21 found

View year:

  1.  3
    Decision-Making for Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.Armand H. Matheny Antommaria - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):244-260.
    Legislation banning gender-affirming medical care (GAMC) for minors is inconsistent with the Consensus Recommendations for Pediatric Decision-Making (Salter et al. 2023). Gender dysphoria is a medical condition, and GAMC promotes adolescents’ health interests. The evidence for GAMC is comparable to the evidence for other types of pediatric medical care. Parents are permitted to consent for similar risks in the treatment of other conditions. Evaluation of the potential benefits, risks, and treatment alternatives is contingent on individual patients’ clinical conditions and adolescents’ (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  6
    Childhood Interests: what they are and why it matters.Johan C. Bester & Jeffrey Blustein - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):197-208.
    This paper examines the concept and moral significance of “childhood interests.” This concept is important in medical decision-making for children and more broadly in the field of pediatric ethics. The authors argue that childhood interests are identifiable components of childhood well-being that carry moral weight. Parents have a special role in protecting and promoting these interests and special obligations to do so. These parental obligations are grounded by the independent interests of the child, as well as the good of society (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  4
    Pediatric Decision-Making: ethical aspects specific to neonates.Jay R. Malone, Mark R. Mercurio & Loretta M. Kopelman - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):209-226.
    Recently published consensus recommendations on pediatric decision-making by Salter and colleagues (2023) did not address neonatal decision-making, due to the unique complexities of neonatal care. This essay explores three areas that impact neonatal decision-making: legal and policy considerations, rapid technological advancement, and the unique emotional burdens faced by parents and clinicians during the medical care of neonates. The authors evaluate the six consensus recommendations related to these considerations and conclude that the consensus recommendations apply to neonates.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  9
    Limits on Parental Discretion in Medical Decision-Making: pediatric intervention principles converge.Mark Christopher Navin, Jason Adam Wasserman, Douglas S. Diekema & Thaddeus M. Pope - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):277-289.
    Pediatric intervention principles help clinicians and health-care institutions determine appropriate responses when parents’ medical decisions place children at risk. Several intervention principles have been proposed and defended in the pediatric ethics literature. These principles may appear to provide conflicting guidance, but much of that conflict is superficial. First, seemingly different pediatric intervention principles sometimes converge on the same guidance. Second, these principles often aim to solve different problems in pediatrics or to operate in different background conditions. The potential for convergence (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  2
    Pediatric Decision-Making for Children in State Custody.Erin Talati Paquette & Lou Vinarcsik - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):290-304.
    In summer 2022, six points of consensus emerged from a symposium addressing the question, “In the context of U.S. pediatric care, what moral precepts ought to guide parents and clinicians in medical decision making for children?” (Salter et al. 2023). The authors of this statement wrote, however, that the points of consensus may require modification or may not apply in their entirety to children in state custody. This article addresses the consensus recommendations in the context of the thousands of children (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  3
    Teenage Development and Parental Authority: applying consensus recommendations to adolescent care.Lainie Friedman Ross, D. Micah Hester & Jay R. Malone - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):227-243.
    The consensus recommendations by Salter and colleagues (2023) regarding pediatric decision-making intentionally omitted adolescents due to the additional complexity their evolving autonomy presented. Using two case studies, one focused on truth-telling and disclosure and one focused on treatment refusal, this article examines medical decision-making with and for adolescents in the context of the six consensus recommendations. It concludes that the consensus recommendations could reasonably apply to older children.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  3
    Medical Decision-Making for Children in Families with Siblings: parental discretion and its limits.Lainie Friedman Ross & Ana S. Iltis - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):261-276.
