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  1. The Great Depression in the Eyes of the Silesian Christian Democrats.Barbara Danowska-Prokop - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):339-351.
    Goal – The great depression forced changes in the economic program of the Christian Democracy. Indicating the exceptional role of the Upper Silesian heavy industry in the economic potential of the Second Polish Republic, the program emerged from the criticism of the Sanation program of surviving the crisis. Research method – The study analyzes archival sources and literature on the subject, as well as statistical data. Results – In the years of the great depression, official state authorities, as well as (...)
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  2. The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Social Policy in Interwar Poland.Paweł Grata - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):373-387.
    The aim of this paper is to determine how the economic crisis, and the ad hoc attempts made by the authorities to counteract it, affected the Polish society and, above all, to prepare a multidimensional analysis of how the crisis impacted systemic changes in the Polish social policy. The author will examine both positive changes that followed the relevant global trends and also negative changes that resulted from the developmental lag, the country’s economic situation and especially the generally low involvement (...)
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  3. Situation of the R&D Sector in Poland in the Face of the Current Crisis.Kinga Karpińska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):409-424.
    How has the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic affected R&D and innovation in Poland? Numerous international studies conducted after the Great Depression in 2008–2010 show a strong procyclicality of investments in R&D and innovation in companies: investments rise during the economic upturn and fall sharply during the crisis. This procyclicality is driven within firms both by internal financial resources and by differences in market incentives to innovate. It seems likely that the COVID-19 crisis caused financial weakness for many (...)
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  4.  1
    Educated or Indoctrinated? Remarks on the Influence of Economic Teaching on Students’ Attitudes Based on Evidence From the Public Good Game Experiment.Jarosław Neneman & Joanna Dzionek-Kozłowska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):353-371.
    Economic education is frequently blamed for negatively affecting students’ values and attitudes. Economists are reported as less cooperative, more self-interested, and more prone to free-riding. However, empirical evidence is inconclusive – certain studies support while others gainsay the so-called indoctrination hypothesis. We contribute to the discussion by running a Public Good Game quasi-experiment. Working with economics and non-economics graduates, we compared contributions to the common fund by representatives of both subsamples. Students’ contributions were then juxtaposed against the scores they achieved (...)
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  5. Crisis and Innovations: Are They Constructive or Destructive?Ewa Okoń-Horodyńska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):425-449.
    An interdisciplinary approach was used to analyse multicomplex issues of the Covid-19 crisis, demonstrated also by the Economics of innovation. The Economics of innovation is useful when analysing a unique feedback of megatrends and the emergence of liminal crisis innovations. The purpose of this paper is, in spite of many statements to the contrary, to prove that innovative activity may serve as the key to unlocking a post-crisis economic development. Analyses presented in the paper are based on the Polish and (...)
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  6.  1
    The Logic of Gig Economy.Izabela Ostoj - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):451-462.
    The 2007+ crisis led to an increase in occasional and task work, which unleashed the potential of new technological and organizational solutions. The advancements in digital technological platforms stimulated the growth of the segment referred to as gig economy. The article aims to apply a systematic approach to the driving forces behind the emergence of gig economy and its success to date and to assess its development prospects. It argues to confirm the thesis that gig economy has its own inherent (...)
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  7.  2
    Bilateral Trade By Products Between the V4 Countries and China in Years 2009–2019.Sylwia Pangsy-Kania - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):463-482.
    Subject and purpose: Using annual data for the periods 2009–2019, this paper examines trade flows between China and the Visegrad Group countries. The aim of this article is to assess real changes taking place in international trade in the Visegrad Group countries over the last eleven years. The starting point for the analysis was 2009 – the time after the 2008 economic crisis, and it was compared especially to 2018 – a year marked by a significant improvement in the economy. (...)
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  8. Implications of the COVID-19 Crisis on the Creation of Innovations – Assessment Attempt.Anna Protasiewicz - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):483-495.
