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  1.  1
    Technocratic Management Versus Ethical Leadership Redefining Responsible Professionalism in the Agri-Food Sector in the Anthropocene.Vincent Blok - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):583-591.
    In this contribution, we argue that three related developments provide economic, environmental and social challenges and opportunities for a new responsible professionalism in the food chain: the Anthropocene; the bio-based economy; Precision Livestock Farming. These three interrelated developments indicate a transition in the way we understand the role and function of the food chain on the micro-, the meso- and the macro-level. This transition can be understood in two fundamental different ways, namely either as an extension of technocratic management beyond (...)
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  2.  7
    Advancing Food Sovereignty Through Interrogating the Question: What is Food Sovereignty?Shane Epting - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):593-604.
    The topic of food sovereignty has received ample attention from philosophers and interdisciplinary scholars, from how to conceptualize the term to how globalization shapes it, and several areas in between. This bounty of research informs us about food sovereignty’s practical dimensions, but the theoretical realm still has lessons to teach us, especially how to develop action-based guides to achieve it. This paper is an exploration in that direction. To have that effect, the author interrogates the question, “what is food sovereignty?”, (...)
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  3. Is There a Relation Between Ecological Practices and Spirituality? The Case of Benedictine Monasteries.Bernhard Freyer, Valentina Aversano-Dearborn, Georg Winkler, Sina Leipold, Harald Haidl, Karl Werner Brand, Michael Rosenberger & Thomas Wallnig - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):559-582.
    For decades there has been a controversial debate over how far religious faith communities are specifically engaged in ecological practices. Therefore we studied four Austrian and two German Benedictine monasteries religious ethics and spirituality as a means of a driving force for initiating EP. We draw upon theories of organizational learning processes and capacity-building of sustainability to interpret our empirical findings. The majority of monasteries are highly engaged in EP, initiated either as an outcome of individual activities or through a (...)
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  4.  6
    Predation Catch-22: Disentangling the Rights of Prey, Predators, and Rescuers.Julius Kapembwa - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):527-542.
    Predation poses a serious challenge for animal ethics of whatever ilk. For animal rights theory especially, the problem is potentially fatal as animal rights appear to require or permit interfering in nature to prevent predation, an implication that appears to be absurd. Several philosophers have written to deflect this challenge by showing how that implication is not absurd or how the allegedly entailed prescription to intervene does not follow from animal rights theory. A number of philosophers have taken different routes (...)
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  5.  2
    Environmental Stewardship and Ecological Solidarity: Rethinking Social-Ecological Interdependency and Responsibility.Raphaël Mathevet, François Bousquet, Catherine Larrère & Raphaël Larrère - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):605-623.
    This paper explores and discusses the various meanings of the stewardship concept in the field of sustainability science. We highlight the increasing differences between alternative approaches to stewardship and propose a typology to enable scientists and practitioners to more precisely identify the basis and objectives of the concept of stewardship. We first present the two dimensions we used to map the diversity of stances concerning stewardship. Second, we analyse these positions in relation to the limits of the systemic approach, ideological (...)
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  6.  1
    Should Scientific Research Involving Decapod Crustaceans Require Ethical Review?Anthony Rowe - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):625-634.
    Decapod crustaceans are faceless animals with five pairs of legs, an external skeleton and multiple nerve centres rather than a single brain. They include common seafood species such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. These characteristics make them difficult to empathise with and consequently legal protection of decapods ranges from strong, through circumstantial to non-existent. Whether they are capable of experiencing pain depends on definitions and the requirement for absolute proof of an inherently subjective psychological experience. Yet like other (...)
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  7.  2
    The Edge of “Animal Rights”.Yajun Sun - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (5):543-557.
    A central task of environmental ethics, which have been arising since 1960s, is to extend the objects of moral concern beyond the individuals of Homo sapiens.. On the other hand, if we broadly define the environmental ethic as an ethic that shows moral concern not limited to Homo sapiens and its individuals only, then, these “generalized” environmental ethics include Peter Singer’s “animal liberation” and Tom Regan’s “animal rights”. In this article, the term “environmental ethic” refers to an environmental ethic in (...)
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  8.  11
    No Room at the Zoo: Management Euthanasia and Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):483-498.
    The practice of ‘management euthanasia’, in which zoos kill otherwise healthy surplus animals, is a controversial one. The debate over the permissibility of the practice tends to divide along two different views in animal ethics—animal rights and animal welfare. Traditionally, those arguments against the practice have come from the animal rights camp, who see it as a violation of the rights of the animal involved. Arguments in favour come from the animal welfare perspective, who argue that as the animal does (...)
