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  1.  4
    Introduction.Susan Brower-Toland - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):95-96.
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  2.  4
    The Voice of Reason: Medieval Contemplative Philosophy.Christina Van Dyke - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):169-185.
    Scholastic debates about the activity of our final end—happiness—become famously heated in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with intellectualists claiming that the primary activity through which we are joined to God is intellective ‘vision’ and voluntarists claiming that it is love. These conversations represent only one set of medieval views on the subject, however. If we look to contemplative sources in the same period—even just those of the Rome-based Christian tradition—we find a range of views on our final end that (...)
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  3. Doing Public Philosophy in the Middle Ages?Amber J. Griffioen - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):241-274.
    Medieval and early modern devotional works rarely receive serious treatment from philosophers, even those working in the subfields of philosophy of religion or the history of ideas. In this article, I examine one medieval devotional work in particular—the Middle High German image- and verse-program, Christus und die minnende Seele —and I argue that it can plausibly be viewed as a form of medieval public philosophy, one that both exhibited and encouraged philosophical innovation. I address a few objections to my proposal—namely, (...)
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  4.  1
    Doing Public Philosophy in the Middle Ages? On the Philosophical Potential of Medieval Devotional Texts.Amber L. Griffioen - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):241-274.
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  5.  1
    The Changing Role of Theological Authority in Ockham's Razor.Eric W. Hagedorn - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):97-120.
    Ockham’s own formulations of his Razor state that one should only include a given entity in one’s ontology when one has either sensory evidence, demonstrative argument, or theological authority in favor of it. But how does Ockham decide which theological claims to treat as data for theory construction? Here I show how over time (perhaps in no small part due to pressure and attention from ecclesiastical censors) Ockham refined and changed the way he formulated his Razor, particularly the “authority clause” (...)
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  6. The Beatific Vision and the Metaphysics of Conscious Experience in John of Ripa.Jordan Lavender - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):187-212.
    Does human happiness consist in God, as the widespread medieval view that God is the last end of human beings would suggest, or does it consist in the experience of God, the view suggested by medieval readings of Aristotle? In response to this theological problem, the important fourteenth-century philosopher John of Ripa developed one of the most innovative and subtle late medieval theories of the metaphysics of awareness. This article provides an account of Ripa’s theory of awareness and shows how (...)
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  7.  2
    Making Room for Miracles: John Duns Scotus on Homeless Accidents.Giorgio Pini - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):121-137.
    In this article, I consider Duns Scotus’s treatment of accidents existing without substances in the Eucharist to shed light on how he thinks Aristotle’s metaphysics should be modified to make room for miracles. In my reconstruction, Duns Scotus makes two changes to Aristotle’s metaphysics. First, he distinguishes a given thing’s natural inclinations from the manifestations of those inclinations. Second, he argues that it is up to God’s free decisions whether a thing’s aptitudes manifest or do not manifest themselves in any (...)
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  8.  2
    Sine Qua Non Causes and Their Discontents.Zita V. Toth - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):139-167.
    For theological reasons, medieval thinkers maintained that sacraments “effect what they figure”—that is, they are more than mere signs of grace; and yet, they also maintained that they are not proper causes of grace in the way fire is the proper cause of heat. One way to reconcile these requirements is to explicate sacramental causation in terms of sine qua non causes, which were distinguished from accidental causes on the one hand, and from proper efficient causes on the other hand. (...)
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  9. Christine de Pizan on Worldly Prudence and Loving God in The Treasure of the City of Ladies.Simona Vucu - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):213-239.
    In The Treasure of the City of Ladies, Christine de Pizan gives various categories of laywomen advice on how to love God and to lead their lives. This article explores the connection between the two kinds of teachings focusing on the relevance of manners for spirituality and morality. Worldly prudence is about manners, reputation, and self-discipline—that is, about how people should behave toward one another and present themselves to each other. I argue that for de Pizan, manners are spiritually and (...)
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  10. An Epistemic Defeater for the Asharite Metaethical Theory.Nader Alsamaani - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (1):25-38.
    In this article, I develop two arguments against the Asharite metaethical theory concerning God’s actions. First, I purport that the probability of God’s revelation being true given that the Asharite metaethical theory obtains is low. However, as some Asharites might point out, the probability increases by considering other items from the Asharite theology, which ultimately renders the first argument flawed. I further argue that the probability of our cognitive faculties being reliable given the Asharite metaethical theory concerning God’s action being (...)
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  11.  8
    Mereological Nihilism and Simple Substance in Leibniz.Adam Harmer - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (1):39-65.
    Leibniz famously argues that there must be simple substances, since there are composites, and a composite is nothing but a collection of simples. I reconstruct Leibniz’s argument, showing that it relies on a commitment to mereological nihilism. I show further that Leibniz endorses mereological nihilism as early as the 1680s and offers both direct and indirect support for this commitment: indirect support via the notion of unity and direct support via the notion of persistence. I then assess the alignment of (...)
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  12.  3
    A Davidsonian Account of the Practicality of Practical Reasoning.Alexander Leferman - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (1):67-89.
    What makes practical reasoning practical? One answer to this question depends on what counts as an appropriate conclusion of practical reasoning. I defend accounts of practical reasoning that conclude in normative judgment by appeal to Davidsonian judgment-sensitive attitudes. In particular, I defend them against the objection that normative judgments lack a rational connection to action. To be considered practical, judgment accounts, as I call them, need to explain this rational connection. I argue that Davidsonian judgment-sensitive attitudes explain this rational connection (...)
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  13.  9
    Zombies, Functionalism and Qualia.Jim Stone - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (1):91-93.
    David Chalmers maintains there is a logically possible world where we all have physically and functionally identical twins without conscious experiences. Z entails that qualia are extra-physical, hence physicalism is false. I argue that his Zombie Argument fails on functionalist grounds. Qualia sometimes affect behavior or they never do. If they do affect behavior, they sometimes individuate functional states; hence my zombie twin cannot be functionally identical to me. To save ZA, we must support the second disjunct. This requires arguing (...)
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  14.  5
    Thomas Aquinas on Reprobation: The Arbitrariness Problem and Some Quiescence Solutions.Adam Wood - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (1):1-23.
    Given certain anti-Pelagian assumptions he endorses, Aquinas faces an “arbitrariness problem” explaining why God predestines and reprobates the particular individuals he does. One response to the problem that Aquinas offers—biting the bullet and conceding God’s arbitrariness—has a high theoretical cost. Eleonore Stump proposes a less costly alternative solution on Thomas’s behalf, drawing on his notion that our wills may rest in a state of “quiescence.” Her proposal additionally purports to answer the general question why God reprobates anyone at all. I (...)
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