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  1.  58
    Abduction and Composition.Ken Aizawa & Drew B. Headley - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):268-82.
    Some New Mechanists have proposed that claims of compositional relations are justified by combining the results of top-down and bottom-up interlevel interventions. But what do scientists do when they can perform, say, a cellular intervention, but not a subcellular detection? In such cases, paired interlevel interventions are unavailable. We propose that scientists use abduction and we illustrate its use through a case study of the ionic theory of resting and action potentials.
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  2.  2
    Abduction and Composition.Kenneth Aizawa & Drew B. Headley - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):268-282.
    Some New Mechanists have proposed that claims of compositional relations are justified by combining the results of top-down and bottom-up interlevel interventions. But what do scientists do when they can perform, say, a cellular intervention, but not a subcellular detection? In such cases, paired interlevel interventions are unavailable. We propose that scientists use abduction and we illustrate its use through a case study of the ionic theory of resting and action potentials.
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  3.  2
    Review of Richard Pettigrew’s Choosing for Changing Selves - Richard Pettigrew, Choosing for Changing Selves. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020), 272 Pp., $72.00 (Hardcover; Also Available as an E-Book). [REVIEW]Susanne Burri - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):398-401.
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  4.  2
    Review of George E. Smith and Raghav Seth’s Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality: A Study in Theory-Mediated Measurement - George E. Smith, and Raghav Seth, Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality: A Study in Theory-Mediated Measurement. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020), 468 Pp., $99.00 (Hardcover; Also Available as an E-Book). [REVIEW]Alan F. Chalmers - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):401-404.
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  5.  3
    Speculation Made Material: Experimental Archaeology and Maker’s Knowledge.Adrian Currie - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):337-359.
    Experimental archaeology is often understood both as testing hypotheses about processes shaping the archaeological record and as generating tacit knowledge. Considering lithic technologies, I examine the relationship between these conceptions. Experimental archaeology is usefully understood via “maker’s knowledge”: archaeological experiments generate embodied know-how enabling archaeological hypotheses to be grasped and challenged, and further, well-positioning archaeologists to generate integrated interpretations. Finally, experimental archaeology involves “material speculation”: the constraints and affordances of archaeologists and their materials shape productive exploration of the capacities of (...)
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  6. Diversity, Trust, and Conformity: A Simulation Study.Sina Fazelpour & Daniel Steel - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):209-231.
    Previous simulation models have found positive effects of cognitive diversity on group performance, but have not explored effects of diversity in demographics (e.g., gender, ethnicity). In this paper, we present an agent-based model that captures two empirically supported hypotheses about how demographic diversity can improve group performance. The results of our simulations suggest that, even when social identities are not associated with distinctive task-related cognitive resources, demographic diversity can, in certain circumstances, benefit collective performance by counteracting two types of conformity (...)
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  7.  3
    Epidemics From the Population Perspective.Jonathan Fuller - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):232-251.
    Many epidemics consist in individuals spreading infection to others. From the population perspective, they also have population characteristics important in modeling, explaining, and intervening in epidemics. I analyze epidemiology’s contemporary population perspective through the example of epidemics by examining two central principles attributed to Geoffrey Rose: a distinction between the causes of cases and the causes of incidence, and between “high-risk” and “population” strategies of prevention. Both principles require revision or clarification to capture the sense in which they describe distinct (...)
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  8.  2
    Reckoning with Continuum Idealizations: Some Lessons From Soil Hydrology.Travis Holmes - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):319-336.
    In scientific modeling, continuum idealizations bridge scales but at the cost of fundamentally misrepresenting the microstructure of the system. This engenders a mystery. If continuum idealizations are dispensable in principle, this de-problematizes their representational inaccuracy, since continuum properties reduce to lower-scale properties, but the mystery of how this reduction could be carried out endures. Alternatively, if continuum idealizations are indispensable in principle, this is consistent with their explanatory and predictive success but renders their representational inaccuracy mysterious. I argue for a (...)
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  9.  10
    Against Probabilistic Measures of Explanatory Quality.Marc Lange - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):252-267.
    Several philosophers propose probabilistic measures of how well a potential scientific explanation would explain the given evidence. These measures could elaborate “best” in “inference to the best explanation”. This paper argues that none of these measures succeeds. The paper considers the various rival explanations that scientists proposed for the parallelogram of forces. Scientists regarded various features of these proposals as making them more or less “lovely”. None of these probabilistic measures of loveliness can reflect these features. The paper concludes by (...)