    The aim of the article is an attempt to analyze the impact of the pandemic crisis on innovations created by economic entities. The ongoing economic downturn has reasons different from previous economic peturbations, and has much more extensive effects across the entire global economy. Hence the need to analyze not individual economies as trends in the emergence of innovations initiated or significantly accelerated by the pandemic crisis. The analysis was made on the basis of reports from institutions such as the (...)
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  9.  1
    Alternative Methods of Financing Humanitarian Crises. Crowdfunding.Joanna Prystrom & Katarzyna Wierzbicka - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):531-546.
    There is a continuous increase in the number of humanitarian crises around the world. The number of armed conflicts and attacks on civilians is increasing at an alarming rate. Natural disasters compounded by climate change and population growth are also occurring more frequently and with increasing intensity. Given that over 60 million people have been forcibly displaced worldwide, prolonged forced displacement has become the biggest humanitarian, development, political and economic challenge. The needs are increasingly outweighing resources, and humanitarian aid and (...)
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  10. What Did Central Banks Learn From Financial Crises?Andrzej Sławiński - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):497-512.
    During the global financial crisis of 2007–2009 and the currentCovid-19 debacle, central banks acted quickly, boldly, and effectively. The paper argues that they did so thanks to the lessons learned from the past financial crises, which provided them with opportunities to reconsider their previous beliefs. A case in point is the banking crisis in the United States during the Great Depression of the 1930s that taught central banks to act rapidly and decisively in order to prevent an initial liquidity crisis (...)
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  11.  1
    Gender and Economic Downturn. The Focus on Women and the Pandemic Crisis.Magdalena Tusińska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):513-530.
    The goal of the paper is to consider whether women are vulnerable or protected on the labour market during the pandemic crisis, seeking answers in the wider context of previous downturns and economic theory. In times of crisis, female employment is likely to be more susceptible to cuts, for several reasons explained i.a. by the flexible buffers hypothesis or sex segregation hypothesis. Since the pandemic crisis is still unfolding, many of its effects are still unknown but it can be expected (...)
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  12.  1
    Values as Timeless Foundations of Today’s Economy – A Remedy for a Crisis in Economic Sciences.Marian Zalesko, Mariusz Mak & Aneta Kargol-Wasiluk - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):389-407.
    The presented paper refers to values as the timeless foundations of modern economics, and also to ethical limitations in the sphere of economic research, especially in the mainstream. The character of the paper is a review. The aim of the research is an attempt to show the fundamental importance of values, often rooted in history, for the development of modern economics and to present a remedy for the current analytical problems of economic sciences – considering the importance of axiology in (...)
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  13.  1
    How the COVID-19 Pandemic Affected the Accessibility and Quality of Health Services in Poland.Ewa Baum, Arkadiusz Nowak, Maja Matthews-Kozanecka & Magdalena Tuczyńska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):561-572.
    The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the global economy, including the provision of health services, with medical facilities and patients cancelling or postponing medical appointments. An alternative to in-person appointments was through the available forms of telemedicine. Scientific reports around the world have suggested that the accessibility and quality of health services declined. The aim of this study was to investigate the accessibility and quality of health services in Poland and to verify whether there were differences (...)
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  14. The Comparison of Three Assessment Scales in a Neonatal Unit in Poland.Ewa Baum, Włodzimierz Samborski, Ewa Mojs, Brittany Fechner, Roksana Malak & Aleksandra Tabaczyńska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):635-646.
    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the following three assessments: the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, and the General Movement Assessment. 29 patients from the neonatal unit of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital were examined. The study was conducted between feedings by a person properly trained in the use of the NBAS, the AIMS, and the GMA. The average postmenstrual age of the examined newborns was 35.6 weeks. The average week (...)
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  15.  1
    Analysis of Indications for Electrotherapy Using Classification Trees.Wojciech Drygas, Joanna Olszewska, Anna Justyna Milewska & Roman Załuska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):587-596.
    Electrotherapy is a dynamically developing method of treatment of sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. It is an extremely important method used in the treatment of heart failure. The aim of this paper was to use classification trees for the differentiation between patients implanted with one of the three electrotherapy devices, i.e. SC-VVI/aai, DC-DDD, ICD/crt. The analysed data concerned 2071 patients who underwent implantation or device replacement procedures in the years 2010–2018, hospitalized in a coronary care unit. CART-type classification (...)
