9 found

Year:

  1.  3
    More Than Fitness. A Robustness-Based Proposal of a Logical Space to Classify Processes Behind Evolutionary Phenomena.Giorgio Airoldi - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):89-112.
    The assumption that natural selection alone is sufficient to explain not only which traits get fixed in a population/species, but also how they develop, has been questioned since Darwin’s times, and increasingly in the last decades. Alternative theories, linked to genetic and phenotypic processes, or to the theory of complex systems, have been proposed to explain the rise of the phenotypic variety upon which natural selection acts. In this article, we illustrate the current state of the issue and we propose (...)
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  2.  5
    Why Care About Robots? Empathy, Moral Standing, and the Language of Suffering.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):141-158.
    This paper tries to understand the phenomenon that humans are able to empathize with robots and the intuition that there might be something wrong with “abusing” robots by discussing the question regarding the moral standing of robots. After a review of some relevant work in empirical psychology and a discussion of the ethics of empathizing with robots, a philosophical argument concerning the moral standing of robots is made that questions distant and uncritical moral reasoning about entities’ properties and that recommends (...)
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  3.  7
    Explanation by Idealized Theories.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):43-63.
    The use of idealized scientific theories in explanations of empirical facts and regularities is problematic in two ways: they don’t satisfy the condition that the explanans is true, and they may fail to entail the explanandum. An attempt to deal with the latter problem was proposed by Hempel and Popper with their notion of approximate explanation. A more systematic perspective on idealized explanations was developed with the method of idealization and concretization by the Poznan school in the 1970s. If idealizational (...)
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  4.  1
    What is Hilbert’s 24th Problem?Isabel Oitavem & Reinhard Kahle - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):1-11.
    In 2000, a draft note of David Hilbert was found in his Nachlass concerning a 24th problem he had consider to include in the his famous problem list of the talk at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 in Paris. This problem concerns simplicity of proofs. In this paper we review the traces of this problem which one can find in the work of Hilbert and his school, as well as modern research started on it after its publication. We (...)
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  5.  1
    Laws and Mechanisms in The Human Sciences.Rui Sampaio - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):64-88.
    According to an influential epistemological tradition, science explains phenomena on the basis of laws, but the last two decades have witnessed a neo-mechanistic movement that emphasizes the fundamental role of mechanism-based explanations in science, which have the virtue of opening the “black box” of correlations and of providing a genuine understanding of the phenomena. Mechanisms enrich the empirical content of a theory by introducing a new set of variables, helping us to make causal inferences that are not possible on the (...)
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  6.  3
    A Philosophy of a Theory of Fuzzy Computation.Apostolos Syropoulos - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):181-201.
    Vagueness is a linguistic phenomenon as well as a property of physical objects. Fuzzy set theory is a mathematical model of vagueness that has been used to define vague models of computation. The prominent model of vague computation is the fuzzy Turing machine. This conceptual computing device gives an idea of what computing under vagueness means, nevertheless, it is not the most natural model. Based on the properties of this and other models of vague computing, an attempt is made to (...)
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  7.  1
    The Conventionality of Simultaneity and Einstein’s Conventionality of Geometry.Mário Bacelar Valente - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):159-180.
    The conventionality of simultaneity thesis as established by Reichenbach and Grünbaum is related to the partial freedom in the definition of simultaneity in an inertial reference frame. An apparently altogether different issue is that of the conventionality of spatial geometry, or more generally the conventionality of chronogeometry when taking also into account the conventionality of the uniformity of time. Here we will consider Einstein’s version of the conventionality of geometry, according to which we might adopt a different spatial geometry and (...)
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  8.  2
    Knowledge in Context: The Factivity Principle and Its Epistemological Consequences.Nicla Vassallo & Stefano Leardi - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):12-42.
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  9.  6
    Metaphysics, Function and the Engineering of Life: The Problem of Vitalism.Charles T. Wolfe, Bohang Chen & Cécilia Bognon-Küss - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):113-140.
    Vitalism was long viewed as the most grotesque view in biological theory: appeals to a mysterious life-force, Romantic insistence on the autonomy of life, or worse, a metaphysics of an entirely living universe. In the early twentieth century, attempts were made to present a revised, lighter version that was not weighted down by revisionary metaphysics: “organicism”. And mainstream philosophers of science criticized Driesch and Bergson’s “neovitalism” as a too-strong ontological commitment to the existence of certain entities or “forces”, over and (...)
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