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  1.  3
    Embryo Experimentation: Is There a Case for Moving Beyond the ‘14-Day Rule’.Grant Castelyn - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):181-196.
    Recent scientific advances have indicated that it may be technically feasible to sustain human embryos in vitro beyond 14 days. Research beyond this stage is currently restricted by a guideline known as the 14-day rule. Since the advances in embryo culturing there have been calls to extend the current limit. Much of the current debate concerning an extension has regarded the 14-day rule as a political compromise and has, therefore, focused on policy concerns rather than assessing the philosophical foundations of (...)
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  2.  11
    Emerging Moral Status Issues. [REVIEW]Christopher Gyngell & Julian J. Koplin - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):95-104.
    Many controversies in bioethics turn on questions of moral status. Some moral status issues have received extensive bioethical attention, including those raised by abortion, embryo experimentation, and animal research. Beyond these established debates lie a less familiar set of moral status issues, many of which are tied to recent scientific breakthroughs. This review article surveys some key developments that raise moral status issues, including the development of in vitro brains, part-human animals, “synthetic” embryos, and artificial womb technologies. It introduces the (...)
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  3.  3
    Pregnant People, Inseminators and Tissues of Human Origin: How Ectogenesis Challenges the Concept of Abortion.Evie Kendal - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):197-204.
    The potential benefits of an alternative to physical gestation are numerous. These include providing reproductive options for prospective parents who are unable to establish or maintain a physiological pregnancy, and saving the lives of some infants born prematurely. Ectogenesis could also promote sexual equality in reproduction, and represents a necessary option for women experiencing an unwanted pregnancy who are morally opposed to abortion. Despite these broad, and in some cases unique benefits, one major ethical concern is the potential impact of (...)
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  4.  2
    ‘It’s Not Worse Than Eating Them’: The Limits of Analogy in Bioethics.Julian J. Koplin - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):129-145.
    Bioethicists often defend novel practices by drawing analogies with practices that we are already familiar with and currently tolerate. If some novel practice is less bad than some widely-accepted practice, then we cannot rightly reject it. Using the bioethics literature on xenotransplantation and interspecies blastocyst complementation as a case study, I show how this style of argument can go awry. The key problem is that our moral intuitions about familiar practices can be distorted by their seeming normality. When considering the (...)
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  5.  2
    Human Cerebral Organoids and Consciousness: A Double-Edged Sword.Andrea Lavazza - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):105-128.
    Human cerebral organoids are three-dimensional in vitro cell cultures that mimic the developmental process and organization of the developing human brain. In just a few years this technique has produced brain models that are already being used to study diseases of the nervous system and to test treatments and drugs. Currently, HCOs consist of tens of millions of cells and have a size of a few millimeters. The greatest limitation to further development is due to their lack of vascularization. However, (...)
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  6.  6
    Bioethical Implications of End-of-Life Decision-Making in Patients with Dementia: A Tale of Two Societies.Peter P. De Deyn, Arnoldo S. Kraus-Weisman, Latife Salame-Khouri & Jaime D. Mondragón - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):49-67.
    End-of-life decision-making in patients with dementia is a complex topic. Belgium and the Netherlands have been at the forefront of legislative advancement and progressive societal changes concerning the perspectives toward physician-assisted death. Careful consideration of clinical and social aspects is essential during the end-of-life decision-making process in patients with dementia. Geriatric assent provides the physician, the patient and his family the opportunity to end life with dignity. Unbearable suffering, decisional competence, and awareness of memory deficits are among the clinical considerations (...)
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  7.  2
    DBS: A Compelling Example for Ethical and Legal Reflection—a French Perspective on Ethical and Legal Concerns About DBS.Sonia Desmoulin-Canselier - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):15-34.
    Deep brain stimulation is an approved treatment for neurological diseases and a promising one for psychiatric conditions, which may produce spectacular results very quickly. It is also a powerful tool for brain research and exploration. Beyond an overview of the ethical and legal literature on this topic, this paper aims at showing that DBS is a compelling example for ethical-legal reflection, as it combines a highly technical surgical procedure, a complex active medical device and neuromodulation of the human brain to (...)
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  8.  2
    Infection Control for Third-Party Benefit: Lessons From Criminal Justice.Thomas Douglas - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):17-31.
    This article considers what can be learned regarding the ethical acceptability of intrusive interventions intended to halt the spread of infectious disease from existing ethical discussion of intrusive interventions used to prevent criminal conduct. The main body of the article identifies and briefly describes six objections that have been advanced against Crime Control, and considers how these might apply to Infection Control. The final section then draws out some more general lessons from the foregoing analysis for the ethical acceptability of (...)
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  9.  6
    Minds, Brains, and Hearts: An Empirical Study on Pluralism Concerning Death Determination.Vilius Dranseika & Ivars Neiders - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):35-48.
