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  1.  4
    Jane Carruthers, National Park Science: A Century of Research in South Africa , 554 pp., illus., bibl., $67.72 Hardback, ISBN 9781107191440. [REVIEW]Peder Anker - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):617-619.
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  2.  7
    James Cossar Ewart and the Origins of the Animal Breeding Research Department in Edinburgh, 1895–1920.Clare Button - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):445-477.
    In 1919 the Animal Breeding Research Department was established in Edinburgh. This Department, later renamed the Institute of Animal Genetics, forged an international reputation, eventually becoming the centrepiece of a cluster of new genetics research units and institutions in Edinburgh after the Second World War. Yet despite its significance for institutionalising animal genetics research in the UK, the origins and development of the Department have not received as much scholarly attention as its importance warrants. This paper sheds new light on (...)
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  3.  2
    Africanizing Science in Post-colonial Kenya: Long-Term Field Research in the Amboseli Ecosystem, 1963–1989.Amanda E. Lewis - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):535-562.
    Following Kenya’s independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that (...)
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  4.  3
    Elizabeth Gilbert, The Signature of All Things: A Novel , 528 pp., $17.00 Paperback, ISBN: 978-0143125846. [REVIEW]Tina Gianquitto - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):621-624.
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  5.  5
    Jutta Schickore, About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically , 316 pp., $50.00 Cloth, ISBN: 9780226449982. [REVIEW]Evan Hepler-Smith - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):601-603.
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  6.  8
    The Development of Sociobiology in Relation to Animal Behavior Studies, 1946–1975.Clement Levallois - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):419-444.
    This paper aims at bridging a gap between the history of American animal behavior studies and the history of sociobiology. In the post-war period, ecology, comparative psychology and ethology were all investigating animal societies, using different approaches ranging from fieldwork to laboratory studies. We argue that this disunity in “practices of place” explains the attempts of dialogue between those three fields and early calls for unity through “sociobiology” by J. Paul Scott. In turn, tensions between the naturalist tradition and the (...)
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  7.  1
    Evelleen Richards, Darwin and the Making of Sexual Selection , 672 pp., 48 halftones, $47.50 Cloth, ISBN 9780226436906. [REVIEW]Bernard Lightman - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):597-600.
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  8.  1
    Michelle Murphy, The Economization of Life , 232 pp., 25 b&w illus., $24.95 pbk., ISBN: 9780822363453. [REVIEW]Michael F. McGovern - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):613-615.
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  9.  1
    Abigail Woods, Michael Bresalier, Angela Cassidy, and Rachel Mason Dentinger, Animals and the Shaping of Modern Medicine: One Heath and Its Histories , 288 pp., $40.00 Hardcover, ISBN 978-3319643366. [REVIEW]Georgina M. Montgomery - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):605-607.
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  10.  6
    John H. Zammito, The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling , 523 pp., $45.00 Cloth, ISBN: 9780226520797. [REVIEW]Lynn K. Nyhart - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):593-595.
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  11.  6
    Darwin’s two theories, 1844 and 1859.Derek Partridge - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):563-592.
    Darwin’s first two, relatively complete, explicit articulations of his theorizing on evolution were his Essay of 1844 and On the Origin of Species published in 1859. A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In 1844, organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events. The modified descendants rebalanced the particular (...)
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  12.  5
    Ben A. Minteer, Jane Maienschein, and James P. Collins, The Ark and Beyond: The Evolution of Zoo and Aquarium Conservation , 528 pp., 51 halftones, 2 line drawings, 6 tables, $35.00 Paper, ISBN: 9780226538327. [REVIEW]Miles A. Powell - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):609-611.
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  13.  2
    The Fate of the Method of ‘Paradigms’ in Paleobiology.Martin J. S. Rudwick - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):479-533.
    An earlier article described the mid-twentieth century origins of the method of “paradigms” in paleobiology, as a way of making testable hypotheses about the functional morphology of extinct organisms. The present article describes the use of “paradigms” through the 1970s and, briefly, to the end of the century. After I had proposed the paradigm method to help interpret the ecological history of brachiopods, my students developed it in relation to that and other invertebrate phyla, notably in Euan Clarkson’s analysis of (...)
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  14.  3
    Nancy J. Jacobs, Birders of Africa: History of a Network , 352 pp., 16 color + 49 b/w illus., $85.00 Cloth, ISBN: 9780300209617. [REVIEW]Etienne S. Benson - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):391-394.
