27 found

Year:

  1.  3
    Self-Deception about Fecundity in Women.Philip H. Crowley - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):421-442.
    Concealed fecundity and extended female sexual receptivity have evolved in some primates, including humans, conferring advantages both within primarily monogamous relationships and from extrapair liaisons. As humans evolved the intellectual capacity for decision-making, women became capable of altering their own fertility. In some circumstances, they may choose to ameliorate risks and responsibilities associated with pregnancy by reducing sexual motivation near the perceived most fecund time of their menstrual cycle. But three findings—a general inability of women to accurately recognize their own (...)
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  2.  4
    Influence of Sexual Genotype and Gender Self-Perception on Sociosexuality and Self-Esteem Among Transgender People.Rodrigo de Menezes Gomes, Fívia de Araújo Lopes & Felipe Nalon Castro - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):483-496.
    Empirical data from studies with both heterosexual and homosexual individuals have consistently indicated different tendencies in mating behavior. However, transgenders’ data are often overlooked. This exploratory study compared levels of sociosexuality and self-esteem between transgenders and non-transgender individuals. The aim was to verify whether either sexual genotype or gender self-perception had more influence on the examined variables in transgenders. Correlations between self-esteem and sociosexuality levels were also investigated. The sample consisted of 120 Brazilian individuals from both sexes. Sociosexuality scores indicated (...)
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  3.  5
    Dispositional Fear and Political Attitudes.Peter K. Hatemi & Rose McDermott - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):387-405.
    Previous work proposes that dispositional fear exists predominantly among political conservatives, generating the appearance that fears align strictly along party lines. This view obscures evolutionary dynamics because fear evolved to protect against myriad threats, not merely those in the political realm. We suggest prior work in this area has been biased by selection on the dependent variable, resulting from an examination of exclusively politically oriented fears that privilege conservative values. Because the adaptation regulating fear should be based upon both universal (...)
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  4.  3
    The Pedagogue, the Engineer, and the Friend.François Osiurak, Caroline Cretel, Naomi Duhau-Marmon, Isabelle Fournier, Lucie Marignier, Emmanuel De Oliveira, Jordan Navarro & Emanuelle Reynaud - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):462-482.
    Humans can follow different social learning strategies, sometimes oriented toward the models’ characteristics. The goal of the present study was to explore which who-strategy is preferentially followed in the technological context based on the models’ psychological characteristics. We identified three potential who-strategies: Copy the pedagogue, copy the engineer, and copy the friend. We developed a closed-group micro-society paradigm in which participants had to build the highest possible towers. Participants began with an individual building phase. Then, they were gathered to discuss (...)
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  5.  4
    Are Moral Intuitions Heritable?Kevin Smith & Peter K. Hatemi - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):406-420.
    Two prominent theoretical frameworks in moral psychology, Moral Foundations and Dual Process Theory, share a broad foundational assumption that individual differences in human morality are dispositional and in part due to genetic variation. The only published direct test of heritability, however, found little evidence of genetic influences on moral judgments using instrumentation approaches associated with Moral Foundations Theory. This raised questions about one of the core assumptions underpinning intuitionist theories of moral psychology. Here we examine the heritability of moral psychology (...)
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  6.  3
    The Marginal Utility of Inequality.Kurt M. Wilson & Brian F. Codding - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):361-386.
    Despite decades of research, we still lack a clear explanation for the emergence and persistence of inequality. Here we propose and evaluate a marginal utility of inequality hypothesis that nominates circumscription and environmental heterogeneity as independent, necessary conditions for the emergence of intragroup material inequality. After coupling the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample with newly generated data from remote sensing, we test predictions derived from this hypothesis using a multivariate generalized additive model that accounts for spatial and historical dependence as well as (...)
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  7.  5
    The “Social Brain,” Reciprocity, and Social Network Segregation along Ethnic Boundaries.Michael Windzio - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (4):443-461.
    How does segregation along ethnic boundaries emerge in social networks? Human evolution resulted in highly social beings, capable of prosociality, mindreading, and self-control, which are important aspects of the “social brain.” Our neurophysiologically “wired” social cognition implies different cognitive goal frames. In line with recent developments in behavioral theory, the present study defines network ties as episodes of social exchange. This dynamic definition can account for shifts in goal frames during an exchange episode: whereas deliberate choice and hedonic or gain (...)
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  8.  4
    Papa Don’t Preach?Dax J. Kellie, Barnaby J. W. Dixson & Robert C. Brooks - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):222-248.
    The suppression of sexuality is culturally widespread, and women’s sexual promiscuity, activity, and enjoyment are almost always judged and punished more harshly than men’s. It remains disputed, however, to what end people suppress sexuality, and who benefits from the suppression of female sexuality. Different theories predict that women in general, men in general, women’s intimate partners, or parents benefit most. Here we use the lies women and men tell—or imagine telling—about their sexual histories as an indirect measure of who is (...)