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  9.  8
    Animal Abolitionism Revisited: Neo-Colonialism and Morally Unjustified Burdens.Luis Cordeiro-Rodrigues - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):499-510.
    Bob Fischer has written a reply to my article ‘Animal Abolitionism and ‘Racism without Racists’’. In this article, Fischer contends that my arguments whereby animal abolitionism engages in acts of racism without racists are mistaken. I wish to reply to Fischer’s objections in this article, through four sets of contentions: Fischer’s arguments reveal some misunderstandings in terms of the concept of racism and, particularly, of ‘racism without racists’; his arguments also underestimate the burdens suffered by individuals who wish to become (...)
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  10.  25
    Field Deaths in Plant Agriculture.Bob Fischer & Andy Lamey - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):409-428.
    We know that animals are harmed in plant production. Unfortunately, though, we know very little about the scale of the problem. This matters for two reasons. First, we can’t decide how many resources to devote to the problem without a better sense of its scope. Second, this information shortage throws a wrench in arguments for veganism, since it’s always possible that a diet that contains animal products is complicit in fewer deaths than a diet that avoids them. In this paper, (...)
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  11.  22
    Why Milk Consumption is the Bigger Problem: Ethical Implications and Deaths Per Calorie Created of Milk Compared to Meat Production.Karin Kolbe - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):467-481.
    Pictures of sides of beef, hanging from overhead rails in refrigerated warehouses and meat-processing plants, often leave a feeling of unease. These pictures provoke the notion that human beings have no right to inflict suffering and death on other sentient beings for the sole purpose of providing food. However, the ethical analysis conducted in this study shows that meat production, if animal welfare and deaths per calorie created are considered, is less of a pressing problem compared to the production of (...)
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  12.  6
    The Danube Region—On Stream with Animal Welfare Assessment in the Last 35 Years: A Review of Research on Animal Welfare Assessment in a Multi-Lingual Area in Europe. [REVIEW]Tomislav Mikuš, Miroslav Radeski, Ludovic Toma Cziszter, Ivan Dimitrov, Viktor Jurkovich, Katarina Nenadović, Mario Ostović, Manja Zupan & Marlene Katharina Kirchner - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):511-526.
    This review presents first ever literature survey on historical development of farm animal welfare indicators and assessment in the Danube region. This area, encompassing European Eastern countries and the Balkans, is to a large extent heterogeneous in terms of culture and language. However, international publications were disproportionally small compared to the amount of research institutions and animal welfare activities present in the region. Therefore, the authors aimed at investigating the published literature, focusing on country level and on native languages. Data (...)
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  13.  11
    How Ecology Can Edify Ethics: The Scope of Morality.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):443-454.
    Over the past several decades environmental ethics has grown markedly, normative ethics having provided essential grounding in assessing human treatment of the environment. Even a systematic approach, such as Paul Taylor’s, in a sense tells the environment how it is to be treated, whether that be Earth’s ecosystem or the universe itself. Can the environment, especially the ecosystem, as understood through the study of ecology, in turn offer normative and applied ethics any edification? The study of ecology has certainly increased (...)
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  14.  3
    Food Sovereignty and Gender Justice.Anne Portman - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):455-466.
    Food sovereignty asserts the right of peoples to define and organize their own agricultural and food systems so as to meet local needs and so as to secure access to land, water and seed. A commitment to gender equity has been embedded in the food sovereignty concept from its earliest articulations. Some might wonder why gender justice should figure so prominently in a food movement. In this paper I review and augment the arguments for making gender equity a central component (...)
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  15.  2
    The Great Decoupling: Why Minimizing Humanity’s Dependence on the Environment May Not Be Cause for Celebration.Kenneth Shockley - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):429-442.
    Characterizations of the Anthropocene often indicate both the challenges that our new epoch poses for human well-being and a sense of loss that comes from a compromised environment. In this paper I explore a deeper problem underpinning both issues, namely, that decoupling humanity from the world with which we are familiar compromises human flourishing. The environmental conditions characteristic of the Anthropocene do so, I claim, by compromising flourishing on two fronts. First, the comparatively novel conditions of the Anthropocene risk rupturing (...)
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  16.  6
    Values in Climate Ethics.Hein Berdinesen - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):389-403.
    The aim of the article is to give an outline of a value theory suitable for climate ethics, based on a perfectionist account on the convergence between prudential values and moral responsibility. I claim that such a convergence may generate a system of values that specify norms and obligations and attribute responsibility towards future generations, and thereby provides us with a measure of acceptable political action.
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  17.  4
    Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Agriculture: Reconciling the Epistemological, Ethical, Political, and Practical Challenges.Robert M. Chiles, Eileen E. Fabian, Daniel Tobin, Scott J. Colby & S. Molly DePue - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):341-348.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide further clarity to the technical and policy difficulties associated with mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture by identifying and distilling the core tensions which propagate and animate them. We argue that these complexities exist across four critical dimensions: the epistemological, the ethical, the political, and the practical. Adequately confronting the challenge of agricultural emissions will require improved transparency in emissions measurement, increased science communication, enhanced public participatory mechanisms, and the integration of ethical (...)
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  18.  3
    Strong Patient Advocacy and the Fundamental Ethical Role of Veterinarians.Simon Coghlan - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):349-367.
    This essay examines the fundamental role of veterinarians in companion animal practice by developing the idea of veterinarians as strong advocates for their nonhuman animal patients. While the practitioner-patient relationship has been explored extensively in medical ethics, the relation between practitioner and animal patient has received relatively less attention in the expanding but still young field of veterinary ethics. Over recent decades, social and professional ethical perspectives on human-animal relationships have undergone major change. Today, the essential role of veterinarians is (...)
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  19.  6
    Is Abolitionism Guilty of Racism? A Reply to Cordeiro-Rodrigues.Bob Fischer - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):295-306.
    Gary Francione is an abolitionist: he maintains that we ought to abolish the institutions and practices that support the exploitation of animals. He also believes that veganism is the “moral baseline” — that is, he thinks it’s morally required of nearly everyone in the developed world, and many beyond it. Luis Cordeiro-Rodrigues claims that abolitionism is guilty of racism, albeit “racism without racists.” I contend that his arguments for this conclusion aren’t successful.
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  20.  13
    Moral Considerability and the Argument From Relevance.Oscar Horta - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):369-388.
    The argument from relevance expresses an intuition that, although shared by many applied ethicists, has not been analyzed and systematized in the form of a clear argument thus far. This paper does this by introducing the concept of value relevance, which has been used before in economy but not in the philosophical literature. The paper explains how value relevance is different from moral relevance, and distinguishes between direct and indirect ways in which the latter can depend on the former. These (...)
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  21.  2
    Can Species Have Capabilities, and What If They Can?Teea Kortetmäki - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):307-323.
    In this article, I apply the environmental or expanded capabilities approach to species and examine whether species as wholes can have capabilities and what are the implications if they can. The examination provides support for the claim that species as evolutionary groups can possess capabilities. They have integrity, which refers to the functionings that enable the self-making and development of species, and it is conceptually possible to identify capabilities that essentially enable or contribute to species integrity. One central capability for (...)
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  22.  4
    Nilanjan Ghosh, Pranab Mukhopadhyay, Amita Shah and Manoj Panda: Nature, Economy and Society: Understanding the Linkages.S. Suresh Ramanan & S. Balaji - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):405-407.
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  23. Exploring Influences of Different Communication Approaches on Consumer Target Groups for Ethically Produced Beef.Antje Risius & Ulrich Hamm - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (3):325-340.
    Communicating the process quality of ethically produced food effectively is of highest interest to policy makers, organizations, retailers and producers in order to enhance ethical food production and increase ethical label use. The objective of this paper is to unveil the effectiveness of different communication treatments in regard to changing purchase behavior of different consumer groups. Different communication material for beef produced according to consumer expectations was compiled and applied in a consumer survey—incorporating a choice experiment and a questionnaire—with 676 (...)
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  24.  2
    An Overview of Engineering Approaches to Improving Agricultural Animal Welfare.Candace Croney, William Muir, Ji-Qin Ni, Nicole Olynk Widmar & Gary Varner - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):143-159.
    In this essay, we provide an overview of how production systems can be re-engineered to improve the welfare of the animals involved. At least three potential options exist: engineering their environments to better fit the animals, engineering the animals themselves to better fit their environments, and eliminating the animals from the system by growing meat in vitro rather than on farms. The morality of consuming animal products and the conditions under which agricultural animals are maintained remain highly contentious, and when (...)
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  25.  41
    Wild Animal Suffering is Intractable.Nicolas Delon & Duncan Purves - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):239-260.
    Most people believe that suffering is intrinsically bad. In conjunction with facts about our world and plausible moral principles, this yields a pro tanto obligation to reduce suffering. This is the intuitive starting point for the moral argument in favor of interventions to prevent wild animal suffering. If we accept the moral principle that we ought, pro tanto, to reduce the suffering of all sentient creatures, and we recognize the prevalence of suffering in the wild, then we seem committed to (...)
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  26.  4
    Death-Free Dairy? The Ethics of Clean Milk.Josh Milburn - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):261-279.
    The possibility of “clean milk”—dairy produced without the need for cows—has been championed by several charities, companies, and individuals. One can ask how those critical of the contemporary dairy industry, including especially vegans and others sympathetic to animal rights, should respond to this prospect. In this paper, I explore three kinds of challenges that such people may have to clean milk: first, that producing clean milk fails to respect animals; second, that humans should not consume dairy products; and third, that (...)
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  27.  12
    Beyond Castration and Culling: Should We Use Non-Surgical, Pharmacological Methods to Control the Sexual Behavior and Reproduction of Animals?Clare Palmer, Hanne Gervi Pedersen & Peter Sandøe - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):197-218.
    This paper explores ethical issues raised by the application of non-surgical, pharmaceutical fertility control to manage reproductive behaviors in domesticated and wild animal species. We focus on methods that interfere with the effects of GnRH, making animals infertile and significantly suppressing sexual behavior in both sexes. The paper is anchored by considering ethical issues raised by four diverse cases: the use of pharmaceutical fertility control in male slaughter pigs, domesticated stallions and mares, male companion dogs and female white-tailed deer. Ethical (...)
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  28.  2
    Introduction to the Special Edition on Engineering and Animal Ethics.Clare Palmer & Gary Varner - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):137-142.
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  29.  26
    Is CRISPR an Ethical Game Changer?Marcus Schultz-Bergin - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):219-238.
    By many accounts, CRISPR gene-editing technology is revolutionizing biotechnology. It has been hailed as a scientific game changer and is being adopted at a break-neck pace. This hasty adoption has left little time for ethical reflection, and so this paper aims to begin filling that gap by exploring whether CRISPR is as much an ethical game changer as it is a biological one. By focusing on the application of CRISPR to non-human animals, I argue that CRISPR has and will continue (...)
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  30. Genetically Modifying Livestock for Improved Welfare: A Path Forward.Adam Shriver & Emilie McConnachie - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):161-180.
    In recent years, humans’ ability to selectively modify genes has increased dramatically as a result of the development of new, more efficient, and easier genetic modification technology. In this paper, we argue in favor of using this technology to improve the welfare of agricultural animals. We first argue that using animals genetically modified for improved welfare is preferable to the current status quo. Nevertheless, the strongest argument against pursuing gene editing for welfare is that there are alternative approaches to addressing (...)
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  31.  8
    Engineering Life Expectancy and Non-Identity Cases.Tatjana Višak - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):281-293.
    In his paper “Eating Animals the Nice Way” McMahan : 66–76, 2008) explores whether there are ways of routinely using non-human animals for human consumption that are morally acceptable. He dismisses a practice of benign animal husbandry, in which animals are killed prematurely and believes that a practice in which animals were engineered to drop down dead instantaneously at the same age would be equally wrong, even though it would not involve killing. Yet, McMahan considers his intuition that both practices (...)
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  32.  8
    Precision Livestock Farming and Farmers’ Duties to Livestock.Ian Werkheiser - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):181-195.
    Precision livestock farming promises to allow modern, large-scale farms to replicate, at scale, caring farmers who know their animals. PLF refers to a suite of technologies, some only speculative. The goal is to use networked devices to continuously monitor individual animals on large farms, to compare this information to expected norms, and to use algorithms to manage individual animals automatically. Supporters say this could not only create an artificial version of the partially mythologized image of the good steward caring for (...)
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  33.  5
    A Public Survey on Handling Male Chicks in the Dutch Egg Sector.B. Gremmen, M. R. N. Bruijnis, V. Blok & E. N. Stassen - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):93-107.
    In 2035 global egg demand will have risen 50% from 1985. Because we are not able to tell in the egg whether it will become a male or female chick, billons of one day-old male chicks will be killed. International research initiatives are underway in this area, and governments encourage the development of an alternative with the goal of eliminating the culling of day-old male chicks. The Netherlands holds an exceptional position in the European egg trade, but is also the (...)
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  34.  13
    Can Friends Be Copied? Ethical Aspects of Cloning Dogs as Companion Animals.K. Heðinsdóttir, S. Kondrup, H. Röcklinsberg & M. Gjerris - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):17-29.
    Since the first successful attempt to clone a dog in 2005, dogs have been cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer for a variety of purposes. One of these is to clone dogs as companion animals. In this paper we discuss some of the ethical implications that cloning companion dogs through SCNT encompasses, specifically in relation to human–dog relationships, but also regarding animal welfare and animal integrity. We argue that insofar as we understand the relationship with our companion dogs as one (...)
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  35.  4
    The Great Indian Agrarian Crisis and Tales of Two Villages: Comparative Studies.Ritu Jha - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):31-37.
    The world is really feeling the heat, not only in the form of climate change, but because of fuming farmers’ unrest. Farmers’ suicides have become a common way of expressing their anger and anxiety as no one is there to take heed to their problems. This research paper tries to examine the in-depth analysis of the great agrarian crisis in India and how it was completely mistaken in understanding the real cause. With the comparative studies of the two villages of (...)
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  36.  10
    Anthropocentrism: More Than Just a Misunderstood Problem.Helen Kopnina, Haydn Washington, Bron Taylor & John J. Piccolo - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):109-127.
    Anthropocentrism, in its original connotation in environmental ethics, is the belief that value is human-centred and that all other beings are means to human ends. Environmentally -concerned authors have argued that anthropocentrism is ethically wrong and at the root of ecological crises. Some environmental ethicists argue, however, that critics of anthropocentrism are misguided or even misanthropic. They contend: first that criticism of anthropocentrism can be counterproductive and misleading by failing to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate human interests. Second, that humans (...)
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  37.  5
    Geopolitics and Social Resistance: Flows of Latin America’s Natural Resources.Victoria Machado - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):129-135.
    This review essay looks at Christopher Boyer’s Political landscapes: forests, conservation and community in Mexico,, Thomas Miller Klubock’s La Frontera: forests and ecological conflict in Chile’s Frontier Territory, Pablo Lapegna’s Soybeans and power: genetically modified crops, environmental politics and social movements in Argentina and Elspeth Probyn’s Eating the ocean as each provide a holistic study of how political ecology and marginalized peoples engage the issue of natural resources in Latin America. Through they deal with different regions and a wide range (...)
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  38.  6
    The Ethics and Politics of Food Purchasing Choices in Italian Consumers’ Collective Action.Giovanna Sacchi - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):73-91.
    Currently, many consumers have expressed strong opinions about food production process, its distribution, and guaranteeing models. Consumers’ concerns about ecological and social sustainability issues can have significant impacts on both food demand and food policies. The choice of approach to an asset or service could determine the orientation of the markets; therefore, it is particularly important to pay attention to novel, collective, social movements which are practicing alternatives to the mainstream models of production, distribution, and consumption. Farmers markets, solidarity-based purchasing (...)
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  39.  10
    Climate Change and Moral Excuse: The Difficulty of Assigning Responsibility to Individuals.Theresa Scavenius - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):1-15.
    A prominent argument in the climate ethical literature is that individual polluters are responsible for paying the costs of climate change.1 By contrast, I argue that we have reason to excuse individual agents morally for their contributions to climate change. This paper explores some of the possible constraints agents may face when they try to avoid harming the climate, constraints that might be acceptable reasons for excusing people’s contributions to climate change. Two lines of arguments are discussed. The first concerns (...)
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  40.  44
    Precaution and Fairness: A Framework for Distributing Costs of Protection From Environmental Risks.Espen Dyrnes Stabell & Daniel Steel - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):55-71.
    While there is an extensive literature on how the precautionary principle should be interpreted and when precautions should be taken, relatively little discussion exists about the fair distribution of costs of taking precautions. We address this issue by proposing a general framework for deciding how costs of precautions should be shared, which consists of a series of default principles that are triggered according to desert, rights, and ability to pay. The framework is developed with close attention to the pragmatics of (...)
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  41.  2
    Some Basis for a Renewed Regulation of Agri-Food Biotechnology in the EU.Giovanni Tagliabue & Klaus Ammann - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (1):39-53.
    A radical reform of the agri-food biotech regulation in the EU is considered in many quarters as a pressing necessity. Indeed, two important decisions on the legal status of the so-called New Breeding Techniques are expected shortly. In order to clarify some basic aspects of the complex scenario, after a brief introduction regarding the “GMO” fallacy, we offer our point of view on the following facets: A faulty approach is frequent in the discussion of the agri-food regulation; NBTs, genome editing (...)
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