Foundations of Science

ISSNs: 1233-1821, 1572-8471

27 found

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  1. The ontology of creation: towards a philosophical account of the creation of World in innovation processes.Vincent Blok - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):503-520.
    The starting point of this article is the observation that the emergence of the Anthropocene rehabilitates the need for philosophical reflections on the ontology of technology. In particular, if technological innovations on an ontic level of beings in the world are created, but these innovations at the same time _create_ the Anthropocene World at an ontological level, this raises the question how World creation has to be understood. We first identify four problems with the traditional concept of creation: the anthropocentric, (...)
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  2.  15
    An Approach to Building Quantum Field Theory Based on Non-Diophantine Arithmetics.Mark Burgin & Felix Lev - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):325-350.
    The problem of infinities in quantum field theory (QFT) is a longstanding problem in particle physics. To solve this problem, different renormalization techniques have been suggested but the problem persists. Here we suggest another approach to the elimination of infinities in QFT, which is based on non-Diophantine arithmetics – a novel mathematical area that already found useful applications in physics, psychology, and other areas. To achieve this goal, new non-Diophantine arithmetics are constructed and their properties are studied. In addition, non-Diophantine (...)
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  3.  17
    Imitating Quantum Probabilities: Beyond Bell’s Theorem and Tsirelson Bounds.Marek Czachor & Kamil Nalikowski - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):281-305.
    Local hidden-variable model of singlet-state correlations discussed in Czachor (Acta Phys Polon A 139:70, 2021a) is shown to be a particular case of an infinite hierarchy of local hidden-variable models based on an infinite hierarchy of calculi. Violation of Bell-type inequalities can be interpreted as a ‘confusion of languages’ problem, a result of mixing different but neighboring levels of the hierarchy. Mixing of non-neighboring levels results in violations beyond the Tsirelson bounds.
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  4.  21
    Constraining Meanings With Contextuality.J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Leonardo P. G. De Assis, Paul Skokowsi & John Perry - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):521-541.
    In this paper, we defend two claims. First, we argue that a notion of contextuality that has been formalized in physics and psychology is applicable to linguistic contexts. Second, we propose that this formal apparatus is philosophically significant for the epistemology of language because it imposes homogeneous rational constraints on speakers. We propose a Contextuality Principle that explains and articulates these two claims. This principle states that speakers update contextual information by significantly reducing the space of probabilities and variables in (...)
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  5.  72
    Thought Experiments and The Pragmatic Nature of Explanation.Panagiotis Karadimas - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):257-280.
    Different why-questions emerge under different contexts and require different information in order to be addressed. Hence a relevance relation can hardly be invariant across contexts. However, what is indeed common under any possible context is that all explananda require scientific information in order to be explained. So no scientific information is in principle explanatorily irrelevant, it only becomes so under certain contexts. In view of this, scientific thought experiments can offer explanations, should we analyze their representational strategies. Their representations involve (...)
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  6.  21
    Resolving the Singularity by Looking at the Dot and Demonstrating the Undecidability of the Continuum Hypothesis.Abhishek Majhi - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):405-440.
    Einsteinian gravity, of which Newtonian gravity is a part, is fraught with the problem of singularity that has been established as a theorem by Hawking and Penrose. The _hypothesis_ that founds the basis of both Einsteinian and Newtonian theories of gravity is that bodies with unequal magnitudes of masses fall with the same acceleration under the gravity of a source object. Since, the Einstein’s equations is one of the assumptions that underlies the proof of the singularity theorem, therefore, the above (...)
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  7.  11
    Chance and Necessity: Hegel’s Epistemological Vision.J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech & H. Gash - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):351-375.
    In this paper the authors provide an epistemological view on the old controversial random-necessity. It has been considered that either one or the other form part of the structure of reality. Chance and indeterminism are nothing but a disorderly efficiency of contingency in the production of events, phenomena, processes, i.e., in its causality, in the broadest sense of the word. Such production may be observed in natural and artificial processes or in human social processes (in history, economics, society, politics, etc.). (...)
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  8.  8
    The Biological Production of Spacetime: A Sketch of the E-series Universe.Naoki Nomura - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):553-570.
    Space and time, which should properly be taken conjointly, are both communicatively produced and created with certain contextual perspectives—they are not independent physical entities. The standpoint of production makes the relationship between space and time comprehensible. They can either be mental-subjective, physical-objective, or social-intersubjective. Social and intersubjective (or E-series) spacetime might shed new light on biological thinking. For general readers, this paper provides a clue regarding an alternative conceptualization of spacetime based on biology.
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  9.  5
    Bell-Type Inequalities from the Perspective of Non-Newtonian Calculus.Michał Piotr Piłat - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):441-457.
    A class of quantum probabilities is reformulated in terms of non-Newtonian calculus and projective arithmetic. The model generalizes spin-1/2 singlet state probabilities discussed in Czachor (Acta Physica Polonica:139 70–83, 2021) to arbitrary spins _s_. For \(s\rightarrow \infty\) the formalism reduces to ordinary arithmetic and calculus. Accordingly, the limit “non-Newtonian to Newtonian” becomes analogous to the classical limit of a quantum theory.
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  10.  40
    Imaginative Resistance in Science.Valentina Savojardo - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):459-477.
    The paper addresses the problem of imaginative resistance in science, that is, why and under what circumstances imagination sometimes resists certain scenarios. In the first part, the paper presents and discusses two accounts concerning the problem and relevant for the main thesis of this study. The first position is that of Gendler (Journal of Philosophy 97:55–81, 2000), (Gendler, in: Nichols (ed) The Architecture of the Imagination: New essays on pretence, possibility and fiction, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006a), (Gendler & (...)
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  11. Science, dualities and the phenomenological map.H. G. Solari & Mario Natiello - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):377-404.
    We present an epistemological schema of natural sciences inspired by Peirce's pragmaticist view, stressing the role of the \emph{phenomenological map}, that connects reality and our ideas about it. The schema has a recognisable mathematical/logical structure which allows to explore some of its consequences. We show that seemingly independent principles as the requirement of reproducibility of experiments and the Principle of Sufficient Reason are both implied by the schema, as well as Popper's concept of falsifiability. We show that the schema has (...)
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  12.  41
    Martin Heidegger’s ‘Dasein’ in an Emerging Digital Ecology.Ben van Lier - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):479-502.
    We are currently in the middle of the transformation from Martin Heidegger’s modern society to a society based on digital technology. In the developing digital society, humans in their current state of ‘Being’ are increasingly surrounded by systems that are networked and run based on algorithms, software, and data. These interconnected systems function, communicate, and interact in networks and driven by these algorithms, software, and data, which give them the ability to connect, calculate, and reveal. Jointly, these systems thus create (...)
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  13.  31
    On Leszek Nowak’s Conception of the Unity of Science.Mateusz Wajzer - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (2):307-324.
    The purpose of this essay is to present and analyse the basic assumptions of Leszek Nowak’s conception of the unity of science. According to Nowak, the unity of science is manifested in the common application of the method of idealisation in scientific research. In accordance with his conception, regardless of the discipline they represent, researchers go through the same stages in building a theory. Two key ones among them are: introducing idealising assumptions into the representation and then their concretisation. In (...)
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  14.  13
    Fighting with Rotating Blades, Boomerangs, and Crushing Punches: A History of Mecha from a Robotics Point of View.N. Ambrosetti - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):59-85.
    This work is the extended version of a paper presented at the conference HMM2021, about the history of mechanical engineering. First, the initial cultural and industrial steps in the robotic field in Japan are introduced, to display the beginning of this interlaced path, before WW2; then, in the context of the aftermaths of the war, some famous anime heroes are presented as ancestors of the coming mecha anime series. The rising research in the field of robotics and more generally the (...)
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  15.  14
    Introduction to the Special Issue: Findings of History of Mechanism Science.Marco Ceccarelli & Rafael López-García - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):1-4.
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  16.  18
    Mechanical Wits Used in the America Colonization: Engineering Assessment.R. Dorado-Vicente, R. López-García, J. M. Quero-Nieves & G. Medina-Sánchez - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):41-58.
    The first European settlements in the new world faced technical issues with the help of the XVI century scientific advances. Besides briefly exposing the scientific and technological situation, this paper explores, with the help of reverse engineering, two singular mechanical wits representative of the technological advances introduced in America to overcome different problems. Firstly, a pump, based on an alternative movement system through crankshafts and pistons used against the continuous flooding suffered in the Ciudad de México valley. Although flooding remained (...)
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  17.  14
    Comparative Analysis of Water Extraction Mechanism in Roman Mines.J. C. Fortes-Garrido, A. M. Rodríguez-Pérez, J. A. Hernández-Torres, J. J. Caparrós-Mancera, J. M. Dávila-Martín & J. Castilla-Gutiérrez - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):185-203.
    The removal of water from mines was one of the key issues that former miners had to deal with. Roman colonists brought new technology to the Iberian Peninsula that addressed this problem. However, they did not invent this technology because it had already been applied to the growth of other endeavours in the Hellenistic society throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. In the mine, the Archimedes screw, waterwheels, bucket pulleys, and Ctesibius pumps were the primary drainage systems. In this essay, the primary (...)
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  18.  23
    Between Mechanics and Harmony: The Drawing of Lissajous Curves.Arturo Gallozzi & Rodolfo Maria Strollo - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):205-224.
    The contribution describes some aspects related to the representation of special curves; recalling mechanisms created specifically for the design of these curves, which have particular characteristics. Through the construction of a simple apparatus, consisting of two pendulums—which oscillate at the same time- it is possible to graphically reproduce Lissajous’ experiments on the commuting vibrations of the diapasons. This equipment was first built by Samuel Charles Tisley (London 1829-Unknown), under the name of harmonographer. The contribution aslo illustrates the essential characteristics of (...)
