11 found

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  1. Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy.Nathan Cofnas - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):134-156.
    MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a “group evolutionary strategy.” Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews (...)
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  2. Food Sharing across Borders.Barbara Fruth & Gottfried Hohmann - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):91-103.
    Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors’ capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups. Here we report the (...)
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  3.  2
    Why Only Humans Shed Emotional Tears.Asmir Gračanin, Lauren M. Bylsma & Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):104-133.
    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the functions of tears. This is especially the case for infant crying, which we address in the first part of this contribution. We further elaborate on the antecedents and functions of emotional tears in adults. The main hypothesis that emerges from (...)
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  4.  2
    Evidence for the Adaptive Learning Function of Work and Work-Themed Play among Aka Forager and Ngandu Farmer Children from the Congo Basin.Sheina Lew-Levy & Adam H. Boyette - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):157-185.
    Work-themed play may allow children to learn complex skills, and ethno-typical and gender-typical behaviors. Thus, play may have made important contributions to the evolution of childhood through the development of embodied capital. Using data from Aka foragers and Ngandu farmer children from the Central African Republic, we ask whether children perform ethno- and gender-typical play and work activities, and whether play prepares children for complex work. Focal follows of 50 Aka and 48 Ngandu children were conducted with the aim of (...)
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  5.  3
    Living Slow and Being Moral.Nan Zhu, Skyler T. Hawk & Lei Chang - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):186-209.
    Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges and other-centered moral orientation. In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively, or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively, positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition. Cognitive processes were more closely related to rational (...)
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  6.  7
    Inbreeding in Southeastern Spain.R. Calderón, C. L. Hernández, G. García-Varela, D. Masciarelli & P. Cuesta - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):45-64.
    In this paper, the structure of a southeastern Spanish population was studied for the first time with respect to its inbreeding patterns and its relationship with demographic and geographic factors. Data on consanguineous marriages from 1900 to 1969 were taken from ecclesiastic dispensations. Our results confirm that the patterns and trends of inbreeding in the study area are consistent with those previously observed in most non-Cantabrian Spanish populations. The rate of consanguineous marriages was apparently stable between 1900 and 1935 and (...)
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  7.  2
    Possible Balancing Selection in Human Female Homosexuality.Andrea Camperio Ciani, Umberto Battaglia, Linda Cesare, Giorgia Camperio Ciani & Claudio Capiluppi - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):14-32.
    A growing number of researchers suggest that female homosexuality is at least in part influenced by genetic factors. Unlike for male homosexuality, few familial studies have attempted to explore maintenance of this apparently fitness-detrimental trait in the population. Using multiple recruitment methods, we explored fecundity and sexual orientation within the pedigrees of 1,458 adult female respondents. We compared 487 homosexual and 163 bisexual with 808 heterosexual females and 30,203 of their relatives. Our data suggest that the direct fitness of homosexual (...)
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  8.  3
    Measuring the Unmeasurable.Stefan L. K. Gruijters & Bram P. I. Fleuren - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):33-44.
    Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement—as operationalized by K-factors—involves conceptual entanglements. We argue that current psychometric approaches attempting to identify K-factors are based on an unwarranted conflation of functional descriptions and (...)
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  9.  3
    Grandmothers and Children’s Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa.Sandor Schrijner & Jeroen Smits - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):65-89.
    Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother’s importance depends on the family’s circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother’s co-residence and children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive. Grandmothers over age 60 are most effective in helping their children. They (...)
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  10.  7
    Altruistic Behavior Among Twins.Encarnación Tornero, Juan F. Sánchez-Romera, José J. Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez & Juan R. Ordoñana - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):1-12.
    According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity. We (...)
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  11.  3
    Correction To: Altruistic Behavior Among Twins.Encarnación Tornero, Juan F. Sánchez-Romera, José J. Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez & Juan R. Ordoñana - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):13-13.
    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of the article title and subtitle was incorrect.
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