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  1.  1
    "Tailored-to-You": Public Engagement and the Political Legitimation of Precision Medicine.Alessandro Blasimme & Effy Vayena - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):172-188.
    Some patients tolerate a given drug well, without adverse reactions. For others, though, an identical dose of the same medication can have toxic effects. Moreover, while a drug can be effective at relieving symptoms for some patients, it may fail to do the same for others suffering with the same disease. With such variability in treatment responses, tailoring medical interventions to individual patients has long been an aspiration of medicine. Until recently, however, medicine lacked a clear understanding of the biological (...)
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  2. Beyond Mind and Body.Howard Brody - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):276-282.
    In 1979, James S. and Jean M. Goodwin and Albert V. Vogel published the first of what became a series of articles that studied current patterns of placebo use. They surveyed 60 house officers and 37 nurses in a New Mexico teaching hospital. Only five of the 1900 patients hospitalized during the study period had received a placebo. Their subjects underestimated the pain relief provided by placebos and believed that a positive placebo response showed that the pain was psychogenic and (...)
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  3.  2
    The Cosmetic Medicine Revolution, the Goals of Medicine, and Bioethics.Shahram Ahmadi Nasab Emran - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):213-227.
    This article reviews the development of a new set of practices within modern medicine that can generally be called “cosmetic medicine,” practices that include cosmetic surgery, cosmetic dermatology, and cosmetic gynecology. I argue that the development of such fields indicates a fundamental change in the practice of medicine. After reviewing the possible explanations proposed for such developments, in order to indicate the social and cultural origin of the driving forces, I discuss the implications of these revolutionary changes for the perceived (...)
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  4. Bioethics' Contradiction: Everyday Ethics and the Morality System.Arthur W. Frank - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):283-292.
    In one of Richard Zaner’s tales of ethics consultation practice, a moment occurs that might be comic, except for the gravity of the situation. Zaner goes to visit the parents of an infant with multiple problems who has been admitted to neonatal intensive care. He introduces himself awkwardly, and the child’s father responds: “‘Why,’ he bluntly asked, ‘are you here now?’ And with, again, exemplary frankness, he pointedly demanded, eyes narrowing in that knowing way, full of suspicion: ‘Has someone been (...)
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  5.  2
    Outcome Orientation: A Misconception of Probability That Harms Medical Research and Practice.T. Humphrey Parris & Masel Joanna - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):147-155.
    We are far too willing to reject the belief that much of what we see in life is random.Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen, but other snares worth exposing may lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to (...)
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  6.  1
    Thirteen Ways of Looking at Henrietta Lacks.D. Lantos John - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):228-233.
    What are we to make of Henrietta Lacks? After dying at a young age more than half a century ago, she has now become immortal twice—once biologically, and once culturally.She was first immortalized when cells from her cervical biopsy were cultured and became the first immortal cell line. The idea that this made Lacks herself immortal illustrates the dangerous temptations of genetic reductionism and literary license. Such literary license is illustrated by the title of Rebecca Skloot’s remarkable 2011 bestselling book (...)
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  7.  5
    The AMA on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.Steven Luper - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):189-197.
    The American Medical Association opposes physician-assisted suicide on the grounds that it “would ultimately cause more harm than good,” because it is “fundamentally incompatible with the physician’s role as healer,” and because it “would be difficult or impossible to control and would pose serious societal risks”. It condemns the practice of euthanasia as conducted by physicians for these reasons as well, and adds, by way of clarifying the serious risks at hand, that “euthanasia could readily be extended to incompetent patients (...)
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  8.  4
    Transgender Patients, Hospitalists, and Ethical Care.Matthew W. McCarthy, Elizabeth Reis & Joseph J. Fins - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):234-245.
    A 28-year-old female-to-male transgender patient presents to the emergency room with one day of pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. The patient is found to have an acute pulmonary embolus and is admitted is to the academic hospitalist teaching service for further management.The transgender population is diverse in gender identity, expression, and sexual orientation. Although estimates vary, one study suggests that 0.3% of adults identify as transgender. The U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey revealed that 28% of transgender adults have (...)
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  9.  1
    From Trees to Rhizomes.Rosenberg Noah - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):246-252.
    The man had fallen in the hospital recovery room while attempting to put on his pants, readying himself to return home after an outpatient procedure. The case seemed so pedestrian at first. The emergency department charge nurse was annoyed; she called it a dump. “They’re sending a patient from the PACU to the ER!” she fumed. “Why can’t they take care of their own problems up there? Isn’t this a hospital?”I could relate to the gut aversion to having yet another (...)
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  10.  2
    Refusing Technology, Accepting Death: My Father's Story.Ryan-Harshman Milly - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):198-205.
    In December 2004, at the age of 91, my father was told that his congestive heart failure had worsened and that his kidneys were functioning poorly. At best, the prognosis was that he had perhaps another year; at 86, my father had had a succession of three heart attacks before having surgery to place a stent in his coronary artery. The cardiologist who treated him then said he would get five or six good years from the stent, for which my (...)
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  11.  3
    Twenty-First Century "Eugenics"?: The Enduring Legacy.L. Smith Shelley - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):156-171.
    In her 2001 book Building a Better Race, Wendy Kline argues that the end of World War II did not spell the demise of eugenics; instead, proponents of eugenics were flexible enough to adapt, increasingly emphasizing “positive eugenics” and social responsibility. When the earlier attempt at quarantine failed, with a leakage of “immorality” to white, middle-class women, eugenicists moved on to another public health–focused metaphor, that of preventive medicine. Emphasizing nurture as well as nature preserved the end goal of promoting (...)
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  12.  3
    The Ethics of Public Health Laws, and the Special Case of the New "Model Law".Steinberg Sharon & Jotkowitz Alan - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):206-212.
    In 2012, a law against hiring models with a BMI below 18.5 was passed in Israel. In addition, every photoshopped advertisement must have a visible subtitle that indicates that the picture was photoshopped. Dr. Rachel Adatto, the initiator of the law, states that the law is “a beginning of a revolution against the anorectic beauty model ideal,” and that its aim is to prevent eating disorders that may lead to death in the aspiration to lose weight, especially among the general (...)
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  13.  1
    Reconsidering Samuel: A Mental Health Caretaker at a Ghanaian Prayer Camp.A. Taylor Lauren - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):263-275.
    Since early 2014, i have studied what life is like for staff in a mental health sanatorium at a Ghanaian prayer camp. I have traveled to the camp on six occasions to observe its rhythms and routines and interview staff about their work. What follows is an informal reflection on the role of prayer camps as a source of mental health care in Ghana. The text is based on my experience conducting the research at the camp, rather than a formal (...)
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  14. Thinking Through the Pain.Keith Wailoo - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):253-262.
    While researching my 2001 book on sickle cell disease, I became aware of the politics of pain. In that malady—a painful disorder associated with African Americans and characterized by frequent infections and recurring painful “crises”—the politics of pain recognition and adequate relief intersect not only with drug concerns, but also with American racial politics. One cannot understand fully the history of sickle cell patients without understanding politics on two levels: the macropolitics of race in America and the micropolitics of medicinal (...)
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