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  1. The Relation-Theory of Mental Acts: Durand of Saint-Pourçain on the Ontological Status of Mental Acts.Peter Hartman - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 7.
    The relation-theory of mental acts proposes that a mental act is a kind of relative entity founded upon the mind and directed at the object of perception or thought. While most medieval philosophers recognized that there is something importantly relational about thought, they nevertheless rejected the view that mental acts are wholly relations. Rather, the dominant view was that a mental act is either in whole or part an Aristotelian quality added to the mind upon which such a relation to (...)
     
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  2. Duns Scotus Versus Thomas Aquinas on Instrumental Causality.Jean-Luc Solere - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 7:147-185.
    The medieval notion of instrumental cause is not limited to what we call today “instruments” or “tools.” It extends way beyond the realm of technology and includes natural entities, for instance, the accidents by which a substance acts on another substance, sensible species in the air acting on a visual faculty, sacraments, bodily organs, and sometimes creatures with respect to God’s action. In all these cases, instrumental causes, like secondary causes in general, are subordinated to a principal cause and contribute (...)
     
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