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  1.  2
    Making Human Populations.Soraya de Chadarevian - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):698-703.
    In the 1930s, the Otomi people living north of Mexico City became a model population for addressing the problems of poverty and "backwardness" of the Indian population. Mexican physiologists working in the capital chose the Otomies not least because they lived in easy reach of their laboratories. A collecting trip could be managed in a day and samples safely handled and promptly transferred to laboratory conditions. Following the Mexican teams that were funded by the newly created Autonomous Department of Indigenous (...)
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  2.  3
    "An Unusual and Fast Disappearing Opportunity": Infectious Disease, Indigenous Populations, and New Biomedical Knowledge in Amazonia, 1960–1970.Dent Rosanna & Santos Ricardo Ventura - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):585-605.
    In 1966, a team made up of Brazilian and foreign scientists spent a week carefully recording the body temperature and other clinical signs and symptoms of 110 Tiriyó Indigenous people in their communities along the Brazil-Suriname border. Led by the Yale University virologist and immunologist Francis Black, the researchers faced an "epidemic" with a special profile, distinct from those most common in Indigenous populations, which usually resulted in widespread illness, the collapse of subsistence activities, hunger, and as a rule, elevated (...)
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  3.  2
    Fertility Surveyors and Population-Making Technologies in Latin America.López Raúl Necochea - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):631-654.
    Fulfilling the "unmet need for contraceptives" in Latin America is still a contested rallying cry for local activists, policymakers, and physicians. It evokes both the consumerist aspiration to choose birth control methods, as well as implies the existence of health and welfare institutions that ought to guarantee a human right. In the 1940s, however, the "unmet need for contraceptives" was a fledgling notion that a group of experts had only begun to popularize through the use of a crucial population-making technology: (...)
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  4.  1
    Populations of Misre/Cognition.McManus Siobhan F. Guerrero - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):712-717.
    When Jacques Lacan coined the term "méconnaisance" or "misrecognition," he was referring to the way in which a maturing subject comes to understand his or her encounter with his or her own reflection in the mirror—a psycho-developmental period also known as The Mirror Stage; this encounter, as Lacan theorized, leads to the emergence of an idealized projection of who the subject is. This "Ideal I" that emerges from this encounter with the virtual Other, that is nonetheless the Self, produces both (...)
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  5.  3
    Amerindians, Europeans, Makiritare, Mestizos, Puerto Rican, and Quechua: Categorical Heterogeneity in Latin American Human Biology.Molina Santiago José - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):655-679.
    The past decade has seen a flurry of social scientific research on the use of racial categories in human genetics research. This literature has critically analyzed how U.S. race relations are being shaped by and themselves shaping research on human biological difference and disease. Recent work, however, suggests that the particular configurations of science and ethnoracial politics in the US are not exportable. Instead, research on human biology in other contexts reveals the importance of not just racial categories, but national, (...)
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  6.  2
    Practicing Population in Latin America.F. S. Roberts Elizabeth - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):704-711.
    Population involves the counting of a group in a place. To count is to know. To know is to intervene. Knowing and intervening are complicated practices. Assigning groups to places is complicated as well. This set of essays, that examine how scientists make Latin American groups into "objects of inquiry and intervention" allows for a fundamental examination of how practicing population can involve seemingly disparate accounts of the relationship of groups to places. North American scientists tend to constitute the populations (...)
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  7.  1
    Capturing Los Migrantes Desaparecidos: Crisis, Unknowability, and the Making of the Missing.A. Smith Lindsay & García-Deister Vivette - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):680-697.
    "Who knows how much longer it will be, but others have crossed over to the US, and have found a job, and have even sent for their families. I am not the only one crossing, I am number 57 out of 72, but we do not walk together, all 72—that would call too much attention to us. We walk at a good pace, each one with their thoughts, we walk from sun to sun without stopping almost; others have done it." (...)
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  8.  2
    Blood Diseases in the Backyard: Mexican "Indígenas" as a Population of Cognition in the Mid-1960s.Suárez-Díaz Edna - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):606-630.
    Between December 14 and 20, 1965, the World Health Organization Scientific Group on Haemoglobinopathies and Allied Disorders metatthe Geneva agency's headquarters. The group comprised eight well-known physicians including Tulio Arends, a leading Latin American human geneticist from the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Investigations. Others came from North America, Northern and Southern Europe, the Middle East and South East Asia, an array that reflected the delicate geopolitical equilibriums of postwar international health programs, but also the development of highly specialized biomedical research (...)
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  9.  1
    Populations of Cognition: Practices of Inquiry Into Human Populations in Latin America.Suárez-Díaz Edna, García-Deister Vivette & E. Vasquez Emily - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):551-563.
    In this special issue we explore practices of scientific inquiry into human populations in Latin America in order to generate new insights into the complex historical and sociopolitical dynamics that have made certain human groups integral to the production of scientific knowledge in and about the region. In important contributions, other scholars have shown that the science of human difference is racist and all too often has been a mediator of development ideologies. To further unpack these arguments we focus attention (...)
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  10.  1
    The "Problematic" Otomi: Metabolism, Nutrition, and the Classification of Indigenous Populations in Mexico in the 1930's.Joel Vargas-Domínguez - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (5):564-584.
    In post-Revolutionary Mexico, the Indian was conceptualized as a problem that needed to be solved. Indians were believed to be weighing down the nation and thought to constitute an obstacle for fulfilling its promised modern future. Thus, the scientific study of indigenous peoples in Mexico became, in the 1930s, a focus of anthropologists, physicians, and other experts, who sought to learn more about indigenous populations in order to solve this "problem." In this paper I explore how this "problem-solving" was practiced, (...)
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  11.  5
    Facing the Credibility Crisis of Science: On the Ambivalent Role of Pluralism in Establishing Relevance and Reliability.Carrier Martin - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):439-464.
    One of the pervasive distinctions in the history of political thought is the distinction between rule by consent and rule by competence or expertise. A classic locus of this debate is Plato's Politeia in which Plato argues against the rule by consent and advocates philosophers as political leaders. Philosophers are geared toward eternal ideas and for this reason place emphasis on the long-term consequences of political actions. The same idea is expressed today by the notion that devising policies adequately requires (...)
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  12.  4
    Demarcating Fringe Science for Policy.Harry Collins, Andrew Bartlett & Luis Reyes-Galindo - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):411-438.
    Fringe science has been an important topic since the start of the revolution in the social studies of science that occurred in the early 1970s. The revolution was what Collins and Evans refer to as the "second wave of science studies," while this paper is best thought of as an exercise in "third wave science studies." The first wave was that period which reached its apogee in the aftermath of the Second World War when science was seen as unquestionably the (...)
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  13.  2
    Genetically Modified Crops, Inclusion, and Democracy.J. Hicks Daniel - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):488-520.
    The public controversy over genetically modified crops is predominantly framed in terms of concerns over health and safety. Within this framing, the primary point of controversy is whether GM foods are likely to cause bio-physiological injury or disease to human consumers; a secondary issue, but one that still fits within the health and safety framing, is whether the cultivation of GM crops is likely to cause bio-physiological injury or disease to non-target species or ecosystems more broadly. Proponents of the development (...)
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  14.  1
    Post-Copernican Science in Galileo's Italy.Pietro Daniel Omodeo - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):393-410.
    The early dissemination of Copernicus' work and theories is an intricate and multilayered history. The reception of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, which was the first early modern work in mathematical astronomy introducing a heliocentric planetary theory, was not purely technical. Rather, the cultural debates surrounding it were affected by physical, philosophical, ethical, and theological concerns from its inception. Georg Joachim Rheticus, who authored the first report on Copernicus' achievement, deemed it appropriate to put a call for independence of spirit on (...)
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  15. Manual Labor and ‘Mean Mechanicks’: Bacon’s Mechanical History and the Deprecation of Craft Skills in Early Modern Science.Mark Thomas Young - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):521-550.
    This paper aims to assess the credibility of the legitimation thesis; the claim that the development of experimental science involved a legitimation of certain aspects of artisanal practice or craft knowledge. My goal will be to provide a critique of this idea by examining Francis Bacon’s notion of ‘mechanical history’ and the influence it exerted on attempts by later generations of scholars to appropriate the knowledge of craft traditions. Specifically, I aim to show how such projects were often premised upon (...)
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  16. Privacy, Informed Consent, and Participant Observation.Julie Zahle - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):465-487.
    In the literature on social research, adherence to the principle of informed consent is sometimes recommended on the ground that the privacy of those being studied is hereby protected. The principle has it that before becoming part of a study, a competent individual must receive information about its purpose, use, etc., and on this basis freely agree to participate. Joan Sieber motivates the employment of informed consent as a way to safeguard research participants' privacy as follows: "A research experience regarded (...)
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  17.  2
    The Sensation and the Stimulus: Psychophysics and the Prehistory of the Marburg School.Marco Giovanelli - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (3):287-323.
    In 1912, Ernst Cassirer contributed to the special issue of the Kant-Studien that honored Hermann Cohen's retirement—his mentor and teacher, and the recognized founding father of the so-called 'Marburg school' of Neo-Kantianism. In the context of an otherwise rather conventional presentation of Cohen's interpretation of Kant, Cassirer made a remark that is initially surprising. It is “anything but accurate,” he wrote, to regard Cohen's philosophy as focused “exclusively on the mathematical theory of nature,” as is usually done. A reconstruction of (...)
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  18.  1
    Demarcating Nature, Defining Ecology: Creating a Rationale for the Study of Nature's "Primitive Conditions".S. Andrew Inkpen - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (3):355-392.
    The relationship of man himself to his environment is an inseparable part of ecology; for he also is an organism and other organisms are a part of his environment. Ecology, therefore, broadly conceived and rightly understood, instead of being an academic science merely, out of touch with humanistic interests, is really that part of every other biological science which brings it into immediate relation to human kind. The proper place of humans in ecological study has been a recurring issue for (...)
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  19.  4
    "Why These Laws?"—: Multiverse Discourse as a Scene of Response.Pearce Jacob - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (3):324-354.
    By the end of the twentieth century, many prominent cosmologists were fascinated by the questions why is the universe the way it is, and why does the universe appear to be just right for life to emerge.1 Indeed, the shift to posing questions beginning with why rather than what or how is a relatively recent development in modern cosmology. This paper begins by looking at the emergence of why questions in cosmological discourse by tracing affiliated anthropic reasoning and fine-tuning arguments (...)
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  20. The Disponent Power in Gilbert's De Magnete: From Attraction to Alignment.Laura Georgescu - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (2):149-176.
    In A Treatise of Artificial Magnets, John Michell observes, Not being aware of this property [i.e. the equality of attraction and repulsion], he [Gilbert] concluded from some experiments he had made, not very irationally [sic], that the Needle was not attracted by the magnet, but turned into its position by, what he calls, a disponent virtue […]. For Michell, the disponent virtue 1 is the underlying cause of magnetic phenomena in Gilbert’s treatment. He is not alone. Ridley and Carpenter also (...)
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  21.  1
    Anthropological Materials in the Making of Michael Polanyi's Metascience.Struan Jacobs & Phil Mullins - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (2):261-285.
    Anthropological discussions were important for Michael Polanyi in the middle phase of his intellectual career, in which he articulated in some detail his understanding of science, culture and society. This middle period commenced with his 1946 Riddell Memorial Lectures at Durham University in early 1946, published as Science, Faith and Society later that year, and extended through the publication of Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy in 1958, based on Polanyi’s 1951 and 1952 Gifford Lectures. The Riddell Lectures gave Polanyi’s (...)
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  22.  1
    Representing Experimental Procedures Through Diagrams at CERN's Large Hadron Collider: The Communicatory Value of Diagrammatic Representations in Collaborative Research.Karaca Koray - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (2):177-203.
    In relatively recent years, quite a number of diverse case studies concerning the use of visual displays—such as graphs, diagrams, tables, pictures, drawings, etc.—in both the physical and biological sciences have been offered in the literature of the history and philosophy of science —see, e.g., Miller 1984; Lynch and Woolgar 1990; Baigrie 1996; Pauwels 2006. These case studies have shown that visual representations fulfill important functions in both the theoretical and experimental practices of science, thereby emphasizing the non-verbal dimension of (...)
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  23. There Is "Noise," and Noise.Eleonora Montuschi - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (2):204-225.
    What is noise? A tumultuous crowd is noisy or, more cheerfully, a group of students on holiday, or a flock of migrating birds. A loud conversation or loud laughter can be noisy if we are reading a philosophy article, or we are performing a physics experiment, or we are concentrating on a yoga exercise. In all such cases, noise is something that others do and that we unwillingly suffer, something that we perceive as an invasion of our perceptual space, or (...)
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  24.  2
    Epistemic Identities in Interdisciplinary Science.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (2):226-260.
    Confronting any science studies or learning sciences researcher in the 21st century is the reality of interdisciplinary science. New hybrid fields1 collaboratively build new concepts, combine models from two or more disciplines and forge inter-reliant relationships among specialists with different skill sets to solve new problems. This paper emerges from our recognition that inescapable psychological factors, including identity dynamics, must be described and analyzed in order to better understand the social and cognitive practices specific to interdisciplinary science. In analysis of (...)
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  25.  6
    The Disconnect Problem, Scientific Authority, and Climate Policy.Matthew J. Brown & Joyce C. Havstad - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):67-94.
    In this paper, we diagnose and explore one instance of a general phenomenon that we hereby dub “the disconnect problem.” Instances of the disconnect problem arise wherever there is ongoing and severe discordance between the scientific assessment of a politically relevant issue, and the politics and legislation of said issue. Because the disconnect problem involves significant conceptual, epistemic, and ethical discord, it is an especially relevant problem for socially responsible philosophers of science. Here, we focus on the disconnect problem as (...)
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  26.  2
    Trust Without Shared Belief: Pluralist Realism and Polar Bear Conservation.Jennifer Jill Fellows - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):36-66.
    Trust in an epistemic context is often understood in terms of shared beliefs. That is, if I trust you with regards to the knowledge claims you are making, then I accept and believe your knowledge claims as true. This model of trust building appears problematic for those who hold pluralist realism1 to be a conceptual possibility because the strength of pluralist accounts is often thought to be in the divergence of opinion, not the convergence on a shared belief. Thus, if (...)
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  27.  6
    A Social Epistemological Inquiry Into Biases in Journal Peer Review.Jukola Saana - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):124-148.
    Journal peer review is an essential part of academic practices.1 But how well does it serve its purpose and which factors have an influence on how close it comes to achieving its aims? Peer review has been widely discussed in empirical literature: it has been studied both qualitatively and quantitatively (e.g., by Cole, who in his 1992 book uses data on how grant applications submitted to National Science Foundation were...
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  28.  2
    Rethinking Sylva Sylvarum: Francis Bacon’s Use of Giambattista Della Porta’s Magia Naturalis.Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):1-35.
    The study of vegetables represents one of the main topics in Bacon’s Sylva sylvarum. Not only in quantitative terms, because plants occupy about a third of the entire book, but the centuries on plants are among the most structured, and this reveals Bacon’s particular interest for the topic. The key to understanding Bacon’s interest can be found in both his Sylva sylvarum and the Historia vitae et mortis, where Bacon explains how the results of studying certain processes in plants can (...)
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  29.  1
    An Internal Answer to the Experimenters’ Regress Through the Analysis of the Semantics of Experimental Results and Their Representational Content.Romina Zuppone - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):95-123.
    Despite the fact that reproduction of experiments by peers has traditionally been regarded as of the utmost importance in enabling the intersubjectivity of scientific practice, reproductions may yield discordant results and deciding which result should be favored may not be an easy task. According to Harry Collins, experimental disagreement is resolved by the action of social, political and economic factors, but not by means of epistemic and scientific, or so-called internal reasons. His motivation for such a claim is the presence (...)
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