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  10.  6
    Review of Elizabeth Hannon and Tim Lewens’s Why We Disagree About Human Nature - Elizabeth Hannon, and Tim Lewens (Eds.), Why We Disagree About Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2018), 240 Pp., $44.95 (Hardcover; Also Available as an E-Book). [REVIEW]Ron Mallon - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):405-407.
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  11.  4
    Severity and Trustworthy Evidence: Foundational Problems Versus Misuses of Frequentist Testing.Aris Spanos - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):378-397.
    For model-based frequentist statistics, based on a parametric statistical model ${{\cal M}_\theta }$, the trustworthiness of the ensuing evidence depends crucially on the validity of the probabilistic assumptions comprising ${{\cal M}_\theta }$, the optimality of the inference procedures employed, and the adequateness of the sample size to learn from data by securing –. It is argued that the criticism of the postdata severity evaluation of testing results based on a small n by Rochefort-Maranda is meritless because it conflates [a] misuses (...)
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  12. Power Emergentism and the Collapse Problem.Elanor Taylor - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):302-318.
    Strong emergentism is the position that certain higher-level properties display a kind of metaphysical autonomy from the lower-level properties in which they are grounded. The prospect of collapse is a problem for strong emergentism. According to those who press the collapse problem any purportedly strongly emergent feature inheres in the emergence base and so is not genuinely autonomous from that base. Umut Baysan and Jessica Wilson argue that power emergentism avoids the collapse problem. In this paper, I challenge the claim (...)
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  13. Resolving the Raven Paradox: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, and Inference to Best Explanation.Barry Ward - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):360-377.
    Simple random sampling resolutions of the raven paradox relevantly diverge from scientific practice. We develop a stratified random sampling model, yielding a better fit and apparently rehabilitating simple random sampling as a legitimate idealization. However, neither accommodates a second concern, the objection from potential bias. We develop a third model that crucially invokes causal considerations, yielding a novel resolution that handles both concerns. This approach resembles Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) and relates the generalization’s confirmation to confirmation of an (...)
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  14. Static-Dynamic Hybridity in Dynamical Models of Cognition.Naftali Weinberger & Colin Allen - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (2):283-301.
    Dynamical models of cognition have played a central role in recent cognitive science. In this paper, we consider a common strategy by which dynamical models describe their target systems neither as purely static nor as purely dynamic, but rather using a hybrid approach. This hybridity reveals how dynamical models involve representational choices that are important for understanding the relationship between dynamical and non-dynamical representations of a system.
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  15.  2
    Answers at Gunpoint: On Livengood and Sytsma’s Revolver Case.Alexander Max Bauer & Jan Romann - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):180-192.
    Jonathan Livengood and Justin Sytsma have published a series of studies on “Actual Causation and Compositionality,” in which they investigate causal attributions of laypeople. We use one of their vignettes to follow up on their research. Our findings cast doubt on their conclusion that ordinary causal attributions tend to violate the compositionality constraint if one looks at cases in which someone is responsible for an effect by way of an intermediary that does not share in the responsibility.
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  16.  18
    What Counts as a Memory? Definitions, Hypotheses, and 'Kinding in Progress'.David Colaço - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):89-106.
    This paper accounts for broad definitions of memory, which extend to paradigmatic memory phenomena, like episodic memory in humans, and phenomena in worms and sea snails. These definitions may seem too broad, suggesting that they extend to phenomena that don’t count as memory or illustrate that memory is not a natural kind. However, these responses fail to consider a definition as a hypothesis. As opposed to construing definitions as expressing memory’s properties, a definition as a hypothesis is the basis to (...)
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  17.  1
    Review of Jean Gayon and Victor Petit’s Knowledge of Life Today - Jean Gayon, Interviewed by Victor Petit. Knowledge of Life Today: Conversations on Biology. London & Hoboken, NJ: ISTE/John Wiley and Sons (2019). Xx + 378 Pp. [REVIEW]David Depew - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):205-208.
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  18.  2
    Two Notions of Ecological Function.Antoine C. Dussault - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):171-179.
    This paper discusses Millstein’s criticism of the consensus view formed against selected-effects ecological functions. I argue that Millstein’s defense of coevolution-based selected-effects ecological functions applies to a notion of function as an activity, whereas proponents of the consensus view are concerned with a notion of ecological function as the contribution of an organism, population, species, or abiotic item to the maintenance of its community and/or the functioning of its ecosystem. Millstein’s arguments hence do not invalidate the consensus view but draw (...)
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  19.  2
    Review of Jeffrey A. Barrett’s The Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics - Jeffrey A. Barrett, The Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020), 272 Pp., $88.00. [REVIEW]Benjamin H. Feintzeig - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):202-205.
  20. Scientific Theories as Bayesian Nets: Structure and Evidence Sensitivity.Patrick Grim, Frank Seidl, Calum McNamara, Hinton E. Rago, Isabell N. Astor, Caroline Diaso & Peter Ryner - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):42-69.
    We model scientific theories as Bayesian networks. Nodes carry credences and function as abstract representations of propositions within the structure. Directed links carry conditional probabilities and represent connections between those propositions. Updating is Bayesian across the network as a whole. The impact of evidence at one point within a scientific theory can have a very different impact on the network than does evidence of the same strength at a different point. A Bayesian model allows us to envisage and analyze the (...)
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  21.  8
    Recent Work in the Philosophy of Medicine: An Essay Review. [REVIEW]John E. Huss - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):193-201.
  22.  69
    There is Cause to Randomize.Cristian Larroulet Philippi - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):152 - 170.
    While practitioners think highly of randomized studies, some philosophers argue that there is no epistemic reason to randomize. Here I show that their arguments do not entail their conclusion. Moreover, I provide novel reasons for randomizing in the context of interventional studies. The overall discussion provides a unified framework for assessing baseline balance, one that holds for interventional and observational studies alike. The upshot: practitioners’ strong preference for randomized studies can be defended in some cases, while still offering a nuanced (...)
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  23.  18
    Does Neuroplasticity Support the Hypothesis of Multiple Realizability?Amber Maimon & Meir Hemmo - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):107-127.
    It is commonly maintained that neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain provide empirical support for the hypothesis of multiple realizability. We show in various case studies that neuroplasticity stems from preexisting mechanisms and processes inherent in the neural structure of the brain. We argue that not only does neuroplasticity fail to provide empirical evidence of multiple realization, its inability to do so strengthens the mind-body identity theory. Finally, we argue that a recently proposed identity theory called Flat Physicalism can be enlisted (...)
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  24. Accuracy-First Epistemology Without Additivity.Richard Pettigrew - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):128-151.
    Accuracy arguments for the core tenets of Bayesian epistemology differ mainly in the conditions they place on the legitimate ways of measuring the inaccuracy of our credences. The best existing arguments rely on three conditions: Continuity, Additivity, and Strict Propriety. In this paper, I show how to strengthen the arguments based on these conditions by showing that the central mathematical theorem on which each depends goes through without assuming Additivity.
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  25.  9
    Understanding Deep Learning with Statistical Relevance.Tim Räz - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):20-41.
    This paper argues that a notion of statistical explanation, based on Salmon’s statistical relevance model, can help us better understand deep neural networks. It is proved that homogeneous partitions, the core notion of Salmon’s model, are equivalent to minimal sufficient statistics, an important notion from statistical inference. This establishes a link to deep neural networks via the so-called Information Bottleneck method, an information-theoretic framework, according to which deep neural networks implicitly solve an optimization problem that generalizes minimal sufficient statistics. The (...)
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  26.  2
    Energy Requirements Undermine Substrate Independence and Mind-Body Functionalism.Paul Thagard - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):70-88.
    Substrate independence and mind-body functionalism claim that thinking does not depend on any particular kind of physical implementation. But real-world information processing depends on energy, and energy depends on material substrates. Biological evidence for these claims comes from ecology and neuroscience, while computational evidence comes from neuromorphic computing and deep learning. Attention to energy requirements undermines the use of substrate independence to support claims about the feasibility of artificial intelligence, the moral standing of robots, the possibility that we may be (...)
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  27.  11
    Explaining Machine Learning Decisions.John Zerilli - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):1-19.
    The operations of deep networks are widely acknowledged to be inscrutable. The growing field of Explainable AI has emerged in direct response to this problem. However, owing to the nature of the opacity in question, XAI has been forced to prioritise interpretability at the expense of completeness, and even realism, so that its explanations are frequently interpretable without being underpinned by more comprehensive explanations faithful to the way a network computes its predictions. While this has been taken to be a (...)
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