27 found

Year:

  1.  5
    Social Networks and Knowledge Transmission Strategies among Baka Children, Southeastern Cameroon.Sandrine Gallois, Miranda J. Lubbers, Barry Hewlett & Victoria Reyes-García - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):442-463.
    The dynamics of knowledge transmission and acquisition, or how different aspects of culture are passed from one individual to another and how they are acquired and embodied by individuals, are central to understanding cultural evolution. In small-scale societies, cultural knowledge is largely acquired early in life through observation, imitation, and other forms of social learning embedded in daily experiences. However, little is known about the pathways through which such knowledge is transmitted, especially during middle childhood and adolescence. This study presents (...)
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  2.  1
    Review of Steve Stewart-Williams’s The Ape That Understood the Universe: How the Mind and Culture Evolve. [REVIEW]Peter B. Gray - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):464-467.
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  3. Review of Shefferson, Jones, and Salguero-Gómez , The Evolution of Senescence in the Tree of Life. [REVIEW]Michael Gurven - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):468-474.
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  4.  3
    Rituals, Repetitiveness and Cognitive Load.Johannes Alfons Karl & Ronald Fischer - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):418-441.
    A central hypothesis to account for the ubiquity of rituals across cultures is their supposed anxiolytic effects: rituals being maintained because they reduce existential anxiety and uncertainty. We aimed to test the anxiolytic effects of rituals by investigating two possible underlying mechanisms for it: cognitive load and repetitive movement. In our pre-registered experiment, 180 undergraduates took part in either a stress or a control condition and were subsequently assigned to either control, cognitive load, undirected movement, a combination of undirected movement (...)
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  5.  4
    Eyes, More Than Other Facial Features, Enhance Real-World Donation Behavior.Caroline Kelsey, Amrisha Vaish & Tobias Grossmann - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):390-401.
    Humans often behave more prosocially when being observed in person and even in response to subtle eye cues, purportedly to manage their reputation. Previous research on this phenomenon has employed the “watching eyes paradigm,” in which adults displayed greater prosocial behavior in the presence of images of eyes versus inanimate objects. However, the robustness of the effect of eyes on prosocial behavior has recently been called into question. Therefore, the first goal of the present study was to attempt to replicate (...)
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  6.  3
    Pairs of Genetically Unrelated Look-Alikes.Nancy L. Segal, Brittney A. Hernandez, Jamie L. Graham & Ulrich Ettinger - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):402-417.
    Relationships of physical resemblance to personality similarity and social affiliation have generated considerable discussion among behavioral science researchers. A “twin-like” experimental design explores associations among resemblance in appearance, the Big Five personality traits, self-esteem, and social attraction within an evolutionary framework. The Personality for Professionals Inventory, NEO/NEO-FFI-3, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a Social Relationship Survey were variously completed by 45 U-LA pairs, identified from the “I’m Not a Look-Alike” project, Mentorn Media, and personal referrals. The mean U-LA intraclass correlations were (...)
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  7.  4
    Honor and Violence.John Thrasher & Toby Handfield - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (4):371-389.
    We present a theory of honor violence as a form of costly signaling. Two types of honor violence are identified: revenge and purification. Both types are amenable to a signaling analysis whereby the violent behavior is a signal that can be used by out-groups to draw inferences about the nature of the signaling group, thereby helping to solve perennial problems of social cooperation: deterrence and assurance. The analysis shows that apparently gratuitous acts of violence can be part of a system (...)
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  8.  80
    Steroid Hormone Reactivity in Fathers Watching Their Children Compete.Louis Calistro Alvarado, Martin N. Muller, Melissa A. Eaton & Melissa Emery Thompson - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):268-282.
    This study examines steroid production in fathers watching their children compete, extending previous research of vicarious success or failure on men’s hormone levels. Salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured in 18 fathers watching their children play in a soccer tournament. Participants completed a survey about the game and provided demographic information. Fathers with higher pregame testosterone levels were more likely to report that referees were biased against their children’s teams, and pre- to postgame testosterone elevation was predicted by watching (...)
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  9.  1
    Men’s Interest in Allying with a Previous Combatant for Future Group Combat.Nicole Barbaro, Justin K. Mogilski, Todd K. Shackelford & Michael N. Pham - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):328-336.
    Intra- and intergroup conflict are likely to have been recurrent features of human evolutionary history; however, little research has investigated the factors that affect men’s combat alliance decisions. The current study investigated whether features of previous one-on-one combat with an opponent affect men’s interest in allying with that opponent for future group combat. Fifty-eight undergraduate men recruited from a psychology department subject pool participated in a one-on-one laboratory fight simulation. We manipulated fight outcome, perceived fighter health asymmetry, and the presence (...)
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  10.  4
    Trash-Talking and Trolling.Kevin M. Kniffin & Dylan Palacio - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):353-369.
    Among the extra-physical aspects of team sports, the ways in which players talk to each other are among the more colorful but understudied dimensions of competition. To contribute an empirical basis for examining the nature of “trash talk,” we present the results of a study of 291 varsity athletes who compete in the top division among US universities. Based on a preliminary review of trash-talk topics among student-athletes, we asked participants to indicate the frequency with which they have communicated or (...)
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  11.  4
    Toward a Natural History of Team Sports.Kevin M. Kniffin & Michelle Scalise Sugiyama - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):211-218.
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  12.  6
    University Sports Rivalries Provide Insights on Coalitional Psychology.Daniel J. Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader & Shannon Murphy - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):337-352.
    Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival’s (...)
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  13.  1
    Tandem Androgenic and Psychological Shifts in Male Reproductive Effort Following a Manipulated “Win” or “Loss” in a Sporting Competition.Daniel P. Longman, Michele K. Surbey, Jay T. Stock & Jonathan C. K. Wells - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):283-310.
    Male-male competition is involved in inter- and intrasexual selection, with both endocrine and psychological factors presumably contributing to reproductive success in human males. We examined relationships among men’s naturally occurring testosterone, their self-perceived mate value, self-esteem, sociosexuality, and expected likelihood of approaching attractive women versus situations leading to child involvement. We then monitored changes in these measures in male rowers from Cambridge, UK, following a manipulated “win” or “loss” as a result of an indoor rowing contest. Baseline results revealed that (...)
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  14.  5
    Coalitional Physical Competition.Timothy S. McHale, Wai-chi Chee, Ka-Chun Chan, David T. Zava & Peter B. Gray - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):245-267.
    A large body of research links testosterone and cortisol to male-male competition. Yet, little work has explored acute steroid hormone responses to coalitional, physical competition during middle childhood. Here, we investigate testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and cortisol release among ethnically Chinese boys in Hong Kong, aged 8–11 years, during a soccer match and an intrasquad soccer scrimmage, with 63 participants competing in both treatments. The soccer match and intrasquad soccer scrimmage represented out-group and in-group treatments, respectively. Results revealed that testosterone showed (...)
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  15.  9
    May God Guide Our Guns.Jeremy Pollack, Colin Holbrook, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Adam Maxwell Sparks & James G. Zerbe - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):311-327.
    The perceived support of supernatural agents has been historically, ethnographically, and theoretically linked with confidence in engaging in violent intergroup conflict. However, scant experimental investigations of such links have been reported to date, and the extant evidence derives largely from indirect laboratory methods of limited ecological validity. Here, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that perceived supernatural aid would heighten inclinations toward coalitional aggression using a realistic simulated coalitional combat paradigm: competitive team paintball. In a between-subjects design, US paintball players recruited (...)
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  16.  4
    Coalitional Play Fighting and the Evolution of Coalitional Intergroup Aggression.Michelle Scalise Sugiyama, Marcela Mendoza, Frances White & Lawrence Sugiyama - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):219-244.
    Dyadic play fighting occurs in many species, but only humans are known to engage in coalitional play fighting. Dyadic play fighting is hypothesized to build motor skills involved in actual dyadic fighting; thus, coalitional play fighting may build skills involved in actual coalitional fighting, operationalized as forager lethal raiding. If human psychology includes a motivational component that encourages engagement in this type of play, evidence of this play in forager societies is necessary to determine that it is not an artifact (...)
