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  1. Matthew D. Wright, A Vindication of Politics: On the Common Good and Human Flourishing.Francis J. Beckwith - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):457-459.
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  2.  4
    Recovering Our Knowledge of the Good Person.Chad Bogosian - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):427-433.
    Have you wondered how your students or friends simultaneously deny moral facts yet accept the universal wrongness of bullying, sexual assault, or greed? Dallas Willard’s much anticipated final philosophical work offers an incisive analysis of and solution to this phenomenon. Here I provide a brief overview of Willard’s main argument for how moral knowledge disappeared and has thereby become publicly unavailable for teaching it to emerging generation. We first look at what caused this “disappearance” at a social level, and then (...)
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  3.  9
    Joshua Rasmussen, How Reason Can Lead to God: A Philosopher’s Bridge to Faith.Todd Buras - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):453-457.
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  4.  3
    Response to Van Inwagen and Welty.William Lane Craig - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):277-286.
    In response to my critics, I argue that Peter van Inwagen, despite his protestations, is an advocate of an indispensability argument for Platonism. What remains to be shown by van Inwagen is that his version of the argument overcomes his own presumption against Platonism and survives defeat by besting every anti-Platonist alternative. While acknowledging Greg Welty’s helpful responses to my worries about divine conceptualism as a realist alternative to Platonism, I express ongoing reservations about some of those responses.
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  5.  2
    Does Open Theism Explain God’s Planning of Creation?Elliott R. Crozat - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):407-417.
    In this essay, I assess Timothy Blank’s “The Open Theistic Multiverse.” In his article, Blank attempts to show that Open Theism explains how God can plan the creation of a multiverse containing creatures with libertarian freedom. I underscore some benefits of Blank’s article while arguing that, despite its strengths, his paper fails to provide a sufficient explanation of God’s precreational planning.
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  6.  5
    Can a Male Savior Save Women?Fellipe do Vale - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):309-324.
    This paper attempts to answer, as well as give metaphysical specificity to, a question within the philosophy and theology of gender which strikes the heart of the Christian confession of the gospel. Against critics who say that the masculinity of Christ’s human nature renders him unable to save women as well as men, it draws on the recent literature on feminist metaphysics and analytic Christology to develop a model of the Incarnation able to avoid such criticisms.
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  7.  2
    Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Dani Rabinowitz, Eds., Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology.Thomas W. Duttweiler - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):449-453.
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  8.  6
    The Revolt Against Accountability to God.C. Stephen Evans - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):289-308.
    Philosophers such as Nietzsche, Marx, and Freud have developed “global hermeneutical perspectives” on human nature. This paper argues that Christian faith also provides such a perspective, which is termed the “no-neutrality thesis.” Humans were created to serve God, but they have rebelled against their rightful sovereign, and this rebellion may show itself in morality. If moral obligations are God’s requirements, then the human rebellion might provide motivation for rejecting objective moral obligations. Thus the noneutrality thesis may help us understand some (...)
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  9.  11
    The Neo-Molinist Square Stands Firm: A Rejoinder to Kirk MacGregor.Elijah Hess - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):391-406.
    In a previous issue of Philosophia Christi, Kirk MacGregor responded to an essay of mine in which I argued for a neo-Molinist account of open theism. The argument demonstrated how, given standard counterfactual semantics, one could derive an “open future square of opposition,” that is, a depiction of the logical relations that hold between future-tense statements from an open theistic standpoint. Conceding the validity of the argument, MacGregor nevertheless sought to deny its soundness by criticizing both its conclusion and the (...)
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  10.  1
    Editor’s Introduction.Ross D. Inman - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):251-251.
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  11.  4
    Advancing the Aristotelian Project in Contemporary Metaphysics: A Review Essay.Robert C. Koons - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):435-442.
    In a recent book, Substance and the Fundamentality of the Familiar, Ross Inman demonstrates the contemporary relevance of an Aristotelian approach to metaphysics and the philosophy of nature. Inman successfully applies the Aristotelian framework to a number of outstanding problems in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of physics. Inman tackles some intriguing questions about the ontological status of proper parts, questions which constitute a central focus of ongoing debate and investigation.
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  12.  1
    Natalja Deng, God and Time.R. Keith Loftin - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):459-461.
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  13.  4
    Eliminative Materialism and Ordinary Language.Daniel Lorca & Eric LaRock - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):419-426.
    Advocates of eliminative materialism assure us that our current, ordinary approach to describing the mind will eventually be eliminated, instead of reduced, by a matured neuroscience. However, once we take into account the flexibility, explanatory power, and overall sophistication of ordinary language, then the promissory note offered by eliminative materialism loses all credibility. To bolster the preceding claim, we present three original problems for EM: the accountability problem, the substitution problem, and the discourse dependence problem.
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  14.  3
    Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):355-369.
    Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could (...)
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  15.  21
    Paul Copan and William Lane Craig, Eds., The Kalām Cosmological Argument.Graham Oppy - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):445-449.
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  16.  3
    Sanctification as Joint Agency with the Triune God.Gary Osmundsen - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):325-354.
    If humans are sanctified by a triune God, part of the success of spiritual formation depends on understanding how one’s agency depends upon the Trinity. Some sanctifying actions require causal notions like “obedience,” “yielding,” “participation,” and “cooperation.” So, how is a Christian going to understand them? The purpose of this paper, then, is twofold: develop a model of agency that provides an adequate account of understanding how one’s agency depends upon the Trinity; and explain how this model can increase the (...)
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  17.  4
    Optimistic Molinism.Andre Leo Rusavuk - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):371-387.
    Some Molinists claim that a perfectly good God would actualize a world that is salvifically optimal, that is, a world in which the balance between the saved and damned is optimal and cannot be improved upon without undesirable consequences. I argue that given some plausible principles of rationality, alongside the assumptions Molinists already accept, God’s perfect rationality necessarily would lead him to actualize a salvifically optimal world; I call this position “Optimistic Molinism.” I then consider objections and offer replies, concluding (...)
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  18.  23
    Response to William Lane Craig’s God Over All.Peter van Inwagen - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):267-275.
    In contrast to William Lane Craig’s view this article presents a sort of precis of my position on ontological commitment—whether you call it neo-Quineanism or not—and its implications for the nominalism-realism debate, a precis that proceeds from first principles.
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  19.  23
    Do Divine Conceptualist Accounts Fail?Greg Welty - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):255-266.
    William Lane Craig’s God over All argues against the kind of “divine conceptualism” about abstract objects which I defend. In this conference presentation I note several points of agreement with and appreciation for Craig’s important work. I then turn to five points of critique and response pertaining to: the sovereignty-aseity intuition, the reality of false propositions, God’s having “inappropriate” thoughts, propositions being purely private and incommunicable, and a consistent view of God’s own ontological commitments. I conclude by summarizing our two (...)
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  20.  10
    The Phenomenological Moral Argument.Jonathan Ashbach - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):135-151.
    The moral argument for the existence of God is a popular and rhetorically effective element of natural theology, but both its traditional ontological and epistemological forms rely upon controversial premises. This article proposes a new variant—the phenomenological moral argument, or PMA—that is exclusively empirical in form. The PMA notes several empirical aspects of moral experience that cohere much more naturally with a theistic than with an atheistic account of conscience’s origins. It therefore concludes that divine creation best explains the nature (...)
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  21.  2
    Grounding the Good.Troy Catterson - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):85-102.
    I argue that moral goodness is necessarily self-predicating. That is to say, the property of being morally good is morally good. I then argue that reductions of moral goodness to natural properties, particularly utilitarian specifications, are not necessarily self-predicating. Therefore, such reductions are not successful. Finally, I consider the possibility of defining the good as “fulfilling God’s design plan.” I show that, under an Aristotelian construal of property existence this property is provably self-predicating.
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  22.  4
    After Twenty Years: Personal Reflections.Paul Copan - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):23-29.
    This autobiographical article commemorates the twentieth anniversary of Philosophia Christi—the journal of the Evangelical Philosophical Society. I give my own personal narrative of the EPS’s influence on my life beginning in the mid-1980s as a master’s-level graduate student. This narrative then recounts my deepened involvement with the Society starting in the late 1990s, when it began going through pioneering structural and leadership changes and key developments over the past twenty years.
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  23.  24
    Is Penal Substitution Unsatisfactory?William Lane Craig - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):153-166.
    It might be objected to penal substitutionary theories that punishing Christ could not possibly meet the demands of divine retributive justice. For punishing another person for my crimes would not serve to remove my guilt. The Anglo-American system of justice, in fact, does countenance and even endorse cases in which a substitute satisfies the demands of retributive justice. Moreover, Christ’s being divinely and voluntarily appointed to act not merely as our substitute but as our representative enables him to serve as (...)
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  24.  7
    The Evangelical Philosophical Society.William Lane Craig - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):21-22.
    This brief essay offers a congratulatory notice and reflections on the 20th anniversary of Philosophia Christi. It recalls some of Craig's early involvement with the Evangelical Philosophical Society and with the founding of Philosophia Christi.
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  25.  7
    Loke’s Preconscious Christ.Oliver D. Crisp - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):39-47.
    In several recent articles and a monograph, Andrew Loke has outlined a particular model of the Incarnation, which he calls the Divine Preconscious Model. In this article I provide a critique of this model, drawing on recent work by James Arcadi in order to show that there are serious theological costs involved in adopting the DPM.
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  26.  14
    Recent Christian Philosophy.Stephen T. Davis - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):17-20.
    This brief look at Christian philosophy in the United States in recent years considers both our successes and the challenges we face. It also congratulates Philosophia Christi on its excellence in the past twenty years.
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  27.  3
    Virtuous Faith.Travis M. Dickinson - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):119-134.
    The notion of faith has been variously understood throughout the course of Christian intellectual history. It has been common to construe faith in epistemological terms, especially by critics of religious faith. In this paper, I argue that faith, especially faith that is had in the context of relationships, should be understood as an act of ventured trust. This is not to say that beliefs and the evidence for the truth of those beliefs are unimportant. Indeed, I argue that acting on (...)
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  28.  1
    A Kenotic Theologian’s Response to Andrew Loke’s “Kryptic Model” of the Incarnation.C. Stephen Evans - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):33-38.
    In this article I compare the kryptic model of the Incarnation, developed by Andrew Loke, with two other models, the “two-minds” model and the kenotic model. All three models succeed in showing the logical coherence of the doctrine of the Incarnation, and I concede that Loke’s model has some of the advantages of both of the other two, while avoiding some perceived disadvantages. However, I argue that Loke’s model also has some of the disadvantages of both of the other models. (...)
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  29. Edward Feser: Five Proofs of the Existence of God. [REVIEW]Logan Paul Gage - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):228-232.
    A review of Edward Feser's Five Proofs of the Existence of God.
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  30.  2
    Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Contemporary Science.Paul M. Gould - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):217-221.
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  31.  30
    The Nature of Skeptical Theism.Perry Hendricks - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):103-117.
    Skeptical theism is a popular response to arguments from evil. Recently, Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Yoaav Isaacs have argued that the theses that ground skeptical theism are either false or limited in scope. In this article, I show that their objections rest on dubious assumptions about the nature of skeptical theism. Along the way, I develop and clarify the ambiguous parts of skeptical theism. The upshot of this is that—once the nature of skeptical theism is made clearer—it is (...)
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  32.  3
    Editor’s Introduction.Ross D. Inman - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):3-4.
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  33. Salvaging Pascal’s Wager.Elizabeth Jackson & Andrew Rogers - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):59-84.
    Many think that Pascal’s Wager is a hopeless failure. A primary reason for this is because a number of challenging objections have been raised to the wager, including the “many gods” objection and the “mixed strategy” objection. We argue that both objections are formal, but not substantive, problems for the wager, and that they both fail for the same reason. We then respond to additional objections to the wager. We show how a version of Pascalian reasoning succeeds, giving us a (...)
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  34.  7
    Scientism and Secularism: Learning to Respond to a Dangerous Ideology.Michael N. Keas - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):225-228.
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  35.  3
    Reply to Panelists.Andrew Loke - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):49-56.
    I explain why my model of the Incarnation avoids the problems with alternative models and reply to objections concerning my model’s coherence with scripture, the understanding of personhood and natures, the concrete–abstract distinction, the human soul of Christ, the lack of the unconscious in Christ, and the incompatibility with a strong sense of immutability and simplicity. I conclude that my model stays faithful to scripture and can help to secure unity in the body of Christ concerning the doctrine of the (...)
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  36.  5
    Onward Christian Philosophers.Angus J. L. Menuge - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):11-15.
    Christian philosophers have engaged naturalism in three main ways: direct refutation; systematic comparison; and sustained development of compelling alternative accounts. While all of these options have value, I argue that it is, and especially, that are most likely to win converts, and that we are witnessing an encouraging strategic shift in that direction. Options and bring Christian philosophers into closer dialogue with their naturalistic counterparts, building mutual respect and a greater opportunity for Christian philosophers to gain a full and fair (...)
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  37.  2
    My Retrospective and Prospective Musings on the Evangelical Philosophical Society.J. P. Moreland - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):7-10.
    This article reflects on three issues: the past twenty years of the Evangelical Philosophical Society, ideas for EPS's future, and some words of advice to my younger EPS colleagues. Regarding, I identify four values that were central to the rebirth of the EPS and that have guided us for twenty years. Regarding, I issue a warning and a challenge. Regarding, I provide three words of advice for keeping us on course.
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  38.  1
    The Unknown Mover.Myron Bradley Penner - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):199-206.
    Andrew Shephardson contends in Who’s Afraid of the Unmoved Mover that the combined postmodern objections of Carl A. Raschke, James K. A. Smith, and me, to natural theology, fail. Here I focus only on the issue of idolatry and natural theology, as one way of demonstrating a fundamental inadequacy characteristic of Shephardson’s rebuttal of postmodern challenges to evangelical appropriations of natural theology. I argue that contrary to Shephardson’s contention, Acts 17 does not support evangelical appropriations of natural theology, but operates (...)
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  39.  3
    General Revelation and the God of Natural Theology.Andrew I. Shepardson - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):207-213.
    In Who’s Afraid of the Unmoved Mover? Postmodernism and Natural Theology, I defend natural theology against its postmodern evangelical detractors, including Myron Bradley Penner. Penner rejects natural theology because it attempts to ground knowledge of God in human reason, and he claims that my treatment of Acts 17:16–34 is fatal to my argument. However, Penner does not engage my explication of the doctrine of general revelation. The catastrophic effects that Penner perceives turn out to be only against a straw man (...)
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  40.  8
    The Mind of the Spirit in the Resurrected Human.James T. Turner - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):167-186.
    The Scriptures suggest that Christians are to grow up into the “mind of Christ” or, as Craig Keener calls it, the “mind of the Spirit.” While there have been a few recent works that discuss how mental sharing between the human person and the divine person might contribute to sanctification, there are not any that discuss a mereological account of how the mental union works with reference to the bodily resurrection. Since I understand the human’s eschatological union with the divine (...)
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  41.  3
    Theism and the Metaphysics of Free Will.John C. Wingard - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):189-197.
    Two recently published collections of essays—Free Will and Theism, edited by Kevin Timpe and Daniel Speak, and Free Will and Classical Theism, edited by the late Hugh McCann—represent the state of the art in current analytic philosophy and analytic theology with respect to issues at the intersection of the metaphysics of free will and Christian theism that have vexed philosophers and theologians throughout Christian history. Despite a marked imbalance of incompatibilist authors over compatibilist authors in both volumes, the essays in (...)
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  42.  5
    The Blackwell Companion to Substance Dualism.Eric Yang - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):221-225.
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