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  16. Using Selected Data-Mining Methods in the Analysis of Data Concerning the Attitudes of Students Towards the Issue of Vaccination.Anna Justyna Milewska, Karolina Milewska & Marcin Milewski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):549-559.
    Preventive vaccination is one of the greatest successes of modern medicine. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, during which vaccination is the main method of prevention against death and severe disease, gave rise to a resurgence of anti-vaccine movements. The aim of this study was to analyse the attitudes of students towards vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis was performed with the use of the following data-mining methods: correspondence analysis and basket analysis. The obtained results show that students of medicine are (...)
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  17.  1
    Design of a System Supporting the Collection of Information on the Completed Didactic Classes at Medical University of Białystok as an Attempt at Improving the Quality of Education.Robert Milewski & Jarosław Ogonowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):625-633.
    Obtaining a sufficient amount of measurable and reliable results of student surveys has always posed a challenge for university teams tasked with the provision of the quality of education. This is especially visible at faculties where education is based on the classic classroom-based model, which then transfers to clinical units, hospital wards, and specialist laboratories. The highly unpredictable pandemic situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus raises the bar for the evaluation of didactics. Fortunately, the continuous technological progress in the area (...)
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  18. Using Regression Trees to Find the Factors Influencing the Level of Knowledge About Fertility and the Diet That Supports It Among People Dancing in Max Dance Studio in Białystok.Robert Milewski, Marcin Warpechowski, Karolina Milewska & Adrianna Zańko - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):597-608.
    Many studies confirm the fact that women do not have sufficient knowledge about reproductive health, which is a significant problem nowadays due to the large percentage of people who suffer from infertility. A sources of knowledge from which information about health, including reproductive health, is obtained have various levels of reliability. The aim of the study was to use regression trees to find which of the analysed parameters had the greatest impact on the level of respondents’ knowledge about fertility and (...)
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  19. The Use of the Kohonen Neural Network for Comparing the Declared and Actual State of Knowledge Regarding Reproductive Health and the Impact of Selected Lifestyle Components on Reproductive Health.Robert Milewski, Adrianna Zańko, Marcin Milewski, Jędrzej Jan Warpechowski & Marcin Warpechowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):573-586.
    Infertility is a global problem affecting 48 to 186 million couples of reproductive age. In Poland, it concerns approx. 1.5 million couples, which amounts to 20% of the population capable of reproducing. One of the factors influencing the incidence of fertility disorders may be lifestyle, understood as a multi-disciplinary accumulation of everyday behaviours and habits. In the study, a group of 201 young adults, students of medical and related faculties, were surveyed in order to check the actual level of knowledge (...)
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  20.  1
    Domestication of Mathematical Pathologies.Jerzy Pogonowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):709-720.
    Certain mathematical objects bear the name “pathological”. They either occur as unexpected and unwilling in mathematical research practice, or are constructed deliberately, for instance in order to delimit the scope of application of a theorem. I discuss examples of mathematical pathologies and the circumstances of their emergence. I focus my attention on the creative role of pathologies in the development of mathematics. Finally, I propose a few reflections concerning the degree of cognitive accessibility of mathematical objects. I believe that the (...)
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  21.  4
    “Mathematics is the Logic of the Infinite”: Zermelo’s Project of Infinitary Logic.Jerzy Pogonowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):673-708.
    In this paper I discuss Ernst Zermelo’s ideas concerning the possibility of developing a system of infinitary logic that, in his opinion, should be suitable for mathematical inferences. The presentation of Zermelo’s ideas is accompanied with some remarks concerning the development of infinitary logic. I also stress the fact that the second axiomatization of set theory provided by Zermelo in 1930 involved the use of extremal axioms of a very specific sort.1.