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  17. Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy.Nathan Cofnas - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):134-156.
    MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a “group evolutionary strategy.” Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews (...)
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  18. Food Sharing across Borders.Barbara Fruth & Gottfried Hohmann - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):91-103.
    Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors’ capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups. Here we report the (...)
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  19.  3
    Why Only Humans Shed Emotional Tears.Asmir Gračanin, Lauren M. Bylsma & Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):104-133.
    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the functions of tears. This is especially the case for infant crying, which we address in the first part of this contribution. We further elaborate on the antecedents and functions of emotional tears in adults. The main hypothesis that emerges from (...)
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  20.  5
    Evidence for the Adaptive Learning Function of Work and Work-Themed Play among Aka Forager and Ngandu Farmer Children from the Congo Basin.Sheina Lew-Levy & Adam H. Boyette - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):157-185.
    Work-themed play may allow children to learn complex skills, and ethno-typical and gender-typical behaviors. Thus, play may have made important contributions to the evolution of childhood through the development of embodied capital. Using data from Aka foragers and Ngandu farmer children from the Central African Republic, we ask whether children perform ethno- and gender-typical play and work activities, and whether play prepares children for complex work. Focal follows of 50 Aka and 48 Ngandu children were conducted with the aim of (...)
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  21.  4
    Living Slow and Being Moral.Nan Zhu, Skyler T. Hawk & Lei Chang - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):186-209.
    Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges and other-centered moral orientation. In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively, or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively, positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition. Cognitive processes were more closely related to rational (...)
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  22.  12
    Inbreeding in Southeastern Spain.R. Calderón, C. L. Hernández, G. García-Varela, D. Masciarelli & P. Cuesta - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):45-64.
    In this paper, the structure of a southeastern Spanish population was studied for the first time with respect to its inbreeding patterns and its relationship with demographic and geographic factors. Data on consanguineous marriages from 1900 to 1969 were taken from ecclesiastic dispensations. Our results confirm that the patterns and trends of inbreeding in the study area are consistent with those previously observed in most non-Cantabrian Spanish populations. The rate of consanguineous marriages was apparently stable between 1900 and 1935 and (...)
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  23.  2
    Possible Balancing Selection in Human Female Homosexuality.Andrea Camperio Ciani, Umberto Battaglia, Linda Cesare, Giorgia Camperio Ciani & Claudio Capiluppi - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):14-32.
    A growing number of researchers suggest that female homosexuality is at least in part influenced by genetic factors. Unlike for male homosexuality, few familial studies have attempted to explore maintenance of this apparently fitness-detrimental trait in the population. Using multiple recruitment methods, we explored fecundity and sexual orientation within the pedigrees of 1,458 adult female respondents. We compared 487 homosexual and 163 bisexual with 808 heterosexual females and 30,203 of their relatives. Our data suggest that the direct fitness of homosexual (...)
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  24.  3
    Measuring the Unmeasurable.Stefan L. K. Gruijters & Bram P. I. Fleuren - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):33-44.
    Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement—as operationalized by K-factors—involves conceptual entanglements. We argue that current psychometric approaches attempting to identify K-factors are based on an unwarranted conflation of functional descriptions and (...)
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  25.  4
    Grandmothers and Children’s Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa.Sandor Schrijner & Jeroen Smits - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):65-89.
    Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother’s importance depends on the family’s circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother’s co-residence and children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive. Grandmothers over age 60 are most effective in helping their children. They (...)
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  26.  9
    Altruistic Behavior Among Twins.Encarnación Tornero, Juan F. Sánchez-Romera, José J. Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez & Juan R. Ordoñana - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):1-12.
    According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity. We (...)
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  27.  4
    Correction To: Altruistic Behavior Among Twins.Encarnación Tornero, Juan F. Sánchez-Romera, José J. Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez & Juan R. Ordoñana - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):13-13.
    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of the article title and subtitle was incorrect.
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