Perspectives on Science

ISSN: 1063-6145

21 found

View year:

  1.  35
    Real Virtuality and Actual Transitions: Historical Reflections on Virtual Entities before Quantum Field Theory.Alexander S. Blum & Martin Jähnert - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):329-349.
    This paper studies the notion of virtuality in the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924. We situate the virtual entities of BKS within the tradition of the correspondence principle and the radiation theory of the Bohr model. We show how, in this context, virtual oscillators emerged as classical substitute radiators and were used to describe the otherwise elusive quantum transitions. They played an effective role in the quantum theory of radiation while remaining categorically distinct and ontologically separated from the quantum world of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  2.  9
    The Eye Stays in the Picture: Virtual Images in Early Modern and Modern Optics.Arianna Borrelli - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):300-328.
    In optics, real images can be projected onto a screen, while virtual ones always remain behind mirrors. This apparently straightforward distinction is based on complex premises which emerged in the Early Modern period, and its development went hand in hand with a transformation of the notion of image, which became detached from sensual perception. In this article I will outline this historical process, and argue that the distinction between a real and virtual image still implies a reference to visual perception (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  26
    Understanding, Virtually: How Does the Synthetic Cell Matter?Daphne Broeks, Tarja Knuuttila & Henk de Regt - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):394-414.
    This paper examines how scientific understanding is enhanced by virtual entities, focusing on the case of the synthetic cell. Comparing it to other virtual entities and environments in science, we argue that the synthetic cell has a virtual dimension, in that it is functionally similar to living cells, though it does not mimic any particular naturally evolved cell (nor is it constructed to do so). In being cell-like at most, the synthetic cell is akin to many other virtual objects as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  8
    How to Study Virtual Entities Historically? A Proposal.Markus Ehberger - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):278-299.
    This paper will not present a case study of the historical development of a virtual entity. Rather, I will develop an outlook on virtual entities in the sciences and propose a corresponding method for studying them (historically). In essence, my presentation can be considered a synthesis of different observations from the history and philosophy of science and has its roots in my dissertational research on the development of the virtual particle. Starting with a reflection on the role of presentism for (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  14
    Preface: Virtual Entities in Science.Robert Harlander, Jean-Philippe Martinez, Friedrich Steinle & Adrian Wüthrich - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):263-268.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Preface: Virtual Entities in ScienceRobert Harlander, Jean-Philippe Martinez, Friedrich Steinle, and Adrian WüthrichIt is not only since the sudden increase of online communication due to the COVID-19 situation that the concept of the “virtual” has made its way into everyday language. In this context, it mostly denotes a digital substitute for a real object or process. Virtual reality is perhaps the best-known term in this respect. With these digital (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  34
    Virtuality in Modern Physics in the 1920s and 1930s: Meaning(s) of an Emerging Notion.Jean-Philippe Martinez - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):350-371.
    This article discusses the meaning of the notion of virtuality in modern physics. To this end, it develops considerations on the introduction and establishment in nuclear physics of two independent concepts at the turn of the 1920s and 1930s: that of the virtual state, used in the context of neutron scattering studies, and that of the virtual transition, useful for the theoretical understanding of strong nuclear forces, which forms the basis of what are now called virtual particles. Their comparative analysis (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  7
    How to Conceive Virtual Entities: Peirce’s Proposal.Friedrich Steinle - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):269-277.
    The term “virtual entities” has a long tradition and a variety of meanings. My short article focuses on one particular meaning, as clearly defined by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1902. I will discuss the definition he provided and touch on the wide resonance it had and still has in science.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  1
    How to Conceive Virtual Entities: Peirce's Proposal.Friedrich Steinle - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):269-277.
    The term “virtual entities” has a long tradition and a variety of meanings. My short article focuses on one particular meaning, as clearly defined by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1902. I will discuss the definition he provided and touch on the wide resonance it had and still has in science.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  12
    The Ghost in the Machine: Metaphors of the ‘Virtual’ and the ‘Artificial’ in Post-WW2 Computer Science.Joseph Wilson - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):372-393.
    Metaphors that compare the computer to a human brain are common in computer science and can be traced back to a fertile period of research that unfolded after the Second World War. To conceptualize the emerging “intelligent” properties of computing machines, researchers of the era created a series of virtual objects that served as interpretive devices for representing the immaterial functions of the computer. This paper analyses the use of the terms “artificial” and “virtual” in scientific papers, textbooks, and popular (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  3
    The Ghost in the Machine: Metaphors of the 'Virtual' and the 'Artificial' in Post-WW2 Computer Science.Joseph Wilson - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):372-393.
    Metaphors that compare the computer to a human brain are common in computer science and can be traced back to a fertile period of research that unfolded after the Second World War. To conceptualize the emerging “intelligent” properties of computing machines, researchers of the era created a series of virtual objects that served as interpretive devices for representing the immaterial functions of the computer. This paper analyses the use of the terms “artificial” and “virtual” in scientific papers, textbooks, and popular (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  8
    Science as a Collective Effort: Collaboration at the Zoophysiological Laboratory 1911–1945.Allan Lyngs - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (2):141-183.
    This paper will address scientific collaboration at the Zoophysiological Laboratory during the 1911–1945 directorship of Nobel Prize winner August Krogh. Using authorship information and acknowledgments from the laboratory’s publications, this paper maps the many researchers involved in the work. In total, 193 different people contributed to the work at the Zoophysiological Laboratory. The paper further analyzes what labor, materials, ideas, and knowledge were exchanged between the individuals in the laboratory. While science has become more collaborative throughout the twentieth century, this (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  36