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  22.  2
    Analysis of Learning Outcomes in Medical Education with the Use of Fuzzy Logic.Magdalena Roszak, Iwona Mokwa-Tarnowska & Jacek Stańdo - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):609-616.
    The national curricula of the EU member states are structured around learning outcomes, selected according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. The authors of this paper claim that using Bloom’s Taxonomy to phrase learning outcomes in medical education in terms of students’ achievements is difficult and unclear. This paper presents an efficient method of assessing course learning outcomes using Fuzzy Logic.
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  23. The Place of E-Learning in ALS Teaching.Magdalena Roszak, Jacek Stańdo, Adam Pytliński, Piotr Rzeźniczek & Małgorzata Grześkowiak - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):617-624.
    This paper presents the place of e-learning methods in the teaching of Advanced Life Support to second year medical students. The described course lasts 30 hours and consists of lectures, seminars, and classes. Numerous modifications of the course were introduced in the past and at the moment electronic learning methods are being improved with new ones being added as well. The following have been implemented: 1. e-learning presentations instead of lectures; 2. recording own instructional movie demonstrating advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 3. (...)
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  24.  3
    Logical Reasoning for Forecasting in Mesopotamia.Andrew Schumann - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):721-746.
    In this paper, I show that a kind of perfect logical competence is observed in the Babylonian tablets used for forecasting. In these documents, we see an intuition of some algebraic structures that are used for inferring prognoses as logical conclusions. The paper is based mainly on the omen series reconstructed by N. De Zorzi. It is shown that in composing these divination lists there was implicitly used the Boolean algebra.
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  25. Internet System Supporting the Work of Nurses in Long-Term Geriatric Care.Jędrzej Jan Warpechowski & Marcin Warpechowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):647-661.
    The development of health sciences along with the continuous technological progress contribute to the emergence of web applications. There exist many applications supporting the work of doctors, whereas the market definitely lacks solutions supporting the work of nurses. This is particularly evident in long-term geriatric home care, in which the nursing specialization is developing rapidly. Care of elderly patients requires the nurse to collect medical documents from each visit. Considering the large number of diseases affecting elderly people and the number (...)
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  26.  1
    Nouns in the Be of N-Construction: A Corpus-Based Investigation.Jarosław Wiliński - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):747-768.
    This paper employs a usage-based approach to grammar, the theory of frame semantics, and the corpus-based method referred to as the attraction-reliance measure, for the purpose of examining the mutual association between a noun and the be of N-pattern: in other words, to determine nouns that are strongly associated with this construction. On the basis of the data gleaned from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, the paper aims to indicate that there are specific categories of nouns occurring in the (...)
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  27. Cooperation Between a Doctor and a Podiatrist to Improve the Quality of Life of Patients with Ingrown Toenails.Ryszard Żaba, Ewa Baum & Tomasz Trochanowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):663-670.
    Cooperation between doctors of various specialties and other medical specialists is the standard of care in the treatment of patients. Due to the variety of diseases and the dynamic development of medicine in general, it is difficult to be an expert in every field and know all the recommended treatments. An example of such cooperation is the joint treatment of patients with the problem of ingrown toenails. The article contains an analysis of patients who received treatment in a doctor’s office (...)
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  28.  8
    Linguistics and Deception Detection (DD): A Work in Progress.Thomas Wulstan Christiansen - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):169-200.
    Linguistic Deception Detection DD is a well-established part of forensic linguistics and an area that continues to attract attention on the part of researchers, self-styled experts, and the public at large. In this article, the various approaches to DD within the general field of linguistics are examined. The basic method is to treat language as a form of behaviour and to equate marked linguistic behaviour with other marked forms of behaviour. Such a comparison has been identified in other fields such (...)
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  29.  1
    The Concept and Functions of a Universal Language of Law.Katarzyna Doliwa - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):201-228.
    The subject of the article is the concept of a universal language and a reflection on its importance for law. The starting point is a presentation of the history of the concept of a common language for all mankind, a concept that has always accompanied man – it is present in the Bible, in the ancient writings of Near Eastern peoples, it was alive in the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, and it experienced its particular heyday – among other (...)