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  15.  2
    A Space of One’s Own: Barbosa du Bocage, the Foundation of the National Museum of Lisbon, and the Construction of a Career in Zoology.Daniel Gamito-Marques - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):223-257.
    This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop (...)
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  16.  1
    Lance Grande, Curators: Behind the Scenes of Natural History Museums , 432 pp., 146 color plates, $35.00 Cloth ISBN: 9780226192758. [REVIEW]Jonathan Grunert - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):403-405.
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  17.  1
    Editorial: Introducing “Biology in Culture” Reviews.Lijing Jiang, Karen Rader & Marsha Richmond - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):407-409.
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  18.  1
    Helen Anne Curry, Evolution Made to Order: Plant Breeding and Technological Innovation in Twentieth - Century America , x + 285 pp., illus., index, bibl. $45.00, cloth, ISBN: 97802263 90086. [REVIEW]Barbara Kimmelman - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):387-390.
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  19.  2
    Karen Joy Fowler, We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves: A Novel. , 320 pp., Hardcover & Paperback, ISBN: 9780142180822.Hillary Moses Mohaupt - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):411-413.
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  20.  10
    The Experimental Study of Bacterial Evolution and Its Implications for the Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):319-354.
    Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain of new functions, (...)
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  21.  3
    How Fast Does Darwin’s Elephant Population Grow?János Podani, Ádám Kun & András Szilágyi - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):259-281.
    In “The Origin of Species,” Darwin describes a hypothetical example illustrating that large, slowly reproducing mammals such as the elephant can reach very large numbers if population growth is not affected by regulating factors. The elephant example has since been cited in various forms in a wide variety of books, ranging from educational material to encyclopedias. However, Darwin’s text was changed over the six editions of the book, although some errors in the mathematics persisted throughout. In addition, full details of (...)
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  22.  7
    Science and Sentiment: Grinnell’s Fact-Based Philosophy of Biodiversity Conservation.Ayelet Shavit & James R. Griesemer - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):283-318.
    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes (...)
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  23.  7
    Review: The Handmaid’s Tale. Hulu. Season 1 . Television.Jenna Tonn - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):415-417.
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  24.  8
    The ‘Disadapted’ Animal: Niko Tinbergen on Human Nature and the Human Predicament.Marga Vicedo - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):191-221.
    This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen’s path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called “the human predicament,” his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen (...)
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  25.  17
    Methodology in Aristotle’s Theory of Spontaneous Generation.Karen R. Zwier - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):355-386.
    Aristotle’s theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle’s account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: to give as (...)
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  26.  7
    When Pasteurian Science Went to Sea: The Birth of Marine Microbiology.Antony Adler & Erik Dücker - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):107-133.
    In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur’s discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether (...)
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  27.  7
    Naked in the Old and the New World: Differences and Analogies in Descriptions of European and American herbae nudae in the Sixteenth Century.Lucie Čermáková & Jana Černá - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):69-106.
    The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought (...)
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  28.  5
    Inaugural Editorial.Karen Rader & Marsha Richmond - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):1-3.
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  29.  5
    Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of ‘Paradigms’.Martin J. S. Rudwick - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):135-178.
    From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of ‘Paläobiologie’, first in the German cultural area and only later, as ‘paleobiology’, in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of ‘paleoecology’. Within this field there were attempts to apply functional morphology to the problematical cases (...)
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  30.  7
    Moving Past the Systematics Wars.Beckett Sterner & Scott Lidgard - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):31-67.
    It is time to escape the constraints of the Systematics Wars narrative and pursue new questions that are better positioned to establish the relevance of the field in this time period to broader issues in the history of biology and history of science. To date, the underlying assumptions of the Systematics Wars narrative have led historians to prioritize theory over practice and the conflicts of a few leading theorists over the less-polarized interactions of systematists at large. We show how shifting (...)
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  31.  6
    Making Heredity Matter: Samuel Butler’s Idea of Unconscious Memory.Cristiano Turbil - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):7-29.
    Butler’s idea of evolution was developed over the publication of four books, several articles and essays between 1863 and 1890. These publications, although never achieving the success expected by Butler, proposed a psychological elaboration of evolution, called ‘unconscious memory’. This was strongly in contrast with the materialistic approach suggested by Darwin’s natural selection. Starting with a historical introduction, this paper aspires to ascertain the logic, meaning and significance of Butler’s idea of ‘unconscious memory’ in the post-Darwinian physiological and psychological Pan-European (...)
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