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  1.  1
    Commentary: Code Dread?Neal Baer - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):14-27.
    CRISPR keeps me up at night. I marvel at its potential to cure insidious genetic diseases and scourges like malaria. I shudder at the ways it might be misused to create biological weapons. What frightens me most, though, is what I can't predict: how will we use CRISPR? How will it change evolution? How will it redefine the very nature of our existence?CRISPR is an ingenious cut-and-paste system that homes in on a particular DNA gene sequence and then, using Cas9 (...)
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  2.  2
    Playing It Safe? Precaution, Risk, and Responsibility in Human Genome Editing.Sarah Chan - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):111-125.
    On November 26, 2018, the world awoke to the news that genome editing had for the first time been used to create genetically modified human beings. He Jiankui, a scientist then employed by Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, announced via social media and the popular press that he had performed genome editing on embryos with the aim of disrupting the CCR5 gene in order to induce immunity to HIV, implanted the embryos, and that twin girls had (...)
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  3.  2
    Who's Afraid of the Big Bad (Germline Editing) Wolf?R. Alta Charo - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):93-100.
    The surprise announcement in November 2018 that a Chinese researcher had implanted and brought to term two gene-edited embryos, resulting in the birth of twin girls, had the effect of galvanizing a debate that goes back decades. Should we make heritable changes in our children's DNA? Until recently, this was hypothetical only, and the easy response was to say it is too uncertain and too unnecessary to be tolerated. Suddenly, however, the possibility that there might be real uses for mitochondrial (...)
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  4.  4
    Introduction to the Special Issue on CRISPR.George Q. Daley - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):1-13.
    As i was finalizing this introduction to the Special Issue on CRISPR genome editing for Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, news broke that the Chinese scientist He Jiankui had been sentenced in Chinese court to three years in prison for "illegal medical practice" for his role in the creation of the world's first genome-edited babies. This official reprimand reinforced the worldwide condemnation and censure that followed He's announcement in November 2018 that his team at the Southern University of Science and (...)
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  5.  1
    CRISPR's Twisted Tales: Clarifying Misconceptions About Heritable Genome Editing.Marcy Darnovsky & Katie Hasson - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):155-176.
    In the year since He Jiankui announced the birth of twin girls whose genes were edited as embryos, reactions and revelations have continued, including the recent announcement that He and two colleagues have been sentenced to jail time and hefty fines. But what of Nana and Lulu, now infants, whose lives and futures are often missing in discussions of He's ethical violations? Their status remains a mystery. Other than learning that they were born prematurely by emergency C-section, we know nothing (...)
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  6.  5
    Focusing on Human Rights: A Framework for CRISPR Germline Genome Editing Ethics and Regulation.Kevin Doxzen & Jodi Halpern - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):44-53.
    the recent announcement of the claimed births of CRISPR-edited babies has prompted both widespread condemnation and calls by leading scientists for a moratorium on any further germline genome editing for reproductive purposes. Concurrently, national and international bodies are calling for the development of robust guidelines and requirements that will identify permissible conditions under which such GGE efforts may proceed. As detailed recommendations to navigate this unique terrain are under development, we suggest an approach that begins with identifying serious concerns about (...)
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  7.  2
    How We Got to CRISPR: The Dilemma of Being Human.Rosemarie Garland-Thomson - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):28-43.
    we always get to this difficult conversation one way or another when I'm talking to friends who have kids with disabilities. It goes like this: "If there had been a test for autism when my wife was pregnant with our son," my close friend tells me, "she would definitely have had an abortion." He tells me this with candor because he knows I know that this does not mean that he regrets having the son, grown up now, that they do (...)
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  8.  1
    Imperatives of Governance: Human Genome Editing and the Problem of Progress.J. Benjamin Hurlbut - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):177-194.
    The ability to make direct genetic changes to the DNA of future children poses profound challenges for governance: should it be done? For what purposes and subject to what limitations? And, no less importantly, who should decide? As a resolution pending in the US Senate rightly states, the prospect of editing the germline "touches on all of humanity". Given this, how should we as a human community guide and govern this emerging technology?The question of how human genome editing should be (...)
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  9.  3
    Shaping the CRISPR Gene-Editing Debate: Questions About Enhancement and Germline Modification.Josephine Johnston - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):141-154.
