23 found

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  1.  2
    Editorial: The Precautionary Paradox and Zika.Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):178-181.
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  2. When is a REC Not a REC? When It is a Gatekeeper.Nathan Emmerich - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):234-243.
    This essay responds to an article, ‘Variation in university research ethics review’, published in this issue. It argues that the authors of that paper do not fully distinguish the usual function of university research ethics committees from that of a gatekeeper. The latter term more accurately describes the task they happen to have asked them to fulfil in the course of conducting some empirical research. Whilst they are not alone in making it, the result of this conflation is that the (...)
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  3.  1
    The Importance of Virtue Ethics in the IRB.Marilyn C. Morris & Jason Z. Morris - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):201-216.
    Institutional review boards have a dual goal: first, to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects, and second, to support and facilitate the conduct of valuable research. In striving to achieve these goals, IRBs must often consider conflicting interests. In the discussion below, we characterize research oversight as having three elements: research regulations, which establish a minimum acceptable standard for research conduct; ethical principles, which help us identify and define relevant ethical issues; and virtue ethics, which guides the (...)
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  4.  1
    Variation in University Research Ethics Review: Reflections Following an Inter-University Study in England.Claudia Vadeboncoeur, Nick Townsend, Charlie Foster & Mark Sheehan - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):217-233.
    Conducting large multi-site research within universities highlights inconsistencies between universities in approaches, requirements and responses of research ethics committees. Within the context of a social science research study, we attempted to obtain ethical approval from 101 universities across England to recruit students for a short online survey. We received varied responses from research ethics committees of different universities with the steps to obtaining ethics approval ranging from those that only required proof of approval from our home institution, to universities that (...)
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  5. Institutional Review Boards: A Flawed System of Risk Management.Simon N. Whitney - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):182-200.
    Institutional Review Boards and their federal overseers protect human subjects, but this vital work is often dysfunctional despite their conscientious efforts. A cardinal, but unrecognized, explanation is that IRBs are performing a specific function – the management of risk – using a flawed theoretical and practical approach. At the time of the IRB system’s creation, risk management theory emphasized the suppression of risk. Since then, scholars of governance, studying the experience of business and government, have learned that we must distinguish (...)
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  6. Clinical Evidence in the Regulation of Medical Devices.Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):120-122.
  7. Prevalence and Commonalities of Informed Consent Templates for Biomedical Research.Jhia L. N. Jackson & Elaine Larson - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):167-175.
    Improving the informed consent process is a common theme in literature regarding biomedical human subjects research. Standards for appropriate language and required information have undergone scrutiny and evolved over time. One response to the call for improvement is the provision and use of informed consent templates to ensure that documents have a standardized format and quality of content. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of such ICTs or their effectiveness. This article discusses the rationale for creating and using templates, (...)
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  8.  1
    Unique Requirements for Social Science Human Subjects Research Within the United States Department of Defense.Dale F. Spurlin & Sena Garven - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):158-166.
    Although most researchers are familiar with the application of the Common Rule in research, fewer are aware of specific requirements and restrictions for conducting human subjects research when employees of the US Department of Defense will be participants. Because of the additional regulations concerning DoD employees as participants, federal regulations and research policies require researchers to submit their human subjects research proposals through a DoD review process to ensure compliance with DoD research policies, regardless of a non-DoD IRB’s approval. These (...)
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  9.  1
    The Contribution and Attitudes of Research Ethics Committees to Complete Registration and Non-Selective Reporting of Clinical Trials: A European Survey.Daniel Strech, Jasper Littmann & on Behalf of the Open Consortium - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):123-136.
    Background: For many years, studies have shown that the results of clinical trials are often published or reported selectively with a statistically significant bias in favour of positive trial results. Trial registration as a precondition for publication had only limited effects on current practice. Results of trials which were approved by research ethics committees are often published only partially, with a substantial time lag or not at all. This study examined existing procedures of RECs in the European Union to monitor (...)
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  10.  2
    Opportunities, Challenges and Ethical Issues Associated with Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in a Hospital Setting.C. Strike, A. Guta, K. De Prinse, S. Switzer & S. Chan Carusone - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):149-157.
    Community-based participatory research is growing in popularity as a research strategy to engage communities affected by health issues. Although much has been written about the benefits of using CBPR with diverse groups, this research has usually taken place in community-based organizations which offer social services and programs. The purpose of this article is to explore the opportunities and challenges encountered during a CBPR project conducted in a small hospital serving people living with HIV and addictions issues. The structure of hospital-based (...)
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  11. Could Providing Financial Incentives to Research Participants Be Ultimately Self-Defeating?T. L. Zutlevics - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (3):137-148.
    Controversy over providing financial incentives to research participants has a long history and remains an issue of contention in both current discussions about research ethics and for institutional review bodies/human research ethics committees which are charged with the responsibility of deciding whether such incentives fall within ethical guidelines. The arguments both for and against financial incentives have been well aired in the literature. A point of agreement for many is that inducement in the form of financial incentive is permissible when (...)
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  12.  2
    Altruistic Reasoning in Adolescent-Parent Dyads Considering Participation in a Hypothetical Sexual Health Clinical Trial for Adolescents.Noé Rubén Chávez, Camille Y. Williams, Lisa S. Ipp, Marina Catallozzi, Susan L. Rosenthal & Carmen Radecki Breitkopf - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (2):68-79.
