an electron to be 100. We argue that the disturbance caused by the weak measurement, while small, is sufficient to significantly affect the measurement result, and that this is the most reasonable explanation of anomalous weak values.
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  38.  3
    Isolated Objects and Their Evolution: A Derivation of the Propagator’s Path Integral for Spinless Elementary Particles.Domenico Napoletani & Daniele C. Struppa - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-38.
    We formalize the notion of isolated objects, and we build a consistent theory to describe their evolution and interaction. We further introduce a notion of indistinguishability of distinct spacetime paths of a unit, for which the evolution of the state variables of the unit is the same, and a generalization of the equivalence principle based on indistinguishability. Under a time reversal condition on the whole set of indistinguishable paths of a unit, we show that the quantization of motion of spinless (...)
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  39. No Events on Closed Causal Curves.Claudio F. Paganini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-16.
    We introduce the Causal Compatibility Conjecture for the Events, Trees, Histories approach to Quantum Theory in the semi-classical setting. We then prove that under the assumptions of the conjecture, points on closed causal curves are physically indistinguishable in the context of the ETH approach to QT and thus the conjecture implies a compatibility of the causal structures even in presence of closed causal curves. As a consequence of this result there is no observation that could be made by an observer (...)
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  40.  2
    A Non-relativistic Approach to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: The Case of the Harmonic Oscillator.Luis A. Poveda, Luis Grave de Peralta, Jacob Pittman & Bill Poirier - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-20.
    A recently proposed approach to relativistic quantum mechanics is applied to the problem of a particle in a quadratic potential. The methods, both exact and approximate, allow one to obtain eigenstate energy levels and wavefunctions, using conventional numerical eigensolvers applied to Schrödinger-like equations. Results are obtained over a nine-order-of-magnitude variation of system parameters, ranging from the non-relativistic to the ultrarelativistic limits. Various trends are analyzed and discussed—some of which might have been easily predicted, others which may be a bit more (...)
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  41.  2
    Quaternion Algebra on 4D Superfluid Quantum Space-Time. Dirac’s Ghost Fermion Fields.Valeriy I. Sbitnev - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-21.
    Ghost Dirac’s fermions are a manifestation of virtual particles. One fermion is the particle whose companion is the antiparticle. An ensemble of these fermions coupled in pairs represents the Bose-Einstein condensate. This condensate forms the superfluid ether. Due to the Meissner effect inherent in a superfluid medium, the paired fermions are inaccessible for instrument observation. For that reason, the ghost particles can pose the dark matter that, together with the dark energy, can be the fundamental basis of physical reality. In (...)
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  42.  1
    The Common Logic of Quantum Universe—Part I: The Case of Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics.Massimo Tessarotto & Claudio Cremaschini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-38.
    One of the most challenging and fascinating issue in mathematical and theoretical physics concerns the possibility of identifying the logic underlying the so-called quantum universe, i.e., Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Gravity. Besides the sheer difficulty of the problem, inherent in the actual formulation of Quantum Mechanics—and especially of Quantum Gravity—to be used for such a task, a crucial aspect lies in the identification of the appropriate axiomatic logical proposition calculus to be associated to such theories. In this paper the issue (...)
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  43. A Quantum Informational Approach to the Problem of Time.Salman Sajad Wani, James Q. Quach, Mir Faizal, Sebastian Bahamonde & Behnam Pourhassan - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-8.
    Several novel approaches have been proposed to resolve the problem of time by relating it to change. We argue using quantum information theory that the Hamiltonian constraint in quantum gravity cannot probe change, so it cannot be used to obtain a meaningful notion of time. This is due to the absence of quantum Fisher information with respect to the quantum Hamiltonian of a time-reparametization invariant system. We also observe that the inability of this Hamiltonian to probe change can be related (...)
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