    Understanding What in Public Understanding of Science.Eleonora Montuschi & Baptiste Bedessem - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (2):207-229.
    What should citizens understand about science to participate in democratic life? Against the prevailing approach, we argue that “what” a public understanding of science is about strongly depends on the specific epistemological nature of the science related issues considered in different contexts and circumstances. We identify three specific categories of such issues and show how, equally, specific models of public understanding are required to address them. Only by endorsing such an alternative approach will citizens arguably be able to form sound (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  10
    Beyond Descartes: Noël Regnault and Eighteenth-Century French Cartesianism.Marco Storni - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (2):230-261.
    This paper proposes new ways of characterizing eighteenth-century French Cartesianism. Besides two widely-accepted elements—the belief in “strict mechanism” and the idea that to demonstrate in physics does not involve mathematics, but reference to mechanical models—I add two more, hitherto neglected, features. First, a strong emphasis on experimentalism, namely the view that experiments are crucial to natural-philosophical practice. Second, an epistemological thesis that I call “conjecturalism,” which consists in doubting that natural philosophy would attain an ultimate truth on the nature of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  21
    Coenesthesia or the Immediate Feeling of Existence: Maine de Biran and the Problem of the Unconscious between Physiology and Philosophy.Alessandra Aloisi - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):47-69.
    The term “coenesthesia” was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century by the German physiologist Johann Christian Reil to designate the general perception of the living body through the nerves. Over the course of the nineteenth century, this notion circulated widely not only in Germany, but also in France, where it was developed in particular by Théodule Ribot. However, a good sixty years before Ribot, Maine de Biran had already employed the notion of “coenesthesia” to indicate the “immediate feeling (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  24
    Introduction: Maine de Biran and the Afterlives of Biranism.Alessandra Aloisi & Delphine Antoine-Mahut - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):1-14.
    The term “coenesthesia” was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century by the German physiologist Johann Christian Reil to designate the general perception of the living body through the nerves. Over the course of the nineteenth century, this notion circulated widely not only in Germany, but also in France, where it was developed in particular by Théodule Ribot. However, a good sixty years before Ribot, Maine de Biran had already employed the notion of “coenesthesia” to indicate the “immediate feeling (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  12
    On the Reform of the First Philosophy: After Leibniz, Maine de Biran.Bernard Baertschi - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):15-27.
    Leibniz is one of the philosophers who is most present in the philosophy of Maine de Biran, particularly from 1813 onwards. His influence is decisive in the reform of metaphysics (or First Philosophy) that he carries out from that moment on, reviving the notion of substance. Leibniz allows him to reconcile it with the idea of force, and thus to link it to the primitive fact of consciousness. This move has often been emphasized by commentators, but what has been less (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  10
    Tics, Slips of the Tongue and Habit between Maine de Biran and Victor Egger.Sofia Sandreschi de Robertis - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):91-101.
    This article compares the phenomena of “tic” and “slip of the tongue” [lapsus] as they have been described by Maine de Biran and Victor Egger, including a possible reception of Biran’s thought by Egger. In the twentieth century these phenomena will be analysed by psychoanalysts, but their first description appears in nineteenth-century French philosophy. Emerging from the analysis of Biran’s “tics” and Egger’s “slips” in the nineteenth century, the concept of habit becomes linked to a reflection on the unconscious. Tic (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  13
    The Biranian Spiritualism of Alexis Bertrand: A Philosophy of One’s Own Body?Romain Hacques - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):70-90.
    Focusing on the reception of Maine de Biran by Alexis Bertrand in his thesis, L’aperception du corps humain par la conscience (1880), I will demonstrate how the “corps propre” (one’s own body) becomes a key concept in order to re-orientate the French spiritualist movement. To do so, Bertrand’s neo-Biranism uses a new methodology with phenomenological issues. The image of the body, the primitive space or the engagement within the world becomes new research themes for spiritualism. His interpretation of Biran’s philosophy (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  18
    Proust on the Subconscious: Psychic Splitting, Half-sleep, and Metempsychosis.Marco Piazza - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):127-139.
    This contribution explores the concept of the unconscious as articulated by Proust in his À la recherche du temps perdu (Proust ([1913–1927] 1998–1999) and in a series of documents and texts that preceded it. It aims at understanding whether and to what extent Proust can be placed in a line of French thought that begins with the work of Maine de Biran and culminates in the reception in the second half of the nineteenth century of Biranism by French alienists: doctors (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  31
    Sympathy and Moral Sentiments in Maine de Biran’s Philosophy.Grégoire Sanchez - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):28-46.
    The foundation of morality, and mainly, the possibility of moral sentiments that are universal and inalienable, is a central problem in Maine de Biran’s philosophy. Many studies focus on the part played by the self in Maine de Biran’s late philosophy, but relatively few consider with precision the importance of the concept of sympathy in this context. In this paper, I would like to show that this concept, which Biran mobilizes from his first to his last writings, is an important (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  21
    Pierre Janet: A Psychological Reading of Maine De Biran’s Theory of the Unconscious.Denise Vincenti - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):102-126.
    This paper aims to analyze Pierre Janet’s interpretation of Maine de Biran’s notion of the “unconscious” through a comparative study between L’automatisme psychologique (1889) and some Biranian writings devoted to the problem of pure affections. The objective is to question whether Janet’s psychological reading of this very notion had been faithful to Biran’s intentions, and to understand what kind of Biranism Janet is referring to when dealing with the problem of the unconscious.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues