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  1.  13
    Incompetent Perceivers, Distinguishable Hallucinations, and Perceptual Phenomenology. Some Problems for Activity Views of Perception.Alfonso Anaya - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):88-107.
    There is a recent surge in interest in agential accounts of perception, i.e. accounts where activity plays a central role in accounting for the nature of perceptions. Within this camp, Lisa Miracch...
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  2.  4
    Incompetent Perceivers, Distinguishable Hallucinations, and Perceptual Phenomenology. Some Problems for Activity Views of Perception.Alfonso Anaya - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):88-107.
    There is a recent surge in interest in agential accounts of perception, i.e. accounts where activity plays a central role in accounting for the nature of perceptions. Within this camp, Lisa Miracch...
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  3.  4
    Hyman on Intentional Explanations and the Problem of Deviant Causal Chains.Elia Haemmerli - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):75-87.
    Intentional explanations are explanations of actions that specify the motive for which the action was done. A central question is whether causality plays a role in such explanations. Causalists ins...
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  4.  1
    Hyman on Intentional Explanations and the Problem of Deviant Causal Chains.Elia Haemmerli - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):75-87.
    Intentional explanations are explanations of actions that specify the motive for which the action was done. A central question is whether causality plays a role in such explanations. Causalists ins...
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  5.  7
    Still Committed to the Normativity of Folk Psychology.Alireza Kazemi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):58-74.
    ABSTRACT In what sense can one claim that intentional explanations are essentially normative, given that people’s actions and thinking are replete with various irrationalities, yet are still pretty well explained by this explanatory framework? This article provides a novel response to this enduring objection. First, following Brandom, it is suggested that, to understand the normativity of intentional states, we should countenance and distinguish between two normative categories of commitment and entitlement, only the former of which is argued to be essential (...)
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  6.  4
    Still Committed to the Normativity of Folk Psychology.Alireza Kazemi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):58-74.
    In what sense can one claim that intentional explanations are essentially normative, given that people’s actions and thinking are replete with various irrationalities, yet are still pretty well exp...
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  7.  10
    Reason and Intuition in Aristotle's Moral Psychology: Why He Was Not a Two-System Dualist.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):42-57.
    This paper is about the interplay between intuition and reason in Aristotle’s moral psychology. After discussing briefly some other uses of ‘intuition’ in Aristotle’s texts, I look closely at A...
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  8.  6
    Reason and Intuition in Aristotle's Moral Psychology: Why He Was Not a Two-System Dualist.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):42-57.
    This paper is about the interplay between intuition and reason in Aristotle’s moral psychology. After discussing briefly some other uses of ‘intuition’ in Aristotle’s texts, I look closely at A...
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  9.  12
    Autonomy, Enactivism, and Psychopathy.Michelle Maiese - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):19-41.
    Most philosophical discussions of psychopathy have centered around its significance in relation to empathy, moral cognition, or moral responsibility. However, related questions about the extent to...
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  10.  8
    Autonomy, Enactivism, and Psychopathy.Michelle Maiese - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):19-41.
    Most philosophical discussions of psychopathy have centered around its significance in relation to empathy, moral cognition, or moral responsibility. However, related questions about the extent to...
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  11. Free Will, Determinism, and the Right Levels of Description.Leonhard Menges - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (1):1-18.
    ABSTRACT Recently, many authors have argued that claims about determinism and free will are situated on different levels of description and that determinism on one level does not rule out free will on another. This paper focuses on Christian List’s version of this basic idea. It will be argued for the negative thesis that List’s account does not rule out the most plausible version of incompatibilism about free will and determinism and, more constructively, that a level-based approach to free will (...)
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  12.  91
    Dual-Process Reflective Equilibrium: Rethinking the Interplay Between Intuition and Reflection in Moral Reasoning.Dario Cecchini - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):295-311.
    Dual-process theories of the mind emphasize how reasoning is an interplay between intuitive and reflective thinking. This paper aims to understand how the two types of processing interact in the moral domain. According to a ‘default-interventionist’ model of moral reasoning intuition and reflection are conflicting cognitions: intuitive thinking would elicit heuristic and deontological responses, whereas reflection would favour utilitarian judgements. However, the evidence for the default interventionist view is inconclusive and challenged by a growing amount of counterevidence in recent years. (...)
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  13.  9
    The Mental in Intentional Action.Raul Hakli, Pekka Mäkelä & Lilian O’Brien - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):337-339.
    This special section originates from a workshop `New Horizons in Action and Agency’ that we organized in August 2019 at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The aim of the workshop was to provide a...
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  14.  51
    Let Me Go and Try.Kirk Ludwig - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):340-358.
    This paper argues for a deflationary account of trying on which ‘x tried to ϕ’ abbreviates ‘x did something with the intention of ϕ-ing’, where ‘did something’ is treated as a schematic verb. On this account, tryings are not a distinctive sort of episode present in some or all cases of acting. ‘x tried to ϕ’ simply relates some doing of x’s to a further aim x had, which may or may not have been achieved. Consequently, the analysis of ‘x (...)
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  15.  15
    Deciding: How Special is It?Alfred R. Mele - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):359-375.
    To decide to A, as I conceive of it, is to perform a momentary mental action of forming an intention to A. I argue that ordinary instances of practical deciding, so conceived, falsify the following...
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  16.  54
    The Modularity of the Motor System.Myrto Mylopoulos - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):376-393.
    In this paper, I make a case for the modularity of the motor system. I start where many do in discussions of modularity, by considering the extent to which the motor system is cognitively penetrable, i.e., the extent to which its processing and outputs are causally influenced, in a semantically coherent way, by states of central cognition. I present some empirical findings from a range of sensorimotor adaptation studies that strongly suggest that there are limits to such influence under certain (...)
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  17.  24
    Are Actions Bodily Movements?Michael Smith - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):394-407.
    The view that actions are bodily movements, also known as corporealism, was much discussed in the latter half of the twentieth century, but now commands fewer adherents. The present paper argues th...
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  18.  12
    Implicit Bias: A Sin of Omission?Marie van Loon - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):325-336.
    It is widely believed that implicit bias is common and that it contributes, in part, to the perpetuation of systemic injustice. Hence, the existence of implicit bias raises the question: can individuals be blameworthy for their implicit bias? Here, I consider what it is about implicit bias that renders agents blameworthy. I defend the claim that, when individuals omit to engage in activities that could prevent the influence of implicit bias on their behavior, they may be blamed for their implicit (...)
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  19.  17
    Adverbialism, the Many-Property Problem, and Inference: Reply to Grzankowski.Casey Woodling - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (3):312-324.
    A serious problem for adverbialism about intentionality is the many-property problem, one major aspect of which is the claim that natural inferences between thought contents are blocked if adverbia...
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  20.  19
    What Should the Sensorimotor Enactivist Say About Dreams?Michael Barkasi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):243-261.
    Dreams provide a compelling problem for sensorimotor enactivists like Alva Noë: they seem to replicate our perceptual experiences without sensorimotor interaction with distal sensory stimuli. Noë has responded by saying that dreams actually fail to replicate perceptual experiences in virtue of their lack of detail and stability. Noë's opponents have replied by pointing out that some dreams are richly detailed and stable, and that instability and a lack of detail in dreams can anyway be explained in terms of the underlying (...)
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  21.  42
    Acting for Normative Reasons and the Correspondence Relation.Seyyed Mohsen Eslami - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):281-287.
    The possibility of acting for normative reasons calls for explanation, considering that such reasons are facts. Facing this issue, some argue that to act for a normative reason, the normative reason and the reason we act for (i.e. the motivating reason) need to be identical. Others reject the idea that normative reasons are facts in the first place. A conciliatory proposal is that by appealing to dispositions we can simultaneously accept that normative reasons are facts and that we can act (...)
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  22. The Guise of Good Reason.Ulf Hlobil - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):204-224.
    The paper argues for a version of the Guise of the Good thesis, namely the claim that if someone acts as the result of practical reasoning, then she takes her premises to jointly provide a sufficient and undefeated reason for her action. I argue for this by showing, first, that it is an application of Boghossian's Taking Condition on inference to practical reasoning and, second, that the motivations for the Taking Condition for theoretical reasoning carry over to practical reasoning. I (...)
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  23.  6
    Deontic Artifacts. Investigating the Normativity of Objects.Giuseppe Lorini, Stefano Moroni & Olimpia Giuliana Loddo - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):185-203.
    ABSTRACT Since the middle of the last century, normative language has been much studied. In particular, the normative function performed by certain sentences and by certain speech acts has been investigated in depth. Still, the normative function performed by certain physical artifacts designed and built to regulate human behaviors has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We propose to call this specific type of artifacts with normative intent ‘deontic artifacts’. This article aims to investigate this normative phenomenon that is so widespread (...)
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  24.  8
    Correspondence and Dispositional Relations.Susanne Mantel - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):288-293.
    The Normative Competence Account characterizes acting for a normative reason as action which manifests the agent’s complex normative competence. But which role does the correspondence between the n...
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  25. Can Morally Ignorant Agents Care Enough?Daniel J. Miller - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):155-173.
    Theorists attending to the epistemic condition on responsibility are divided over whether moral ignorance is ever exculpatory. While those who argue that reasonable expectation is required for blameworthiness often maintain that moral ignorance can excuse, theorists who embrace a quality of will approach to blameworthiness are not sanguine about the prospect of excuses among morally ignorant wrongdoers. Indeed, it is sometimes argued that moral ignorance always reflects insufficient care for what matters morally, and therefore that moral ignorance never excuses. Furthermore, (...)
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  26.  50
    Self-Control in Action and Belief.Martina Orlandi & Sarah Stroud - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):225-242.
    Self-control is normally, if only tacitly, viewed as an inherently practical capacity or achievement: as exercised only in the domain of action. Questioning this assumption, we wish to motivate the...
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  27.  23
    From the Agent’s Point of View: The Case Against Disjunctivism About Rationalisation.Edgar Phillips - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):262-280.
    ABSTRACT A number of authors have recently advanced a ‘disjunctivist’ view of the rationalising explanation of action, on which rationalisations of the form ‘S A’d because p’ are explanations of a fundamentally different kind from rationalisations of the form ‘S A’d because she believed that p’. Less attempt has been made to explicitly articulate the case against this view. This paper seeks to remedy that situation. I develop a detailed version of what I take to be the basic argument against (...)
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  28.  35
    Against Moral Judgment. The Empirical Case for Moral Abolitionism.Hanno Sauer - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):137-154.
    ABSTRACT In this paper, I argue that recent evidence regarding the psychological basis of moral cognition supports a form of moral abolitionism. I identify three main problems undermining the epistemic quality of our moral judgments – contamination, reliability, and bad incentives – and reject three possible responses: neither moral expertise, nor moral learning, nor the possibility of moral progress succeed in solving the aforementioned epistemic problems. The result is a moderate form of moral abolitionism, according to which we should make (...)
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  29.  5
    Complete Blockage Frankfurt Examples and the Principle of Alternative Possibilities.Rick Stoody - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):174-184.
    ABSTRACT According to the ‘Principle of Alternative Possibilities’, an agent is morally responsible for performing some action only if she could have done otherwise. Beginning with Harry Frankfurt nearly fifty years ago, a number of putative counterexamples have been offered. In this essay, I consider a type of counterexample developed by David Hunt: so-called ‘complete blockage’ Frankfurt examples. The chief objection to these cases is that they presuppose causal determinism, thereby begging the question against incompatibilists. I argue, however, that even (...)
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  30.  26
    The Guise of the Good in Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):48-62.
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz endorses a version of the guise of the good thesis: he holds that whenever we do something intentionally, we do it because it seems good to us. This paper explores Leibniz...
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  31.  10
    Spinoza's Guise of the Good: Getting to the Bottom of 3p9s.Matthew J. Kisner - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):34-47.
    ABSTRACT In the Ethics, Spinoza famously wrote, “we do not seek or desire anything, because we judge it to be good; on the contrary, we judge a thing to be good because we endeavor it, will it, seek it and desire it.” This passage is widely recognized as asserting some of Spinoza's most important claims about the good, but the precise meaning of the passage is unclear, as interpreters have offered a wide variety of interpretations, often without noting their disagreements. (...)
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  32.  14
    Locke on the Guise of the Good.Antonia LoLordo - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):21-33.
    In the first edition of the Essay, Locke argued that we pursue whatever course of action we judge to be the best option available to us at the time. In other words, we always act under the guise of...
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  33.  12
    Kant and the “Old Formula of the Schools”.Robert B. Louden - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):63-74.
    In this essay I offer a new interpretation of Kant’s discussion of “the old formula of the schools” in the Critique of Practical Reason – “nihil appetimus, nisi sub ratione boni; nihil aversamur, n...
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  34.  43
    Mill’s Proof and the Guise of the Good.Francesco Orsi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):93-105.
    The guise of the good doctrine is the view that whatever we desire, we desire it under the guise of the good, i.e. it appears good to us in some way. In this paper I first clarify the role that the doctrine of the guise of the good plays in the first step of J. S. Mill’s proof of the principle of utility (in which he shows that one’s happiness is desirable as an end). Then I provide textual evidence in (...)
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  35.  17
    The Modern Guise of the Good.Francesco Orsi - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):1-4.
    The guise of the good is the claim that whatever I desire or intentionally do is seen by me as good in some respect. Historical scholarship has so far predominantly focused on ancient and medieval...
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  36.  9
    Sidgwick and the Many Guises of the Good.Gianfranco Pellegrino - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):106-118.
    ABSTRACT The paper shows textual and non-textual evidence that Henry Sidgwick endorses a version of the guise of the good doctrine and a version of the guise of the reasons view. He also rejects the guise of the pleasant doctrine, criticizing Mill’s views of the relations between pleasure, desire and desirability. Sidgwick also anticipates the guise of the apparent good view, i.e. the claim that desire connects with evaluative appearances, not with evaluative full-fledged judgments.
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  37.  21
    Goodness and Motivation.Thomas Pink - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):5-20.
    To be moral is to be moved to act by reason; and to be moved to act by reason is to be moved by the good. But if reason moves us, what is the nature of its power to move? And what role does goodnes...
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  38.  42
    Duality of Motivation and the Guise of the Good in Kant’s Practical Philosophy.Sergio Tenenbaum - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (1):75-92.
    Although Kant is clearly committed to some version of the Guise of the Good thesis, he only explicitly endorses a very weak version of it; namely, that under the direction of reason, we only p...
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  39.  92
    Pluralism About Practical Reasons and Reason Explanations.Eva Schmidt & Hans-Johann Glock - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations (2):1-18.
    This paper maintains that objectivism about practical reasons should be combined with pluralism both about the nature of practical reasons and about action explanations. We argue for an ‘expanding circle of practical reasons’, starting out from an open-minded monist objectivism. On this view, practical reasons are not limited to actual facts, but consist in states of affairs, possible facts that may or may not obtain. Going beyond such ‘that-ish’ reasons, we argue that goals are also bona fide practical reasons. This (...)
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