    This article examines how parents should make health decisions for one child when they may have a negative impact on the health interests or other interests of their siblings. The authors discuss three health decisions made by the parents of Alex Jones, a child with developmental disabilities with two older neurotypical siblings over the course of eight years. First, Alex’s parents must decide whether to conduct sequencing on his siblings to help determine if there is a genetic cause for Alex’s (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  3
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Pediatric Decision-Making.Erica K. Salter - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):181-185.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Introduction to the Special Issue on Pediatric Decision-MakingErica K. SalterUnlike in the traditional decisional dyad in adult-based care, pediatric decision-making typically involves a triadic relationship among the patient, their parents, and the health-care providers. This complex relationship raises questions and concerns regarding each party’s expectations, obligations, and authority. For example, should a parent be allowed to withhold a poor diagnosis from an adolescent patient? Should an HLA-matched six-year-old sister (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  7
    How We Found Consensus on Pediatric Decision-Making and Why It Matters.Erica K. Salter, Lainie Friedman Ross & D. Micah Hester - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (2):186-196.
    This article describes the process engaged by 17 expert scholars in the development of a set of six consensus recommendations about the normative foundations of pediatric decision-making. The process began with a robust pre-reading assignment, followed by three days of in-person symposium discussions that resulted in a publication in _Pediatrics_ entitled “Pediatric Decision-Making: Consensus Recommendations” (Salter et al. 2023). This article next compares the six recommendations to existing statements about pediatric decision-making (specifically those developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics), (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  19
    Valuing the Acute Subjective Experience.Katherine Cheung, Brian D. Earp & David B. Yaden - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):155-165.
    ABSTRACT:Psychedelics, including psilocybin, and other consciousness-altering compounds such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), currently are being scientifically investigated for their potential therapeutic uses, with a primary focus on measurable outcomes: for example, alleviation of symptoms or increases in self-reported well-being. Accordingly, much recent discussion about the possible value of these substances has turned on estimates of the magnitude and duration of persisting positive effects in comparison to harms. However, many have described the value of a psychedelic experience with little or no reference (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  8
    Diagnosis: What Is the Structure of Its Reasoning?Donald E. Stanley & Robert Hanna - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):88-95.
    ABSTRACT:How does the diagnosis process work? This essay traces the philosophical underpinnings of diagnosis from Hume through Kant, Peirce, and Popper, analyzing how pathologists amalgamate sensibility, intuition, and imagination to form new hypotheses that can be tested by evidence and experience.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  9
    "Inherently Limited by Our Imaginations": Health Anxieties, Politics, and the History of the Climate Crisis.David Shumway Jones - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):31-62.
    ABSTRACT:As global warming became a cause of concern in the 1980s, researchers and climate activists initially paid little attention to the possible health effects of a warmer world. This changed quickly between 1985 and 1989, when scientists working on contracts with the US Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency extrapolated from existing knowledge about the impact of weather on health to speculate about how global warming would impact health. However, they downplayed the impact of their contributions by highlighting (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  35
    Are Psychedelic Experiences Transformative? Can We Consent to Them?Brent M. Kious, Andrew Peterson & Amy L. McGuire - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):143-154.
    ABSTRACT:Psychedelic substances have great promise for the treatment of many conditions, and they are the subject of intensive research. As with other medical treatments, both research and clinical use of psychedelics depend on our ability to ensure informed consent by patients and research participants. However, some have argued that informed consent for psychedelic use may be impossible, because psychedelic experiences can be transformative in the sense articulated by L. A. Paul (2014). For Paul, transformative experiences involve either the acquisition of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14.  9
    Lived Religion in Religious Vaccine Exemptions.Hajung Lee - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):96-113.
    ABSTRACT:This essay explores a more inclusive and equitable interpretation of "religion" within the context of religious vaccine exemptions. The existing literature critiques the prevalent interpretation of the meaning of religion in religious exemption cases, but frequently overlooks the importance of incorporating the concept of "lived religion." This essay introduces the concept of lived religion from religious studies, elucidates why this lived religion approach is crucial for redefining "religion," and illustrates its application in the domain of religious vaccine exemptions. The author (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15.  81
    Organismal Superposition and Death.Michael Nair-Collins - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):22-30.