    When the use of CRIsPR-Cas9 to edit DNA was first reported in 2012, it was quickly heralded by scientists, policymakers, and journalists as a transformative technology. CRISPR-Cas9 provides the means to change DNA in ways that either were not generally possible using previous genetic technologies or that were orders of magnitude more laborious or inefficient to undertake. CRISPR's possible applications were readily apparent and seemingly endless, from supercharging laboratory research to modifying insects that transmit disease to eliminating genetic conditions. By (...)
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  10.  4
    Genome Editing and Human Reproduction: The Therapeutic Fallacy and the "Most Unusual Case".Peter F. R. Mills - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):126-140.
    Among the objections to the implementation of what I will call "genome editing in human reproduction" is that it does not address any unmet medical need, and therefore fails to meet an important criterion for introducing an unproven procedure with potentially adverse consequences. To be clear: what I mean by GEHR is the use of any one of a number of related biological techniques, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, deliberately to modify a functional sequence of DNA in a cell of (...)
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  11.  1
    The Existential Dimension to Aging.Tim Morris - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):195-206.
    Idiscovered Martha C. Nussbaum and Saul Levmore's Aging Thoughtfully: Conversations about Retirement, Romance, Wrinkles, and Regret at the same time I was rereading the ancient Roman philosopher Cicero on living and dying well, a text I often used in teaching prior to my retirement. Nussbaum and Levmore's book addresses a series of concerns about aging, and these concerns are presented by the two authors as alternative personal and professional perspectives. The authors acknowledge at the outset that their focus is not (...)
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  12.  3
    Clinical Germline Genome Editing: When Will Good Be Good Enough?Helen C. O'Neill - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):101-110.
    The year 2018 was the 40th anniversary of the birth of Louise Joy Brown, marking four decades of clinical in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Though this milestone, reached first by Steptoe and Edwards in the United Kingdom, is well acknowledged through Nobel accolade, the achievement was not entirely celebrated at the time. Global contention was not just moral, but political and legislative. In the United States, the achievement led in 1978 to the freezing of federal funds by the National (...)
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  13.  2
    Who Goes First? Deaf People and CRISPR Germline Editing.Carol Padden & Jacqueline Humphries - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):54-65.
    Two years ago, the US National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine released a report drafted by an international committee regarding the use of gene editing in humans. Once a tedious and expensive process, gene editing has now become more accessible and cheaper using the new CRISPR technology, making the issue of its use more urgent and pressing. The committee cites general support for somatic nonheritable gene editing to correct for a serious disease already present in a (...)
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  14.  1
    "Lost Your Superpower"? Graphic Medicine, Voicelessness, and Georgia Webber's Dumb.Sathyaraj Venkatesan & Diptarup Ghosh Dastidar - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):207-217.
    In a revealing TEDxKC talk entitled "How My Mind Came Back to Life—And No One Knew", Martin Pistorius, author of Ghost Boy, shares his harrowing experience of living in a vegetative state with a locked-in syndrome for two long years. When his consciousness returned, Pistorius reflects on how he was unable to communicate the news of his recovery. Using his augmented and alternative communication device, Pistorius observes, "Your personality appears to vanish into a heavy fog and all of your emotions (...)
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  15.  2
    Billy Idol.Ethan J. Weiss - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):66-72.
    Billy Idol was the name we gave Ruthie in the hospital in the days immediately after she was born. She had fluorescent white hair, and had she been born to different parents, they might have thought more of it. But both of Ruthie's parents had bleached blond hair as young children. So in the late summer and into the fall of 2006, we happily celebrated the arrival of our second child, little blond baby Ruthie "Billie Idol" Weiss.Like many second-time parents, (...)
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  16.  2
    CRISPR Cautions: Biosecurity Implications of Gene Editing.Rachel M. West & Gigi Kwik Gronvall - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):73-92.
    CRISPR, a recently developed gene-editing tool, has become synonymous with rapid biological advancement. While gene editing had been performed in life sciences research for decades, genetic engineering with CRISPR is much more straightforward, faster, and less expensive—and thus, the technology has been rapidly democratized. CRISPR was built on a natural mechanism, the method by which bacteria resist infections from viruses called bacteriophage. Once infected, bacteria may recognize specific genetic sequences of the invading bacteriophage virus and chop its genetic material into (...)
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