11 found

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  1.  1
    The Emperor at the Council. Imperial Interventions in Late Antique Church Councils in Literary Sources and Documentary Records.Luisa Andriollo - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):175-202.
    This paper examines the modes of imperial interactions with Church councils, focusing on the emperor’s participation in episcopal meetings and its representation in late antique sources, both literary and documentary. The author argues that the availability and strategic dissemination of conciliar records could affect, for better or worse, the understanding of the imperial religious policy and attitude towards Church institutions. This is most clearly illustrated by Marcian’s behaviour at Chalcedon, and by the active steps he took to produce an official (...)
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  2.  1
    Natural Disasters and Time: Non-Eschatological Perceptions of Earthquakes in Late Antique and Medieval Historiography.Armin F. Bergmeier - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):155-174.
    This contribution analyzes the rhetoric surrounding natural disasters in historiographic sources, challenging our assumptions about the eschatological nature of late antique and medieval historical consciousness. Contrary to modern expectations, a large number of late antique and medieval sources indicate that earthquakes and other natural disasters were understood as signs from God, relating to theophanic encounters or divine wrath in the present time. Building on recent research on premodern concepts of time and historical consciousness, the article underscores the fact that eschatological (...)
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  3.  4
    The Origin and Evolution of Early Christian and Byzantine Universal Historiography.Richard W. Burgess - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):53-154.
    There is a long tradition of considering the lesser Byzantine historical texts - those not written in the classicizing narrative style of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Procopius - as the products of a continuous development from Hellenistic and late antique chronicles. As a result, they are all still called chronicles in spite of the fact that the only characteristics they share with earlier chronicles and one another is their condensed and ‘universal’ approach to history. In reality, there were only a very (...)
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  4. Barbatoriam facere. Distinktion und Transgression in der römischen Kaiserzeit.Christopher Degelmann - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):1-28.
    While clothing issues of the Romans have been researched in recent years, the examination of facial hair has so far been rather unexplored. Therefore, little attention has been paid to the ceremonial first shave of young Romans, although beard growth, shaving and care provided information about hierarchies and identity, alleged sexual practices or periods of life cycle. The ritual of barbatoria was hence accompanied by assumptions about the character of a person.The article shows these dimensions of barbatoria using the examples (...)
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  5.  1
    A New Edition of the De Cerimoniis: No Longer a ‘Geteiltes Dossier’?John Haldon - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):389-404.
    This review article presents a brief survey of the new critical edition, translation and commentary of the important tenth-century Byzantine imperial treatise known as the De cerimoniis aulae byzantinae, a title ascribed to the text only in the 16th century. The edition offers an upto- date and highly accurate edition of the tenth century manuscripts through which the text has been transmitted and the detailed and rigorous commentary includes a complete historical and structural analysis of the two books into which (...)
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  6.  2
    Das ‚Schisma von 1054‘ als mikro- und makrohistorisches Ereignis. Überlegungen zu einem theologisch-kirchenpolitischen Erklärungsmodell.Grigori Khislavski - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):405-482.
    This article will formulate an explanatory model in which all the specifics of the controversy between Rome and Constantinople in the schism of 1054 will be considered in theological and ecclesiastical-political terms. Thus, both the complexity of the historical context and the diversity of the motives of its protagonists will be taken into account. In a first step, the current state of research on the events of 1054 will be presented, before confronting it with open questions in a second step. (...)
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  7. Diskretion bis Verschleierung. Der Weg zur byzantinischen Anerkennung des Kaisertums von Karl dem Großen, vor allem im Spiegel diplomatischer Aktivitäten 802 – 812.Ewald Kislinger - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):271-312.
    From 802 to 811, we encounter several diplomatic missions beween Byzantium and the Carolingians with the scope to secure or confirm peace, although in 798 such an agreement had been reached. The real target behind such negotiations was a recognition of the coronation and imperial title of Charlemagne since 800, denied by Byzantium for years. It was only in 810 that Nicephorus I yielded due to military/ political difficulties in Northern Italy with Pepin/pippin, son of Charlemagne, and against the Bulgarians. (...)
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  8. A Hidden Agenda of Imperial Appropriation and Power Play? Iconological Considerations Concerning Apse Images and Their Role in the Iconoclast Controversy.Philipp Niewöhner - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):251-270.
    According to the written sources, the Iconoclast controversy was all about the veneration of icons. It started in the late seventh century, after most iconodule provinces had been lost to Byzantine rule, and lasted until the turn of the millennium or so, when icon veneration became generally established in the remaining parts of the Byzantine Empire. However, as far as material evidence and actual images are concerned, the Iconoclast controversy centred on apse images and other, equally large and monumental representations, (...)
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  9. The Death of Mani in Retrospect.Matthew O’Farrell - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):29-52.
    The execution of the prophet Mani by the Sasanian king Bahram I received sharply different treatments in the historiography of three of the confessional groups of the Sasanian empire. Variously a persecuted prophet, a blasphemous lunatic or a sinister heresiarch the representations of this moment sought to establish its meaning in the context of communal narratives predicated on the claims of sacred history. Despite this, it is notable that Manichean, Christian and Perso-Arabic accounts clearly share features. This indicates not only (...)
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  10.  4
    The Abbey of Werden on the Frankish-Saxon Frontier. The Depictions of Landscapes and Emotions in the Vita Gregorii and the Vitae Liudgeri.Bart Peters - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):313-388.
    This study explores the depictions of landscapes and emotions in the ninthcentury hagiographies associated with Liudger: the three vitae Liudgeri and Liudger’s own vita Gregorii. The Frisian missionary founded the monastery of Werden, situated near the Frankish-Saxon frontier. It will be argued that previous historiography on early medieval frontiers has predominantly focused on the military nature of frontiers. Here, more cultural or symbolic natures of the Frankish-Saxon frontier will be discussed. The hagiographical narratives will be examined in conjunction with the (...)
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  11.  1
    Frühbyzantinische Kreuzdiskurse des 6. und 7. Jahrhunderts und ihre Rezeption in Konstantinopel, Kappadokien und im Westen. [REVIEW]Rainer Warland - 2021 - Millennium 18 (1):203-250.
    The paper establishes connections between funerary art in the Eastern and the Western Mediterranean during the seventh century. Jewelry pendants and gemstone decorations are also covered. The similarities of the image concepts suggest common design principles, with the cross as a symbol of the Son of Man when God returns on Judgment Day. As celestial signs in the midst of stars and planets, these forms of the cross, which may also have influenced the Baiuvarian and Alemannic gold-leaf crosses, have a (...)
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