    ABSTRACT:Organismal superposition holds that the same individual both is and is not an organism, as a consequence of organismal pluralism. When coupled with the assumption that death is the cessation of an organism, this entails that there is no unique answer as to whether brain death is biological death. This essay argues that concerns about organismal pluralism and superposition do not undermine a theory of biological death, nor entail any metaphysical indeterminacy about the biological vital status of a brain-dead individual.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  12
    Bio-Psycho-Spiritual Perspectives on Psychedelics: Clinical and Ethical Implications.Logan Neitzke-Spruill, Nese Devenot, Dominic Sisti, Lynnette A. Averill & Amy L. McGuire - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):117-142.
    ABSTRACT:Psychedelics have again become a subject of widespread interest, owing to the reinvigoration of research into their traditional uses, possible medical applications, and social implications. As evidence for psychedelics' clinical potential mounts, the field has increasingly focused on searching for mechanisms to explain the effects of psychedelics and therapeutic efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT). This paper reviews three general frameworks that encompass several prominent models for understanding psychedelics' effects—specifically, neurobiological, psychological, and spiritual frameworks. Following our review, the implications of each (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  11
    Organismal Superposition Problem and Nihilist Challenge in the Definition of Death.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):1-21.
    ABSTRACT:According to the mainstream bioethical stance, death constitutes the termination of an organism. This essay argues that such an understanding of death is inappropriate in the usual context of determining death, since it also has a social bearing. There are two reasons to justify this argument. First, the mainstream bioethical definition generates an organismal superposition challenge, according to which a given patient in a single physiological state might be both alive and dead, like Schrödinger's cat. Therefore, there is no clear (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  4
    Bios-Ethics and the Bios Emergency: Finding the Real Work.David Schenck - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):63-72.
    ABSTRACT:This article presents a case for transforming traditional bioethics into "Bios-ethics." This exposition relies on three propositions: (1) the climate emergency is the "Bios emergency"; (2) in the Bios emergency, bioethics must be replaced by Bios-ethics; and (3) the top and overwhelming priority of Bios-ethics is to address the Bios emergency. Biocentrism, habitat, and environmental ethics are discussed in light of their contribution to the development of Bios-ethics, and potential lines of research in Bios-ethics are outlined. The urgency of undertaking (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  9
    Introduction to the Special Section on Psychedelics Research and Treatment.Dominic Sisti - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):114-116.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Introduction to the Special Section on Psychedelics Research and TreatmentDominic SistiAgainst a backdrop of post-pandemic malaise, diseases of despair, and a fragmented mental health care system, psychedelics have enjoyed a resurgence of interest as powerful psychotherapeutic agents and as catalysts of personal growth. The true power of these substances—some of which are considered sacramental by Indigenous peoples—has been shrouded for half a century by cultural mythology, political propaganda, and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  42
    Euthanasia and End-of-Life Decisions: From the Empirical Turn to Moral Intuitionism.Marta Spranzi - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):73-87.
    ABSTRACT:Most medical learned societies have endorsed both "equivalence" between all forms of withholding or withdrawing treatment and the "discontinuity" between euthanasia and practices to withhold or withdraw treatment. While the latter are morally acceptable insofar as they consist in letting the patient die, the former constitutes an illegitimate act of actively interfering with a patient's life. The moral distinction between killing and letting die has been hotly debated both conceptually and empirically, most notably by experimental philosophers, with inconclusive results. This (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  8
    Does Bioethics Need Ethical Theories?Wayne Sumner - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):166-179.
    ABSTRACT:The relationship between philosophy and bioethics remains a matter of perennial debate, but there does appear to be a consensus on one issue: whatever bioethics might want to borrow from philosophical ethics, it won't be normative theories. This essay argues that theories can have an important role to play in bioethics, though it might not be the one traditionally assumed by philosophers.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues