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  1.  6
    Beheadings and Self-Portraits in Caravaggio’s Work - The Faces of the Self-Awareness.Augustin Cupșa - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):65-86.
    The present study aims to investigate the psychological mechanisms beneath the change in the facial expression of some of the beheaded characters in Caravaggio’s works, starting from The Head of Medusa, from the artist’s youth, and reaching David with the Head of Goliath, a mature workpiece, searching the continuity between them through a series of self-portraits/ self-insertions of the artist in his work. The psychodynamic analysis is limited by the constitution of its practice to the study of the process of (...)
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  2.  2
    Envisager Méduse. Condensation et métamorphose dans la Tête de Méduse de Caravage.Olivier Dubouclez - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):141-175.
    Various elements suggest that not only Medusa’s beheading, but also her metamorphosis is present on the parade shield that Caravaggio painted in 1597-1598 and that his patron, Cardinal del Monte, offered to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando de’ Medici. Scholars have recently insisted that the famous rotella shares many features with an engraving by Cornelis Cort, now attributed to Antonio Salamanca, a possible copy of a lost work by Leonardo. Interestingly, this engraving comes with a description of Medusa’s metamorphosis, (...)
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  3.  4
    Présentation du numéro - Caravage – l’image en mouvement.Olivier Dubouclez - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):9-10.
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  4. Diego Lucci, John Locke’s Christianity.Remus Gabriel Manoilă - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):183-186.
  5.  6
    Jérémie Koering, Les Iconophages. Une histoire de l’ingestion des images.Elsa Maury - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):179-182.
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  6.  4
    Caravaggio’s The Crucifixion of St. Peter - Spectatorship, Martyrdom and the Iconic Image in Early Modern Italy.Simen K. Nielsen - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):11-64.
    This paper explores conflations of martyrdom, spectatorship, and image theory in Caravaggio’s Crucifixion of St. Peter (1601). It argues that Caravaggio employs an “iconic” visual formula as a response to the pressures of a post-Tridentine poetics. Through these strategies, an iconography of immediacy and presence is paired with a sacrificial subject-matter. This merging united witness and visual experience in the shape of the sacred image. Martyrdom, as both a historical and representational phenomenon of early modern sociality and culture, invoked the (...)
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  7.  2
    Caravaggio’s Martha and Mary Magdalene in a Post-Trent Context.Daniel M. Unger - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):87-109.
    In his painting of Martha and Mary Magdalene, Caravaggio depicted the two sisters of Lazarus as engaged in a serious conversation. On the one hand Martha is rebuking Mary Magdalene. On the other hand, Mary is responding in that she turns a mirror towards her older sister. The aim of this article is to elucidate how this reciprocal conversation reflects post-Trent propaganda. Martha represents a group of believers that remained within the Catholic Church but did not embrace the changes implemented (...)
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  8.  3
    Narrative and Temporal Ambiguity in Caravaggio and Rembrandt’s Supper at Emmaus.Michela Young - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (2):111-139.
    Caravaggio and Rembrandt have often been considered together in light of their realism and use of chiaroscuro, as propounded in the 2006 exhibition “Caravaggio-Rembrandt”. This article explores another unifying characteristic of their paintings, ambiguity. By specifically considering the artists’ construction of narrative ambiguity in their first versions of The Supper at Emmaus, from their respective climates of Protestant Holland and Counter-Reformation Italy, it analyses the significance of the pictorial and temporal strategies employed for the exegesis of the Emmaus narrative. It (...)
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  9.  8
    Introduction: Science Beyond the Enlightenment.Michael Bycroft - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):9-31.
    The eighteenth century has long been a problem for historians of science. The century suffers from an apparent lack of towering individuals and unifying theories, as Geoffrey Cantor observed in an essay published in 1982. Much good work has been done in the forty years since then, most of it aimed at locating science in the Enlightenment. But the Enlightenment is just one of several themes that can help to make sense of eighteenth-century science as a whole. The other themes (...)