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  30. Legality of Prohibitions on Performing Specific Economic Activities Introduced to Prevent the Spread of the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: The Case of Poland.Paulina Korycińska-Rządca - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):321-335.
    State authorities have taken a variety of measures aimed at combating the COVID-19 pandemic. One group of those measures constitutes restrictions on the freedom of economic activity. In the paper the author analyses the provisions establishing prohibitions on performing specific economic activities introduced in Poland in the period from 14 March 2020 to 31 May 2021 in order to verify whether they have sufficient legal bases. For that purpose it was necessary to establish the constitutional conditions for introducing restrictions on (...)
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  31. Same-Sex Marriage and the Catholic Church in Europe. Any Chance for Understanding?Marta Michalczuk-Wlizło & Elżbieta Kużelewska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):267-281.
    There is room for everyone in the Catholic Church, but there is no consent for same-sex marriage in that Church as marriage only between a baptized man and a woman is a sacrament. Same-sex marriage is inconsistent with the Holy Scripture where marriage is based on God’s natural law. This official Scripture’s interpretation results in lack of possibility to reconciliate the official teaching of the Church with the recognition of same-sex marriage. The world is moving forward and so are the (...)
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  32. The Impact of the 1959 Agreement on the Legal Status of the Nile in the Post-Colonial Period.Barbara Mielnik - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):283-307.
    The Nile, one of the longest rivers in the world, has not been subjected to a uniform legal regime yet, despite the pressing needs. The hitherto proposals presented by the riparian states of the lower and upper reaches have not been unanimously accepted. Egypt and Sudan face particular difficult situation since the Nile river is their main source of water supply. It is argued that the lack of necessary coordination among all the States in the basin may in the future (...)
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  33. Prohibition on the Obligation to Disclose One’s Worldview, Religious Beliefs, or Religion in the Light of Article 53(7) of the Constitution of The Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997. [REVIEW]Michał Ożóg - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):243-265.
    The aim of this article is to present the normative content of article 53 clause 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April 1997. The paper presents the subjective scope of the regulation, including the scope of subjects who enjoy the guarantee of the “right to silence” as well as the list of addressees of the prohibition. The analysis also presents the subjective scope of article 53 paragraph 7 of the Constitution, together with an indication of (...)
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  34.  1
    Transparency of Approaches to International Law: A Short Story of an Unsung Hero.Michał Stępień - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):309-320.
    This article is about the problem of non-disclosure of an assumed method and approach to international law. That makes some real and current issues of international more difficult to grasp – and how to debate about something if there is a misunderstanding of the basics? The problem is depicted with two examples: the attitude of international law toward the statehood of Taiwan along with the on-going development of the Responsibility to Protect doctrine. Both reveal the clash between so-called black-letterism and (...)
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  35.  1
    Risks of Using “Language Relief” and Plain Language Principles in the Process of Applying Tax Law – Selected Issues.Piotr Woltanowski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):229-241.
    The level of communicativeness of official letters in the field of tax law leaves much to be desired. The article concerns the consequences of the application of “Language Relief” in the practice of applying tax law by the National Revenue Administration. The author calls for the principles of plain language to be introduced first in relation to acts of state law, so that officials can adapt their letters to the plain language of the law. A reversal of this order poses (...)
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  36.  2
    Translating Prepositions From Russian Legal Texts Into English: An Analysis of the Corresponding Interference Zones for Teaching Purposes.Karine Chiknaverova - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):9-23.
    Various aspects of prepositions translation have been primarily investigated in the framework of translation theory. Applied research is mostly focused on translating particular groups of prepositions against the background of plain language. Legal translation researchers have not yet comprehensively analysed peculiarities of translating Russian prepositions used in legal texts into English. The paper is an attempt to investigate the difficulties which Russian learners can encounter when translating prepositions from Russian commercial contracts into English. Methods employed include language typology comparison, continuous (...)
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  37.  4
    Teaching Legal English with “Modified Clil”.John Terry Dundon - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):25-44.
    This paper will describe the methodology for teaching legal English used at the Fordham University School of Law’s Legal English Institute, a one-semester program for law students and attorneys. Reasonable minds may disagree about the most effective methodology for teaching legal English, or for that matter any other form of academic English, but we have developed an approach that is informed by both theory and practice. At LEI, we use a “modified CLIL” format, with four substantive classes on topics in (...)
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  38.  1
    An Instructional Framework for Technology-Based Classroom Tuition of ELP Students.Anastasia Ignatkina - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):45-60.
    In modern ELP teaching practices online media products are commonly used as resources of educational content. Although the idea that ICT has brought classrooms in our pockets is generally perceived as a positive trend, the overview of recent inquiries into the use of technology in education has revealed a number of contradictory findings connected with multimedia learning. On the one hand, a multiplicity of strengths of online environments such as YouTube channels, Apps, podcasts, etc. is highlighted in the studies exploring (...)
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  39. Comparative Conceptual Analysis in a Legal Translation Classroom: Where Do the Pitfalls Lie.Michal Kubánek & Ondřej Klabal - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):61-81.
    It is a well-acknowledged fact in legal translation studies that when searching for terminological equivalents, translators should make use of comparative conceptual analysis. Thus, legal translation trainees should be equipped with the necessary tools to carry out such analysis, but the question remains: are they? This paper is a follow-up to a study published in 2017, where modified think aloud protocols were used to explore the following research question: to what degree are university students doing a course in legal and (...)
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  40.  2
    Who is Right, Who is Wrong? Interpreting 14 Points of Wilson – A Case Study of Deontic Modals and Their Meanings.Marek Mikołajczyk & Aleksandra Matulewska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):83-103.
    The document titled “14 points of Wilson” was announced by the President of the United States Woodrow Wilson in his speech addressed to the United States Congress on 8th January 1918. The speech is one of the most well known documents of the First World War as it touched upon several world issues. The text has been interpreted ever since in respect to the importance and real meaning of points formulated by Wilson. One of the points referred to Poland. The (...)
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  41. Comparative Law and Language with Reference to Case Law.Sotiria Skytioti - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):105-114.
    Comparative law is necessary in the modern era in which legal systems absorb ideas and elements from other legal systems and customary legal classifications are altered. Comparative law is closely intertwined with language because the research of different legal systems presupposes the study of legal texts written in different languages. Even if translation exists, a totally crucial issue arises: can the legal essence of the case law of a country be interpreted appropriately in any language but the original? The link (...)
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  42.  3
    How to Write (Science) Better. Simplified English Principles in a Skill-Oriented ESP Course.Monika Śleszyńska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):115-133.
    Teaching writing to doctoral students or academics at a technical university is a challenging task. Because they need to publish their research findings in English to pursue academic careers, they are usually highly motivated and expect a lot of the class. Their language competences, however, very often lack enough proficiency and may contribute to manuscript rejection. The paper focuses on language issues based on the rules of controlled natural languages and guidelines of Plain English. It shows how employing these issues (...)
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  43.  3
    Law School Learning Outcomes: Legal English Course Contribution.Elena Vyushkina - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):135-146.
    Standards of professional legal education are developed by different organizations: in some countries these are governmental bodies, in others these are professional associations. Apart from a country these standards include Learning Outcomes which shape law schools’ curricula. Both American and European standards mention, to different extent, written and oral communication in the legal context, but a number and contents of subjects directed at developing and mastering professional communicative competency differ a lot. There are disciplines totally devoted to the competency named (...)
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  44. Quantitative Distribution of Verbal Structures with Reference to the Authorship Factor in Legal Stylistics.Edyta Więcławska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (1):147-165.
    The paper aims at describing the findings and conclusions formulated in the analysis of the authorship factor in legal discourse. It is hypothesised that verbal structures show systemically varied distribution across legal discourse and the relevant distinctions run through the authorship categories. When it comes to the aim of the research it draws on the tradition of sociolinguistic methodology targeting issues related to language variation which follows the basic assumptions of functional grammar. From the point of view of the material (...)
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