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  1.  5
    Types, Norms, and Normalisation: Hormone Research and Treatments in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, C. 1900–50.Chiara Beccalossi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):113-137.
    Displacing the physiological model that had held sway in 19th-century medical thinking, early 20th-century hormone research promoted an understanding of the body and sexual desires in which variations in sex characteristics and non-reproductive sexual behaviours such as homosexuality were attributed to anomalies in the internal secretions produced by the testes or the ovaries. Biotypology, a new brand of medical science conceived and led by the Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende, employed hormone research to study human types and hormone treatments to normalise (...)
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  2.  9
    Hat Sizes and Craniometry: Professional Know-How and Scientific Knowledge.Peter Cryle - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):46-65.
    This article examines the relation between commercial activity and knowledge-making, looking at hatmakers in order to open up a more general question about the overlap between the knowledge practices of 19th-century science and those of everyday commercial culture of the time. Phrenology also claims attention here, since it can be said to have occupied an intermediate position between science and commerce. From time to time during the first half of the century, phrenologists attended to hatmakers in the hope of gleaning (...)
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  3.  7
    Normality: A Collection of Essays.Peter Cryle & Elizabeth Stephens - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):3-8.
    This article introduces a collection of articles written in response to a recently published intellectual and cultural history of normality by Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens. It points to the fact that this special issue considerably extends and enriches the topical range of the book. The articles that follow discuss, in order, schooling in France at the time of the Revolution, phrenology in Europe and the US from 1840 to 1940, relations between commercial practice and scientific craniometry in 19th-century Britain (...)
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  4.  3
    Félida, Doubled Personality, and the ‘Normal State’ in Late 19th-Century French Psychology.Kim M. Hajek - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):66-89.
    The case of Félida X and her ‘doubled personality’ served in the last quarter of the 19th century as a proving ground for a distinctively French form of psychology that bore the stamp of physiology, including the comparative term normal state. Debates around Félida’s case provided the occasion for reflection about how that term and its opposites could take their places in the emerging discursive field of psychopathology. This article centres its analysis on Eugène Azam’s 1876–77 study of Félida, and (...)
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  5.  9
    Normal Enough? Krafft-Ebing, Freud, and Homosexuality.Birgit Lang - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):90-112.
    This article analyses the slippery notions of the normal and normality in select works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud and argues that homosexuality became a ‘boundary object’ between the normal and the abnormal in their works. Constructing homosexuality as ‘normal enough’ provided these two key thinkers of the fin de siècle with an opportunity to challenge societal and medical norms: Krafft-Ebing did this through mapping perversions; Freud, by challenging perceived norms about sexual development more broadly. The article submits (...)
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  6.  10
    After the Normal.Elizabeth Stephens - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):138-147.
  7.  3
    Phrenology and the Average Person, 1840–1940.Fenneke Sysling - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):27-45.
    The popular science of phrenology is known for its preoccupation with geniuses and criminals, but this article shows that phrenologists also introduced ideas about the ‘average’ person. Popular phrenologists in the US and the UK examined the heads of their clients to give an indication of their character. Based on the publications of phrenologists and on a large collection of standardized charts with clients’ scores, this article analyses their definition of what they considered to be the ‘average’. It can be (...)
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  8.  8
    ‘The Revolution is to the Human Mind What the African Sun is to Vegetation’: Revolution, Heat, and the Normal School Project.Caroline Warman - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):9-26.
    This article focuses on a slightly earlier period in its investigation of the meanings of and associations with the term normal than Cryle and Stephens have done in their recent book. It looks at the establishment and rapid demise of the Ecole normale in Paris in 1794–5, founded on the same model as a school for the manufacture of arms that had operated in spring 1794, and suggests that this model was not only responsible for some of the problems the (...)
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  9.  2
    More Than a Case of Mistaken Identity: Adult Entertainment and the Making of Early Sexology.Sarah Bull - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):10-39.
    Sexology emerged as a discipline during a period of keen concern about the social effects of sexually explicit media. In this context, sex researchers and their allies took pains to establish the respectability of their work, a process that often involved positioning sexual science in opposition to erotic literature and images. This article argues that this presentation of sexual science obfuscated sex researchers’ complex relationship with erotic print culture, which during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided sexual scientists (...)
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  10.  3
    Cold War Pavlov: Homosexual Aversion Therapy in the 1960s.Kate Davison - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):89-119.
    Homosexual aversion therapy enjoyed two brief but intense periods of clinical experimentation: between 1950 and 1962 in Czechoslovakia, and between 1962 and 1975 in the British Commonwealth. The specific context of its emergence was the geopolitical polarization of the Cold War and a parallel polarization within psychological medicine between Pavlovian and Freudian paradigms. In 1949, the Pavlovian paradigm became the guiding doctrine in the Communist bloc, characterized by a psychophysiological or materialist understanding of mental illness. It was taken up by (...)
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  11.  4
    The Unexpected American Origins of Sexology and Sexual Science: Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard, Orson Squire Fowler, and the Scientification of Sex.Benjamin Kahan - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):71-88.
    In spite of the fact that the term ‘sexology’ was popularized in the United States by Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard and that the term ‘sexual science’—which is usually attributed to Iwan Bloch as ‘Sexualwissenschaft’—was actually coined by the American phrenologist Orson Squire Fowler in 1852, the archives of American sexology have received scant attention in the period prior to Alfred Kinsey. In my article, I explore the role of Transcendentalism and phrenology in the production and development of American sexology and (...)
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  12.  6
    Histories of Sexology Today: Reimagining the Boundaries of Scientia Sexualis.Kirsten Leng & Katie Sutton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):3-9.
    The historiography of sexology is young. It is also expanding at a remarkable pace, both in terms of the volume of publications and, more notably, in terms of its geographical, disciplinary, and intersectional reach. This special issue takes stock of these new directions, while offering new research contributions that expand our understanding of the interdisciplinary and transnational formation of this field from the late 19th through to the mid 20th century. The five articles that make up this special issue stage (...)
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  13.  3
    The Potency of the Butterfly: The Reception of Richard B. Goldschmidt’s Animal Experiments in German Sexology Around 1920.Ina Linge - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):40-70.
    This article considers the sexual politics of animal evidence in the context of German sexology around 1920. In the 1910s, the German-Jewish geneticist Richard B. Goldschmidt conducted experiments on the moth Lymantria dispar, and discovered individuals that were no longer clearly identifiable as male or female. When he published an article tentatively arguing that his research on ‘intersex butterflies’ could be used to inform concurrent debates about human homosexuality, he triggered a flurry of responses from Berlin-based sexologists. In this article, (...)
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  14.  2
    Kinsey and the Psychoanalysts: Cross-Disciplinary Knowledge Production in Post-War US Sex Research.Katie Sutton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):120-147.
    The historical forces of war and migration impacted heavily on the disciplinary locations, practitioners, and structures of sexology and psychoanalysis that had developed in the first decades of the 20th century. By the late 1940s, the US was fast becoming the world centre of each of these prominent fields within the modern human sciences. During these years, the work of Alfred C. Kinsey and his team became synonymous with a distinctly North American brand of empirical sex research. This article offers (...)
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  15.  2
    Reviewer Acknowledgement 2020.Katie Sutton & Kirsten Leng - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):148-149.
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