    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other’s altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14 to 17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, (...)
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  13.  1
    How Should Fracking Research Be Funded?Richard J. Davies & Liam G. Herringshaw - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (2):116-118.
    The use of hydraulic fracturing to extract oil or gas from shales is a subject of controversy. There are many scientific questions about the risks associated with the technique, and much research remains to be done. ReFINE is a research consortium led by Newcastle University and Durham University in the UK, focusing on the environmental impacts of shale gas and oil exploitation using fracking methods. The project was established to answer questions raised by members of the public across Europe on (...)
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  14. Conceptions and Misconceptions of Therapeutic Benefit.Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (2):64-67.
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  15. Participant Recruitment in an Online Era: A Reflection on Ethics and Identity.Bianca Fileborn - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (2):97-115.
    In this article I reflect on my experiences of using Facebook as a recruitment tool. Although there were many benefits associated with using this method of recruitment, there were also several unanticipated ethical dilemmas that arose. This article reflects on these dilemmas, locating them within some broader concerns around online research and privacy, and considers some potential avenues for avoiding similar issues in future research. It became apparent that these ethical issues were heightened for me as a doctoral researcher in (...)
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  16. Bereaved Participants’ Reasons for Wanting Their Real Names Used in Thanatology Research.Bonnie J. Scarth - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (2):80-96.
    This research ethics article focuses on an unexpected finding from my Master’s thesis examining bereaved participants’ experiences of taking part in sensitive qualitative research: some participants wanted their real names used in my written dissertation and any subsequent empirical publications. While conducting interviews for my thesis and explaining the consent process, early responses highlighted the problematic notion of anonymity for participants engaged in qualitative research. Several participants asserted the significance of immortalizing their deceased loved ones in the pages of my (...)
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  17.  14
    Untangling Research and Practice: What Facebooks "Emotional Contagion" Study Teaches Us.D. Boyd - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):4-13.
    Published in 2014, the Facebook “emotional contagion” study prompted widespread discussions about the ethics of manipulating social media content. By and large, researchers focused on the lack of corporate institutional review boards and informed consent procedures, missing the crux of what upset people about both the study and Facebook’s underlying practices. This essay examines the reactions that unfolded, arguing the public’s growing discomfort with “big data” fueled the anger. To address these concerns, we need to start imagining a socio-technical approach (...)
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  18.  3
    Informed Consent and the Facebook Emotional Manipulation Study.C. Flick - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):14-28.
    This article argues that the study conducted by Facebook in conjunction with Cornell University did not have sufficient ethical oversight, and neglected in particular to obtain necessary informed consent from the participants in the study. It establishes the importance of informed consent in Internet research ethics and suggests that in Facebook’s case, a reasonable shift could be made from traditional medical ethics ‘effective consent’ to a ‘waiver of normative expectations’, although this would require much-needed change to the company’s standard practice. (...)
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  19.  10
    Autonomy Online: Jacques Ellul and the Facebook Emotional Manipulation Study.N. Gertz - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):55-61.
    Though we would expect the revelation of the Facebook emotional manipulation study to have had a negative impact on Facebook, its number of active users only continues to grow. As this is precisely the result that Jacques Ellul would have predicted, this paper examines his philosophy of technology in order to investigate the relationship between Facebook and its users and what this relationship means in terms of autonomy. That Facebook can manipulate its users without losing users reveals that Facebook’s autonomy (...)
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  20.  2
    Facebook Emotional Contagion Experiment Controversy.David Hunter & Nicholas Evans - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):2-3.
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  21. From Obedience to Contagion: Discourses of Power in Milgram, Zimbardo, and the Facebook Experiment.T. Recuber - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):44-54.
    When the public outcry concerning the ‘Facebook experiment’ began, many commentators drew parallels to controversial social science experiments from a prior era. The infamous Milgram and Zimbardo experiments concerning the social psychology of obedience and aggression seemed in some ways obvious analogs to the Facebook experiment, at least inasmuch as all three violated norms about the treatment of human subjects in research. But besides that, what do they really have in common? In fact, a close reading of Milgram, Zimbardo, and (...)
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  22.  1
    Facebooks Emotional Contagion Study and the Ethical Problem of Co-Opted Identity in Mediated Environments Where Users Lack Control.E. Selinger & W. Hartzog - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):35-43.
    We argue a main but underappreciated reason why the Facebook emotional contagion experiment is ethically problematic is that it co-opted user data in a way that violated identity-based norms and exploited the vulnerability of those disclosing on social media who are unable to control how personal information is presented in this technologically mediated environment.
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  23.  1
    Facebooks Flawed Emotion Experiment: Antisocial Research on Social Network Users.D. Shaw - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (1):29-34.
    In June 2014, a paper reporting the results of a study into ‘emotional contagion’ on Facebook was published. This research has already attracted a great deal of criticism for problems surrounding informed consent. While most of this criticism is justified, other relevant consent issues have gone unremarked, and the study has several other ethical flaws which collectively indicate the need for better regulation of health and mood research using social networks.
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