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  10.  1
    Natural Knowledge at the Threshold of the Enlightenment - The Case of Antonio Vallisneri.Brendan Dooley - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):59-81.
    Italian contributions to the Enlightenment are most often discussed in terms of the slow acceptance of Newtonian science (Ferrone) or the obstacles to change within a quaint museum of antiquated states (Venturi). This case study of an important naturalist attempts to identify the paths to change between tradition and revolt, in fields of natural knowledge that are sometimes less regarded in the context of an international movement of intellectual emancipation. In spite of an early attachment to some form of physico‑theology, (...)
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  11.  1
    Fabrizio Baldassarri and Andreas Blank (eds.), Vegetative Powers. The Roots of Life in Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. [REVIEW]Matteo Fornasier - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):233-237.
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  12.  2
    Power and Knowledge in Eighteenth-Century Collecting.Anita Guerrini - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):133-165.
    Both The Ferment of Knowledge and Geoffrey Cantor’s essay review defined the “eighteenth-century problem” in terms of the lack of a totalizing vision. Forty years on, the problem has shifted to the appropriation of eighteenth-century science by both the political left and the right. As historians grapple with the legacies of slavery and colonialism, an emerging theme is material culture and its “entanglements.” The subject of this essay, collections and collecting, is central to this new historiography. Collections included antiq­uities, natural (...)
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  13.  5
    Science and the Enlightenment Revisited.Domenico Bertoloni Meli - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):33-57.
    At nearly forty, Science and the Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1985) by Thomas L. Hankins is seriously dated but still widely used, broadly reliable for what it covers and frustrating for its omissions, richly informative in its contents and somewhat opaque in its intellectual coordinates. For better or for worse, with its compact two hundred pages of text and remarkably well-chosen images, it remains the best textbook on the period, even though recent research has greatly enriched, problematized, and subverted older assumptions. This (...)
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  14.  2
    Marco Storni, Maupertuis. Le philosophe, l’académicien, le polémiste. [REVIEW]Speranța Sofia Milancovici - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):239-241.
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  15.  1
    Improving Instruments.Richard Sorrenson - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):167-186.
    Historians have long been wary of teleological narratives of scientific change. But it is possible to tell a progressive narrative without being teleological, and that is precisely the kind of narrative that is needed to make sense of science in eighteenth-century Europe. Change in this period tended to be incremental rather than sudden, evolutionary rather than revolutionary. This may be illustrated by the scientific instruments of the period, which were usually improvements on existing instruments rather than entirely new instruments. Existing (...)
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  16.  3
    Reenchanting the Enlightenment.Emma C. Spary - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):83-131.
    In light of research which, since the publication of Rousseau and Porter’s Ferment of Knowledge, has demonstrated the continued centrality of magic and the occult to what may be termed “scientific knowledge” in the early modern period, this essay argues that one domain of practice where these concerns remained paramount well into the eighteenth century is the consumption of recipes. Whether exchanged between individuals or collected in print format, these mobile informational media relied on forms of proof under­pinned by personal (...)
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  17.  1
    The Great Instauration of the Eighteenth Century.Adrian Wilson - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 12 (1):187-229.
    This paper argues that there took place in the eighteenth century a specific, distinctive and essential phase in the emergence of modern science, a phase which can be characterised as “the Great Instauration” in that it witnessed the large-scale realisation of Francis Bacon’s earlier vision—albeit not, for the most part, through the specific means which Bacon had proposed. That claim is exemplified in three fields—the “physico-mathematical sciences,” chemistry and electricity—each of which yielded dramatic and permanent advances in knowledge; and an (...)
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  18.  5
    Marie-Fréderique Pellegrin (ed.), Repenser la philosophie du XVIIe siècle. Canons et corpus, special issue of Dix‑septième siècle, no. 296, 2022/3, Presses Universitaires de France. [REVIEW]Sandrine Bergès - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):147-152.
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  19.  16
    Spinoza and Descartes on Expression and Ideas - Conception and Ideational Intentionality.Andrew Burnside - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):13-29.