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  19.  13
    Analysis of a Stamp Mill of Mexico’s Antique Mines.Juan Carlos Jauregui-Correa - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):5-17.
    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a previous work that described the dynamic behavior of an antique stamp mill. The stamp mill application was for breaking ore stones as part of silver production. The dynamic analysis was established from a modern description of the kinematic chain. Since there is no technical data or archeological reports, the model was reconstructed using the dimensions described in original documents and assuming the operation conditions from different technical references. The model was validated using (...)
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  20.  14
    Historical Approach and Scale Reconstruction of Two Medieval Mechanisms from “The Book of Secrets”.G. Medina-Sánchez, J. Moreno-Buesa, R. Dorado-Vicente & R. López-García - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):105-124.
    Abstract“The Book of Secrets in the Results of Ideas”, usually called “The Book of Secrets” is a codex containing drawings and descriptions of thirty-one artifacts attributed to the engineer Alī Ibn Khalaf al-Murādī, who lived in Andalusia in southern Spain at the beginning of the 11th century. This manuscript is one of the first written testimonies that describe medieval mechanisms with complex precision. The aim of this work is to reconstruct and study from a historical and technological point of view (...)
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  21.  4
    Nomograms in the History and Education of Machine Mechanics.Giovanni Mottola & Marco Cocconcelli - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):125-155.
    Computing formulae and solving equations are essential elements of scientific analysis. While today digital tools are almost always applied, analog computing is a rich part of the larger history of science and technology. Graphical methods are an integral element of computing history and still find some use today. This paper presents the history of nomograms, a historically-relevant tool for solving mathematical problems in various branches of science and engineering; in particular, we consider their role in mechanical engineering, especially for education, (...)
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  22.  8
    Mechanical and Structural Artefacts Used in “The Mystery of Elche”.A. Navarro-Arcas, S. M. Marco Lozano & Emilio Velasco-Sánchez - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):157-183.
    In the city of Elche, every year, on the 14th and 15th of August, a sacred musical play about the death, the Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin Mary is held. This event, known as the “Misterio de Elche”, is unique in the world. Since the middle of the 15th century it has been performed in the Basilica of Santa Maria and in the streets of the ancient city of Elche, located in the Valencian Community. In this work, classified (...)
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  23.  9
    Analysis of the First Treatise on Machine Elements: Codex Madrid I.H. Rubio, A. Bustos, C. Castejon & J. Meneses - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):19-40.
    In this article, the manuscript of Codex Madrid I, Leonardo da Vinci's workshop drawings collection, is reviewed and the main mechanisms that appear in the aforesaid codex are analysed. It begins with a short reference to Leonardo da Vinci works and, subsequently, Leonardo's manuscripts and Codex Madrid I, in particular, are placed in their historical context. After analysing the historical scope of Codex Madrid I, a compilation of the 100 main drawings of the manuscript is made, composing nine Mechanisms Drawings (...)
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  24.  18
    The Early History of the Pulleys and Crane Systems.Irem Aslan Seyhan - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):87-103.
    Pulleys and cranes are used for hoisting loads with or without providing a significant gain in force. Both of these devices have provided convenience to humans since ancient times. Pulleys are considered to be one of the five mechanical powers of the ancient world. Their history is very much linked with the early history of cranes. The cranes originated from the pulley systems. In this paper, the early history of the application of these well-preserved ancient mechanical instruments is examined together. (...)
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  25.  10
    Historical Background and Evolution of Belt Conveyors.Nenad Zrnić, Miloš Đorđević & Vlada Gašić - 2024 - Foundations of Science 29 (1):225-255.
    The evolution of belt conveyors, as an important type of continuous conveying machinery, is examined here in a historical perspective. For this purpose, the selected period is from the ancient time, i.e. occurrence of conveying equipment, and up to the end of the nineteenth century. The basic postulation of a modern machine, including conveyors, is often interlinked to that of its ancestor, which may be simple and primitive. Ancient machines and principles of their work were the basis for later improvements (...)
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  26. Is a Cognitive Revolution in Theoretical Biology Underway?Tiago Rama - 2024 - Foundations of Science 1:1-22.
    The foundations of biology have been a topic of debate for the past few decades. The traditional perspective of the Modern Synthesis, which portrays organisms as passive entities with limited role in evolutionary theory, is giving way to a new paradigm where organisms are recognized as active agents, actively shaping their own phenotypic traits for adaptive purposes. Within this context, this article raises the question of whether contemporary biological theory is undergoing a cognitive revolution. This inquiry can be approached in (...)
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  27.  15
    An Informational Approach to Emergence.Claudio Gnoli - 2024 - Foundations of Science (2).
    Emergence can be described as a relationship between entities at different levels of organization, that looks especially puzzling at the transitions between the major levels of matter, life, cognition and culture. Indeed, each major level is dependent on the lower one not just for its constituents, but in some more formal way. A passage by François Jacob suggests that all such evolutionary transitions are associated with the appearance of some form of memory–genetic, neural or linguistic respectively. This implies that they (...)
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