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  1.  5
    Introduction: Severe Uncertainty in Science, Medicine, and Technology.Mattia Andreoletti, Daniele Chiffi & Behnam Taebi - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):201-209.
    This Special Issue titled "Severe Uncertainty in Science, Medicine and Technology" aims to shed new light on the understanding of severe uncertainty and its multifaceted implications. The main idea of the papers of this collection is that, despite possible sophisticated statistical judgments towards future risks in science, medicine, and technology, severe forms of uncertainty still exist.While ignorance is usually assumed to be a total absence of knowledge, uncertainty often refers to the incompleteness of knowledge or information. In its extreme form, (...)
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  2.  15
    Can Uncertainty Be Quantified?Sven Ove Hansson - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):210-236.
    In order to explore the quantifiability and formalizability of uncertainty a wide range of uncertainties are investigated. They are summarized under eight main categories: factual, possibilistic, metadoxastic, agential, interactive, value, structural, and linguistic uncertainty. This includes both classical uncertainty and the uncertainties commonly called great, deep, or radical. For five of the eight types of uncertainty, both quantitative and non-quantitative formalizations are meaningful and available. For one of them, only non-quantitative formalizations seem to be meaningful, and for two neither quantitative (...)
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  3.  5
    Uncertainty and Planning: Cities, Technologies and Public Decision-Making.Stefano Moroni & Daniele Chiffi - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):237-259.
    Decision-making under uncertainty is sometimes investigated as a homogeneous problem, independently of the type of decision-maker and the level and nature of the decision itself. However, when the decision-maker is a public authority, there immediately arise problems additional to those that concern any other decision-maker. This is not always clearly recognised in orthodox discussions on decisions under conditions of uncertainty. This article investigates the methodological, strategic and procedural challenges of taking public decisions in such conditions. It focuses mainly on decisions (...)
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  4.  9
    Moral Uncertainty in Technomoral Change: Bridging the Explanatory Gap.Philip J. Nickel, Olya Kudina & Ibo van de Poel - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):260-283.
    This paper explores the role of moral uncertainty in explaining the morally disruptive character of new technologies. We argue that existing accounts of technomoral change do not fully explain its disruptiveness. This explanatory gap can be bridged by examining the epistemic dimensions of technomoral change, focusing on moral uncertainty and inquiry. To develop this account, we examine three historical cases: the introduction of the early pregnancy test, the contraception pill, and brain death. The resulting account highlights what we call “differential (...)
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  5.  4
    Non-Empirical Uncertainties in Evidence-Based Decision Making.Malvina Ongaro & Mattia Andreoletti - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):305-320.
    The increasing success of the evidence-based policy movement is raising the demand of empirically informed decision making. As arguably any policy decision happens under conditions of uncertainty, following our best available evidence to reduce the uncertainty seems a requirement of good decision making. However, not all the uncertainty faced by decision makers can be resolved by evidence. In this paper, we build on a philosophical analysis of uncertainty to identify the boundaries of scientific advice in policy decision making. We start (...)
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  6.  4
    Explorative Experiments: A Paradigm Shift to Deal with Severe Uncertainty in Autonomous Robotics.Viola Schiaffonati - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):284-304.
    This paper presents a case of severe uncertainty in the development of autonomous and intelligent systems in Artificial Intelligence and autonomous robotics. After discussing how uncertainty emerges from the complexity of the systems and their interaction with unknown environments, the paper describes the novel framework of explorative experiments. This framework presents a suitable context in which many of the issues relative to uncertainty, both at the epistemological level and at the ethical one, in this field should be reframed. The case (...)
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  7.  2
    Uncertainty in Integrated Assessment Modeling of Climate Change.Massimo Tavoni & Giovanni Valente - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):321-351.
    Integrated assessment models play a major role in the science and policy of climate change. Similarly to other widely used computational tools for addressing socially relevant problems, IAMs need to account for the key uncertainties characterizing processes and socio-economic responses. In the case of climate change, these are particularly complex given the very long-term nature of climate and the deep uncertainty characterizing technological and human systems. Here we draw from philosophical discussion of mathematical modeling of social problems and review the (...)
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  8.  3
    Racializing a New Nation: German Coloniality and Anthropology in Maharashtra, India.Thiago P. Barbosa - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):137-166.
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  9.  1
    People in Motion: Introduction to Transnational Movements and Transwar Connections in the Anthropological and Genetic Study of Human Populations.Iris Clever, Jaehwan Hyun & Elise K. Burton - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):1-12.
    The essays in this special issue shed new light on the transnational movement and exchange of researchers, data, theories, and scientific objects in the anthropological and genetic study of human populations in the twentieth century. Historians have long stressed how the study of race and human populations in this period served to create a national identity for emerging nation states. More recently, historical narratives of anthropology and human genetics have emphasized the global scale of research networks in these sciences. This (...)
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  10. Commentary: Nationalism and Transnationalism in Anthropological Research.Soraya de Chadarevian - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):194-198.
    The history of physical anthropology has most often been situated and studied in the context of specific colonial powers and nation states. At the same time, the study of human variation had as its scope to study human evolution on a global scale. It thus necessarily included transnational border crossings and scholarly exchanges of specimen collections that allowed researchers to study migration and differentiation patterns on a large scale. In addition, scientists working in a national context often sought international approval (...)
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  11. In the Name of Human Adaptation: Japanese American "Hybrid Children" and Racial Anthropology in Postwar Japan.Jaehwan Hyun - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):167-193.
  12. The Norwegian Association for Heredity Research and the Organized International Eugenics Movement. Expertise, Authority, Transnational Networks and International Organization in Norwegian Genetics and Eugenics.Jon Røyne Kyllingstad - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):77-107.
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  13.  1
    Blood Affairs: Racial Blood Group Research and Nation Building in Greece, 1920s–1940s.Ageliki Lefkaditou - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):48-76.
  14. Erratum.Marsha Richmond & Ana Barahona - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):199-199.
    Correction to: Maria Santesmases, "Women in Early Human Cytogenetics: An Essay on a Gendered History of Chromosome Imaging," in the special issue, "Heredity and Evolution in an Ibero-American Context," Perspectives on Science 28 : 170–200. In this article, on page 177, in the sentence beginning: "Among these was Barbara McClintock," the date of McClintock's publication should read "1930". On page 178, the caption of Figure 4 should read: "From McClintock 1930, pp. 792, 793; reproduced with permission...." To the References, on (...)
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  15.  3
    Transnational Isolates: Portuguese Colonial Race Science and the Foreign World.Ricardo Roque - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (1):108-136.
  16.  6
    Can Information Concepts Have Physical Content?Javier Anta - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 1 (1):1-21.
    In this paper, I analyze the physical content of the main information concepts in the history of physics of the last seven decades. I argue that this physical character should be evaluated not by appealing to analytical-linguistic confusion (Timpson 2013) or to the usefulness of its applicability (Lombardi et al. 2016), but properly from its capacity to allow us to acquire significant knowledge about the physical world. After systematically employing this epistemic criterion of physical significance I will conclude by rejecting (...)
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