    I make the case that Spinoza built on Descartes’s conception of what it means for a mind to have an idea by linking it with his concept of expression because ideas express realities in terms of a causation‑conception conditional (but not vice versa). Briefly, if an idea is caused by a being, then that being is conceived through that idea. Descartes thinks of our clearly and distinctly possessing an idea as a sufficient ground for our expression of what we understand. (...)
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  20.  1
    Introduction.Emanuele Costa - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):9-11.
    The concept of expression grounds a large portion of Spinoza’s metaphysics, giving further depth to seemingly foundational concepts such as substance, causality, attribute, and essence. Spinoza adopts the term “expression” in crucial contexts such as the definition of attribute, the essential dependence of modes on substance, and the striving or effort of a finite conatus. In this essay, I seek to interpret expression as an instance of relational or structural ontology, escaping the reductionist tendencies that would see it as a (...)
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  21.  15
    Triadic Metaphysics - Spinoza’s Expression as Structural Ontology.Emanuele Costa - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):71-94.
    The concept of expression grounds a large portion of Spinoza’s metaphysics, giving further depth to seemingly foundational concepts such as substance, causality, attribute, and essence. Spinoza adopts the term “expression” in crucial contexts such as the definition of attribute, the essential dependence of modes on substance, and the striving or effort of a finite conatus. In this essay, I seek to interpret expression as an instance of relational or structural ontology, escaping the reductionist tendencies that would see it as a (...)
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  22.  8
    Libertas Philosophandi as Freedom to Be Human - Government and Freedom in Spinoza’s Political Work.Francesca di Poppa - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):117-143.
    In this paper, I will argue that Spinoza’s notion of libertas philosophandi in Theological Political Treatise2 is best interpreted as freedom of expression, in the metaphysical sense of expression found in Ethics I. This reading helps understand the role of the Spinozan state in protecting such freedom. Ethics argues that human nature is embodied thought, and its freedom is found both in rational and irreducibly imaginary cognition: imagination is knowledge, and, as such, it is a fundamental aspect of human expression. (...)
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  23.  23
    Spinoza’s Theophany - The Expression of God’s Nature by Particular Things.Alexander Douglas - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):49-69.
    What does Spinoza mean when he claims, as he does several times in the Ethics, that particular things are expressions of God’s nature or attributes? This article interprets these claims as a version of what is called theophany in the Neoplatonist tradition. Theophany is the process by which particular things come to exist as determinate manifestations of a divine nature that is in itself not determinate. Spinoza’s understanding of theophany diverges significantly from that of the Neoplatonist John Scottus Eriugena, largely (...)
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  24.  6
    Expression as Creativity - Exploring Spinoza’s Dynamic of Politics.Steph Marston - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):95-115.
    Deleuze (1990) reads Part I of the Ethics as articulating an expressionist philosophy, in which to express (exprimere) is the ontological criterion for existence throughout Spinoza’s metaphysical system. However, he argues that inadequate ideas and passions are non‑expressing, such that finite modes express substance only in their adequate ideas. I argue, contra Deleuze, that Spinoza’s account of the workings of the human mind presses us to understand inadequate ideas as genuine expressions of substance which nonetheless are specific to the individuals (...)
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  25.  28
    Expression and the Perfection of Finite Individuals in Spinoza and Leibniz.Sarah Tropper - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):31-48.
    It is obvious that both Spinoza and Leibniz attach importance to the notion of expression in their philosophical writings and that both do so in a similar fashion: They agree, for example, that the mind expresses the body (although this claim has rather different meanings for each of them). Another – albeit related – use of ‘expression’ that appears in both thinkers provides a deeper insight into some metaphysical similarity as well as difference: The idea that expression is closely connected (...)
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  26.  8
    The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg and Book Reviews in the Philosophical Transactions, 1665–1677.Iordan Avramov - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):69-91.