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  9.  2
    Do Criminals Live Faster Than Soldiers and Firefighters?Monika Kwiek & Przemysław Piotrowski - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):272-295.
    A high risk of morbidity-mortality caused by a harsh and unpredictable environment is considered to be associated with a fast life history strategy, commonly linked with criminal behavior. However, offenders are not the only group with a high exposure to extrinsic morbidity-mortality. In the present study, we investigated the LH strategies employed by two groups of Polish men: incarcerated offenders as well as soldiers and firefighters, whose professions involve an elevated risk of injury and premature death. The subjects were asked (...)
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  10.  3
    The Structure of the Mini-K and K-SF-42.Joseph H. Manson, Kristine J. Chua & Aaron W. Lukaszewski - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):322-340.
    Life history theory is a fruitful source of testable hypotheses about human individual differences. However, this field of study is beset by unresolved debates about basic concepts and methods. One of these controversies concerns the usefulness of instruments that purport to tap a unidimensional life history factor based on a set of self-reported personality, social, and attitudinal variables. Here, we take a novel approach to analyzing the psychometrics of two variants of the Arizona Life History Battery: the Mini-K and the (...)
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  11.  2
    On the Incongruence between Psychometric and Psychosocial-Biodemographic Measures of Life History.Janko Međedović - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):341-360.
    In evolutionary psychology, it is customary to measure life-history via psychometric inventories such as the Arizona Life History Battery. The validity of this approach has been questioned: it is argued that these measures are not congruent with biological life history events, such as the number of children, age at first birth, or pubertal timing. However, empirical data to test this critique are lacking. We therefore administered the ALHB to a convenience sample of young adults in Serbia. We also collected information (...)
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  12.  1
    Hunting Otherwise.Victoria Reyes-García, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Romain Duda, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares & Sandrine Gallois - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):203-221.
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change, we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women’s engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities (...)
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  13.  4
    Gender, Stereotypes, and Trust in Communication.Eric Schniter & Timothy W. Shields - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):296-321.
    Gender differences in dishonesty and mistrust have been reported across cultures and linked to stereotypes about females being more trustworthy and trusting. Here we focus on fundamental issues of trust-based communication that may be affected by gender: the decisions whether to honestly deliver private information and whether to trust that this delivered information is honest. Using laboratory experiments that model trust-based strategic communication and response, we examined the relationship between gender, gender stereotypes, and gender discriminative lies and challenges. Drawing from (...)
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  14.  2
    Resource Stress Predicts Changes in Religious Belief and Increases in Sharing Behavior.Ian Skoggard, Carol R. Ember, Emily Pitek, Joshua Conrad Jackson & Christina Carolus - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (3):249-271.
    We examine and test alternative models for explaining the relationships between resource stress, beliefs that gods and spirits influence weather, and customary beyond-household sharing behavior. Our model, the resource stress model, suggests that resource stress affects both sharing as well as conceptions of gods’ involvement with weather, but these supernatural beliefs play no role in explaining sharing. An alternative model, the moralizing high god model, suggests that the relationship between resource stress and sharing is at least partially mediated by religious (...)
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  15.  3
    Jane Lancaster and Human Nature.Robert K. Hitchcock - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):120-122.
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  16.  5
    Correction To: Sex Differences in the Association of Family and Personal Income and Wealth with Fertility in the United States.Rosemary L. Hopcroft - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):196-202.
    Because of an error in calculation of coefficients reported in the article “Sex Differences in the Association of Family and Personal Income and Wealth with Fertility in the United States”.
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  17.  3
    Can Development Programs Shape Cooperation?Lucentezza Napitupulu, Jetske Bouma, Sonia Graham & Victoria Reyes-García - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):174-195.
    Empirical studies among small-scale societies show that participation in national development programs impact traditional norms of community cooperation. We explore the extent to which varying levels of village and individual involvement in development policies relate to voluntary cooperation within community settings. We used a field experiment conducted in seven villages from an indigenous society in Indonesia known for their strong traditional cooperative norms, the Punan Tubu. We framed the experiment in terms of an ongoing government house-building program. The results indicate (...)
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  18.  13
    Why Class Formation Occurs in Humans but Not Among Other Primates.Sagar A. Pandit, Gauri R. Pradhan & Carel P. Van Schaik - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):155-173.
    Most human societies exhibit a distinct class structure, with an elite, middle classes, and a bottom class, whereas animals form simple dominance hierarchies in which individuals with higher fighting ability do not appear to form coalitions to “oppress” weaker individuals. Here, we extend our model of primate coalitions and find that a division into a bottom class and an upper class is inevitable whenever fitness-enhancing resources, such as food or real estate, are exploitable or tradable and the members of the (...)
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  19.  1
    Effects of Individual Mortality Experience on Out-of-Wedlock Fertility in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Krummhörn, Germany.Katharina E. Pink, Kai P. Willführ, Eckart Voland & Paul Puschmann - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):141-154.
    Life history theory predicts that exposure to high mortality in early childhood leads to faster and riskier reproductive strategies. Individuals who grew up in a high mortality regime will not overly wait until they find a suitable partner and form a stable union because premature death would prevent them from reproducing. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine whether women who experienced sibling death during early childhood reproduced earlier and were at an increased risk of giving birth to an (...)
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  20.  2
    Changes in Juvenile Foraging Behavior Among the Hadza of Tanzania During Early Transition to a Mixed-Subsistence Economy.Trevor R. Pollom, Kristen N. Herlosky, Ibrahim A. Mabulla & Alyssa N. Crittenden - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):123-140.
    The Hadza foragers of Tanzania are currently experiencing a nutritional shift that includes the intensification of domesticated cultigens in the diet. Despite these changes, no study, to date, has examined the possible effects of this transition on the food collection behavior of young foragers. Here we present a cross-sectional study on foraging behavior taken from two time points, 2005 and 2017. We compare the number of days foraged and the type and amount of food collected for young foragers, aged 5–14 (...)
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  21.  6
    No Association between 2D:4D Ratio and Hunting Success among Hadza Hunters.Duncan N. E. Stibbard-Hawkes - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):22-42.
    The ratio of index- and ring-finger lengths is thought to be related to prenatal androgen exposure, and in many, though not all, populations, men have a lower average digit ratio than do women. In many studies an inverse relationship has been observed, among both men and women, between 2D:4D ratio and measures of athletic ability. It has been further suggested that, in hunter-gatherer populations, 2D:4D ratio might also be negatively correlated with hunting ability, itself assumed to be contingent on athleticism. (...)
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  22.  7
    In Memoriam.Peter B. Gray, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Coren L. Apicella, Colette Berbesque, Duncan N. E. Stibbard-Hawkes & Brian Wood - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):1-8.
    The ratio of index- and ring-finger lengths is thought to be related to prenatal androgen exposure, and in many, though not all, populations, men have a lower average digit ratio than do women. In many studies an inverse relationship has been observed, among both men and women, between 2D:4D ratio and measures of athletic ability. It has been further suggested that, in hunter-gatherer populations, 2D:4D ratio might also be negatively correlated with hunting ability, itself assumed to be contingent on athleticism. (...)
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  23.  7
    In Memoriam.Edward H. Hagen & Lawrence S. Sugiyama - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):9-21.
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  24.  6
    The Effects of the Mating Market, Sex, Age, and Income on Sociopolitical Orientation.Francesca R. Luberti, Khandis R. Blake & Robert C. Brooks - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):88-111.
    Sociopolitical attitudes are often the root cause of conflicts between individuals, groups, and even nations, but little is known about the origin of individual differences in sociopolitical orientation. We test a combination of economic and evolutionary ideas about the degree to which the mating market, sex, age, and income affect sociopolitical orientation. We collected data online through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk from 1108 US participants who were between 18 and 60, fluent in English, and single. While ostensibly testing a new online (...)
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  25.  6
    Breastfeeding Duration and the Social Learning of Infant Feeding Knowledge in Two Maya Communities.Luseadra J. McKerracher, Pablo Nepomnaschy, Rachel MacKay Altman, Daniel Sellen & Mark Collard - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):43-67.
    Variation in the durations of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding is associated with socioecological factors. This plasticity in breastfeeding behavior appears adaptive, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. With this concept in mind, we investigated whether durations of exBF and anyBF in a rural Maya population covary with markers of a form of socioecological change—market integration—and whether individual factors and/or learning from others in the community mediate these changes. Using data from 419 mother-child pairs from two Guatemalan Maya villages, we (...)
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  26.  5
    No Association Between 2D:4D Ratio and Hunting Success Among Hadza Hunters.Duncan N. E. Stibbard-Hawkes - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):22-42.
    The ratio of index- and ring-finger lengths is thought to be related to prenatal androgen exposure, and in many, though not all, populations, men have a lower average digit ratio than do women. In many studies an inverse relationship has been observed, among both men and women, between 2D:4D ratio and measures of athletic ability. It has been further suggested that, in hunter-gatherer populations, 2D:4D ratio might also be negatively correlated with hunting ability, itself assumed to be contingent on athleticism. (...)
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  27.  10
    Effortful Control Development in the Face of Harshness and Unpredictability.Shannon M. Warren & Melissa A. Barnett - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):68-87.
    Using psychosocial acceleration theory, this multimethod, multi-reporter study examines how early adversity adaptively shapes the development of a self-regulation construct: effortful control. Investigation of links between early life harshness and unpredictability and the development of effortful control could facilitate a nuanced understanding of early environmental effects on cognitive and social development. Using the Building Strong Families national longitudinal data set, aspects of early environmental harshness and early environmental unpredictability were tested as unique predictors of effortful control at age 3 using (...)
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