21 found

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  1. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms.John Andrew Bunce & Richard McElreath - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):434-456.
    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics (...)
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  2. What Shall We Talk about in Farsi?Mahdi Dahmardeh & R. I. M. Dunbar - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):423-433.
    Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission (...)
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  3.  1
    Stability and Change in In-Group Mate Preferences Among Young People in Ethiopia Are Predicted by Food Security and Gender Attitudes, but Not by Expected Pathogen Exposures.Craig Hadley & Daniel Hruschka - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):395-406.
    There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define “insiders” and “outsiders” and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional and longitudinal samples of young people in Ethiopia to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses. (...)
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  4.  3
    How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Subsistence Skills?Sheina Lew-Levy, Rachel Reckin, Noa Lavi, Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate & Kate Ellis-Davies - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):367-394.
    Hunting and gathering is, evolutionarily, the defining subsistence strategy of our species. Studying how children learn foraging skills can, therefore, provide us with key data to test theories about the evolution of human life history, cognition, and social behavior. Modern foragers, with their vast cultural and environmental diversity, have mostly been studied individually. However, cross-cultural studies allow us to extrapolate forager-wide trends in how, when, and from whom hunter-gatherer children learn their subsistence skills. We perform a meta-ethnography, which allows us (...)
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  5.  1
    Salmon Bias or Red Herring?Puschmann Paul, Donrovich Robyn & Matthijs Koen - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):481-499.
    The purpose of this research is to empirically test the salmon bias hypothesis, which states that the “healthy migrant” effect—referring to a situation in which migrants enjoy lower mortality risks than natives—is caused by selective return-migration of the weak, sick, and elderly. Using a unique longitudinal micro-level database—the Historical Sample of the Netherlands—we tracked the life courses of internal migrants after they had left the city of Rotterdam, which allowed us to compare mortality risks of stayers, returnees, and movers using (...)
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  6.  1
    Self-Interest and the Design of Rules.Manvir Singh, Richard Wrangham & Luke Glowacki - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):457-480.
    Rules regulating social behavior raise challenging questions about cultural evolution in part because they frequently confer group-level benefits. Current multilevel selection theories contend that between-group processes interact with within-group processes to produce norms and institutions, but within-group processes have remained underspecified, leading to a recent emphasis on cultural group selection as the primary driver of cultural design. Here we present the self-interested enforcement hypothesis, which proposes that the design of rules importantly reflects the relative enforcement capacities of competing parties. We (...)
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  7.  2
    The Null Relation Between Father Absence and Earlier Menarche.Kitae Sohn - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (4):407-422.
    Researchers have claimed that the absence of a biological father accelerates the daughter’s menarche. This claim was assessed by employing a large and nationally representative sample of Indonesian women. We analyzed 11,138 ever-married women aged 15+ in the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2015. We regressed age at menarche on the interaction of father absence and mother absence at age 12 with or without childhood covariates. For robustness checks, we performed a power analysis, re-ran the same specification for various subgroups, and (...)
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  8. Familiarity with Own Population’s Appearance Influences Facial Preferences.Carlota Batres, Mallini Kannan & David I. Perrett - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):344-354.
    Previous studies have found that individuals from rural areas in Malaysia and in El Salvador prefer heavier women than individuals from urban areas. Several explanations have been proposed to explain these differences in weight preferences but no study has explored familiarity as a possible explanation. We therefore sought to investigate participants’ face preferences while also examining the facial characteristics of the actual participants. Our results showed that participants from rural areas preferred heavier-looking female faces than participants from urban areas. We (...)
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  9. Review of Walter Scheidel’s The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century. [REVIEW]Betzig Laura - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):361-363.
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  10.  3
    Autonomy, Equality, and Teaching among Aka Foragers and Ngandu Farmers of the Congo Basin.Adam H. Boyette & Barry S. Hewlett - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):289-322.
    The significance of teaching to the evolution of human culture is under debate. We contribute to the discussion by using a quantitative, cross-cultural comparative approach to investigate the role of teaching in the lives of children in two small-scale societies: Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Central African Republic. Focal follows with behavior coding were used to record social learning experiences of children aged 4 to 16 during daily life. “Teaching” was coded based on a functional definition from evolutionary (...)
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  11. In Memoriam.Catharine Cross - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):364-365.
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  12. Nothing but Mammals? Review of Tim Clutton-Brock’s Mammal Societies.Adrian V. Jaeggi - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):355-360.
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  13. Distinguishing Family from Friends.Rick O’Gorman & Ruth Roberts - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):323-343.
    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as (...)
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  14. A Multispecies Approach to Co-Sleeping.Bradley P. Smith, Peta C. Hazelton, Kirrilly R. Thompson, Joshua L. Trigg, Hayley C. Etherton & Sarah L. Blunden - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):255-273.
    Human sleeping arrangements have evolved over time and differ across cultures. The majority of adults share their bed at one time or another with a partner or child, and many also sleep with pets. In fact, around half of dog and cat owners report sharing a bed or bedroom with their pet. However, interspecies co-sleeping has been trivialized in the literature relative to interpersonal or human-human co-sleeping, receiving little attention from an interdisciplinary psychological perspective. In this paper, we provide a (...)
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  15.  16
    The Role of Ontogeny in the Evolution of Human Cooperation.Michael Tomasello & Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (3):274–288.
    To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al. (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673–92) proposed the interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28–48), following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the key was early human infants’ attempts to solicit care and (...)
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  16.  1
    Parenting Strategies in Modern and Emerging Economies.Kermyt G. Anderson & Kathrine E. Starkweather - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):133-137.
    Independent of ecology, subsistence strategy, social complexity, or other aspects of socioecology, the altricial nature of young humans requires mothers to have help raising their offspring. What seems to be context-dependent, however, is who the helpers are, how they invest, and what the impacts of that investment are. In a series of papers that focus on parental and alloparental investment across five populations, this special issue of Human Nature uses evolutionary theory to examine how socioecological context influences modes of direct (...)
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  17.  5
    Who Supports Breastfeeding Mothers?Cisco Jayme - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):231-253.
    Breastfeeding is one important form of maternal investment that is influenced by support from kin and non-kin. This paper investigates who provides support for breastfeeding mothers and their children, what type of support they provide, and how support impacts breastfeeding duration. The data were derived from a survey of 594 American mothers and were analyzed using quantitative methods, including Cox regression. Analyses indicate that mothers receive significant support, particularly from spouses and maternal grandmothers. More frequent breastfeeding discussions with La Leche (...)
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  18. Erratum to: Shodagor Family Strategies.Kathrine E. Starkweather - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):167-167.
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  19. Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers.Peter B. Gray, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Twana Dinall, Sydonnie Pellington & Maureen Samms-Vaughan - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):201-218.
    This paper investigates relationships between men’s testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18–24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include (...)
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  20. Going Home.Gretchen Perry - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):219-230.
    Humans have been called “cooperative breeders” because mothers rely heavily on alloparental assistance, and the grandmother life stage has been interpreted as an adaptation for alloparenting. Many studies indicate that women invest preferentially in their daughters’ children, but little research has been conducted where patrilocal residence is normative. Bangladesh is such a place, but women nevertheless receive substantial alloparental investment from the matrilateral family, and child outcomes improve when maternal grandmothers are alloparents. To garner this support, women must maintain contact (...)
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  21.  1
    Shodagor Family Strategies.E. Starkweather Kathrine - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):138-166.
    The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing (...)
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