    The book reviews of the early Philosophical Transactions have not been considered a dominant feature of the journal, and thus more research is needed to enrich our understanding of them. This paper begins this process by describing some of the basic features of the reviews, before moving on to address the issue of how they were composed. The specific focus here is on how Henry Oldenburg’s correspondence influenced the process in various ways. As it turns out, there are episodes when (...)
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  27.  5
    Gerhard Seibold, 250 Jahre Stammbuchgeschichte. Inskriptionen und Bildschmuck.Thomas Brochard - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):183-186.
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  28.  4
    Algernon Sidney and the Republican Tradition in Jeffersonian America.Pierangelo Castagneto - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):149-180.
    During the second term of Jefferson’s presidency, with Europe and the world ravaged by the Napoleonic Wars, it became extremely difficult for the young Republic to defend the principle of sovereignty from the threats of France and Britain. In response to attacks on American shipping, in 1807 Congress passed the Embargo Act, an economic measure designed to convince the two belligerents to respect U.S. neutrality by cutting off American shipping to all foreign nations. This controversial decision, firmly opposed by the (...)
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  29.  5
    Introduction.Sorana Corneanu, Benjamin I. Goldberg & Diego Lucci - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):9-16.
    This essay explores the idea of experience and its epistemological and practical role in maintaining the health of a household among early modern English Royalists. A number of prominent royalists during the mid-seventeenth century British Civil Wars expended quite some effort in the collection of medical recipes, including Queen Henrietta Maria herself, as well as William and Margaret Cavendish, and the Talbot sisters—Elizabeth Grey and Alethea Howard. This essay looks at these Royalists and four of their collections: three published (Henrietta (...)
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  30.  7
    The Eternal Truths in Henry More and Ralph Cudworth.Bogdan-Antoniu Deznan - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):93-114.
    The thorny issue of the created status of eternal verities, a hypothesis initially promulgated by Descartes in his 1630 correspondence with Mersenne, generated widespread debates across confessional lines in 17th century philosoph­ical and theological circles. At stake was not only the necessary or contingent status of these truths, and thus God’s relationship with creation, but also the very nature of the Deity. This was certainly the case for the Cambridge Platonists Henry More and Ralph Cudworth. Both were early advocates of (...)
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  31.  6
    Concepts of Experience in Royalist Recipe Collections.Benjamin I. Goldberg - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):37-68.
    This essay explores the idea of experience and its epistemological and practical role in maintaining the health of a household among early modern English Royalists. A number of prominent royalists during the mid-seventeenth century British Civil Wars expended quite some effort in the collection of medical recipes, including Queen Henrietta Maria herself, as well as William and Margaret Cavendish, and the Talbot sisters—Elizabeth Grey and Alethea Howard. This essay looks at these Royalists and four of their collections: three published (Henrietta (...)
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  32.  10
    Locke and the Socinians on the Natural and Revealed Law.Diego Lucci - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):115-147.
    After the publication of The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695), several critics depicted Locke as a follower of the anti-Trinitarian and anti-Calvinist theologian Faustus Socinus and his disciples, the Polish Brethren. The relation between Locke and Socinianism is still being debated. Locke’s religion indeed presents many similarities with the Socinians’ moralist soteriology, non-Trinitarian Christology, and mortalism. Nevertheless, Locke’s theological ideas diverge from Socinianism in various regards. Furthermore, there are significant differences between the Socinians’ and Locke’s views on the natural and revealed (...)
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  33.  20
    Francis Bacon on the Certainty and Deceptiveness of Sense-Perception.Daniel Schwartz - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (1):17-35.
    There is an important tension within Francis Bacon’s discussions of sense-perception. On the one hand, he sometimes seems to regard sense-percep­tion as a certain and unquestionable source of information about the world. On the other hand, he refers to errors, faults, desertions, and deceptions of the senses; indeed, he aims to offer a method which can remedy these errors. Thus, Bacon may appear conflicted about whether sense-perception provides reliable information about the world. But, I argue, this appearance of a conflict (...)
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