    Several authors in bioethics literature have expressed the view that a whole brain conception of death is philosophically indefensible. If they are right, what are the alternatives? Some authors have suggested that we should go back to the old cardiopulmonary criterion of death and abandon the so-called Dead Donor Rule. Others argue for a pluralist solution. For example, Robert Veatch has defended a view that competent persons should be free to decide which criterion of death should be used to determine (...)
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  10.  3
    Rethinking Health Care Ethics: A Response to Professor Reis-Dennis.Kasia Kozlowska & Stephen Scher - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):87-90.
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  11.  43
    Resolved and Unresolved Bioethical Authenticity Problems.Jesper Ahlin Marceta - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):1-14.
    Respect for autonomy is a central moral principle in bioethics. It is sometimes argued that authenticity, i.e., being “real,” “genuine,” “true to oneself,” or similar, is crucial to a person’s autonomy. Patients sometimes make what appears to be inauthentic decisions, such as when anorexia nervosa patients refuse treatment to avoid gaining weight, despite that the risk of harm is very high. If such decisions are inauthentic, and therefore non-autonomous, it may be the case they should be overridden for paternalist reasons. (...)
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  12.  4
    Vulnerability in Human Research.Ian J. Pieper & Colin J. H. Thomson - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):68-82.
    The conduct of prior ethics review of human research projects helps to protect vulnerable groups or populations from potential negative impacts of research. Contemporary considerations in human research considers the concept of vulnerability in terms of access to research opportunities, impacts on the consenting process, selection bias, and the generalisability of results. Recent work questions the validity of using enumerated lists as a check box approach to protect research participants from exploitation. Through the use of broad categories to treat cohorts (...)
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  13.  3
    Review of Rethinking Health Care Ethics by Stephen Scher and Kasia Kozlowska: Palgrave Macmillan, Available Open Access: Https://Link.Springer.Com/Content/Pdf/10.1007/978-981-13-0830-7.Pdf. [REVIEW]Samuel Reis-Dennis - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):83-86.
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  14.  3
    Review of Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing by Françoise Baylis. [REVIEW]Bob Z. Sun - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):91-93.
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  15.  2
    Screening for Multi-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria: What is Effective and Justifiable?Christina Åhrén, Anna Lindblom, Christian Munthe & Niels Nijsingh - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):72-90.
    Effectiveness is a key criterion in assessing the justification of antibiotic resistance interventions. Depending on an intervention’s effectiveness, burdens and costs will be more or less justified, which is especially important for large scale population-level interventions with high running costs and pronounced risks to individuals in terms of wellbeing, integrity and autonomy. In this paper, we assess the case of routine hospital screening for multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from this perspective. Utilizing a comparison to screening programs for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus we (...)
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  16.  1
    A General Approach to Compensation for Losses Incurred Due to Public Health Interventions in the Infectious Disease Context.Søren Holm - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):32-46.
    This paper develops a general approach to how society should compensate for losses that individuals incur due to public health interventions aimed at controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The paper falls in three parts. The first part provides an initial introduction to the issues and briefly outlines five different kinds of public health interventions that will be used as test cases. They are all directed at individuals and aimed at controlling the spread of infectious diseases isolation, quarantine, recommended voluntary (...)
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  17.  2
    Justice in Control of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Transmission: A Fair Question to Ask?Zohar Lederman & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):56-71.
    Active surveillance cultures and contact precautions is a strategy to control the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within healthcare facilities. Whether to implement this strategy to routinely screen and isolate inpatients with MRSA in non-outbreak settings, or to remove it and use standard infection control precautions only is scientifically and ethically controversial, in view of the potential adverse effects of contact precautions on patients. To support the use of standard precautions only, it has been argued that active surveillance to identify (...)
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  18.  3
    Invisible Epidemics: Ethics and Asymptomatic Infection. [REVIEW]Michael J. Selgelid & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):1-16.
    Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease, and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significant in situations where, and/or to the extent that, the microbe in question is transmissible, (...)
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  19. Infection Control Measures in Times of Antimicrobial Resistance: A Matter of Solidarity.Marcel Verweij, Marlies Hulscher, Aura Timen & Babette Rump - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (Suppl 1):47-55.
    Control measures directed at carriers of multidrug-resistant organisms are traditionally approached as a trade-off between public interests on the one hand and individual autonomy on the other. We propose to reframe the ethical issue and consider control measures directed at carriers an issue of solidarity. Rather than asking “whether it is justified to impose strict measures”, we propose asking “how to best care for a person’s carriership and well-being in ways that do not imply an unacceptable risk for others?”. A (...)
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  20. Radical Enhancement as a Moral Status de-Enhancer.Jesse Gray - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 1 (2):146-165.
    Nicholas Agar, Jeff McMahan and Allen Buchanan have all expressed concerns about enhancing humans far outside the species-typical range. They argue radically enhanced beings will be entitled to greater and more beneficial treatment through an enhanced moral status, or a stronger claim to basic rights. I challenge these claims by first arguing that emerging technologies will likely give the enhanced direct control over their mental states. The lack of control we currently exhibit over our mental lives greatly contributes to our (...)
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