Year:

  1.  26
    Hume's Confusion About Sympathy.Douglas Chismar - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:237-246.
    David Hume argues that the prevalence of human sympathizing justifies our attributing to humans a certain degree of benevolence. This move from sympathy to having a concern for others has been challenged by recent critics. A more fine-grained look at Hume’s concept of sympathy may reveal the reasons why he thought that experiencing sympathy implied having a benevolent attitude. Two arguments from the Treatise are analyzed and found wanting. It is suggested that Hume’s confusion may derive from ambiguities surrounding the (...)
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  2.  26
    Erklärung and Begründung in Kantian Epistemology.Ash Gobar - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:343-358.
    This essay attempts a re-reading of the meaning and import of “synthetic propositions a priori” in the light of two other background concepts in Kantian epistemology: Erklärung and Begründung. The significance of this pair of concepts lies in the fact that they represent the “philosophical motive” of Kant---leading him, inevitably, to take the “transcendental turn”. (And, on this point, I believe that some commentators have reversed the dialectic of Kant’s thinking: they make him take the “transcendental turn” first, and then (...)
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  3.  46
    Bargaining Advantages and Coercion in the Market.Joan McGregor - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:23-50.
    Does the “free market” foster more freedom for individuals generally and less coercion? Libertarians and other market advocates argue that the unfettered market maximizes freedom and hence has less coercion than any feasible alternative. Welfare liberals, Socialist, and Marxists, in different ways, argue against the claim that the unrestricted market maximizes freedom generally. Both supporters and critics agree that coercion undermines freedom and that that is what is ultimately prima facie wrong with it. Further, they agree that the extent to (...)
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  4.  79
    Hume on Rational Final Ends.Adrian M. S. Piper - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:193-228.
    Historically, the view, prevalent in contemporary economics and decision theory as well as philosophy, that rational action consists simply in satisfying one’s desires, whatever they may be, as efficiently as possible, is to be found first in Book II of Hume’s Treatise of Human Nature. This view has counterintuitive and self-refuting implications, in that it recognizes as rational behavior that may reveal a clear degree of irresponsibility or psychological instability. Accordingly, many Hume scholars have tried to show recently that this (...)
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  5.  58
    Do Moral Explanations Matter?Charles Sayward - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:137-142.
    Nicholas Sturgeon has claimed that moral explanations constitute one area of disagreement between moral realists and noncognitivists. He claims that the correctness of such explanation is consistent with moral realism but not with noncognitivism. Does this difference characterize all other anti-realist views. This paper argues that it does not. Moral relativism is a distinct anti-realist view. And the correctness of moral explanation is consistent with moral relativism.
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  6.  14
    Humean Minds and Moral Theory.Sheldon Wein - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:229-236.
    Grant that Hume is a contractarian. Justice then arises from more basic features of humans and their circumstances. Among these more basic features from which justice arises Hume includes (in addition to self-interest narrowly construed) the widely held passions of benevolence and sympathy. But it is mysterious why he included them in his contractarian theory for the derivation of justice does not need them, and may even be weaker with them included. This paper suggests that Hume’s philosophy of mind, in (...)
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  7. In Defense of the Autonomy of Rights.M. Adams David - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:51-72.
    Several philosophers, including most prominently Theodore Benditt, have recently urged that the discourse of rights, widely thought to be a central, if not foundational feature of moral and political thought, is in reality a mere “redundant” appendage---a discourse that holds no distinctive place in moral or legal reasoning owing to the fact that it is thoroughly derivative because collapsible into other forms of moral or legal language. In this paper I attempt to flesh out this “Redundancy” Thesis and identify and (...)
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  8.  15
    In Defense of the Autonomy of Rights.David M. Adams - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:51-72.
    Several philosophers, including most prominently Theodore Benditt, have recently urged that the discourse of rights, widely thought to be a central, if not foundational feature of moral and political thought, is in reality a mere “redundant” appendage---a discourse that holds no distinctive place in moral or legal reasoning owing to the fact that it is thoroughly derivative because collapsible into other forms of moral or legal language. In this paper I attempt to (1) flesh out this “Redundancy” Thesis (RT) and (...)
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  9. Selective Conscientious Objection.Mark Anderson & William O’Meara - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:1-19.
    The purpose of this paper is to consider the following three problems: Whether selective conscientious objection is morally reasonable in general; and if so, Whether selective conscientious objection should be recognized as a constitutional right by judicial interpretation; or Whether selective conscientious objection should become part of any new draft law that would be passed by Congress.
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  10.  22
    Ockham's Razor and the Identity of Indiscernables.Raja A. Bahlul - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:405-414.
    In this paper it is argued that The Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles can be justified as a concrete application of Ockham’s Razor, the maxim which enjoins us not to multiply entities beyond necessity. First, a statement of the Principle is presented, according to which the Principle, while interesting enough, is not logically necessary. It is then argued that the assumption of the falsity of the Principle prescribes an epistemological situation where it seems to be impossible to find grounds (...)
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  11. Ockham’s Razor and the Identity of Indiscernables.Raja A. Bahlul - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:405-414.
    In this paper it is argued that The Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles can be justified as a concrete application of Ockham’s Razor, the maxim which enjoins us not to multiply entities beyond necessity. First, a statement of the Principle is presented, according to which the Principle, while interesting enough, is not logically necessary. It is then argued that the assumption of the falsity of the Principle prescribes an epistemological situation where it seems to be impossible to find grounds (...)
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  12. On the Tense Structure of Conditionals.Barense Diane - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:539-566.
    When philosophers and linguists theorize about the nature of conditionals, they tend to make a number of assumptions about the linguistic structure of these sentences. For example, they almost invariably assume that conditionals have “antecedents” and “consequents” and that these have the structure of independent clauses. With a few exceptions, they assume that conditionals are categorized according to whether they are in the “indicative” or the “subjunctive” “mood”. However, rarely do they formulate criteria for identifying these moods, or for distinguishing (...)
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  13.  29
    On the Tense Structure of Conditionals.Diane Barense - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:539-566.
    When philosophers and linguists theorize about the nature of conditionals, they tend to make a number of assumptions about the linguistic structure of these sentences. For example, they almost invariably assume that conditionals have “antecedents” and “consequents” and that these have the structure of independent clauses. With a few exceptions, they assume that conditionals are categorized according to whether they are in the “indicative” or the “subjunctive” “mood”. However, rarely do they formulate criteria for identifying these moods, or for distinguishing (...)
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  14.  74
    Creation-Science Rhetoric.Philip Bashor - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:489-515.
    This article presumes to achieve a relatively definitive philosophical treatment of the creation-science issue (concerning teaching evolution in the schools) identified as a complex and troublesome piece of public rhetoric requiring careful attention to a number of distinct points to gain an adequate response to it. Questions of fact, theory, logic, professional responsibility, human being, metaphysics, education, law, religion, and ethics are all critically examined with a sampling of pertinent sources. As an unexpected movement in our time creation-science rhetoric represents (...)
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  15. Creation-Science Rhetoric: A Philosophical Examination.Philip Bashor - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:489-515.
    This article presumes to achieve a relatively definitive philosophical treatment of the creation-science issue identified as a complex and troublesome piece of public rhetoric requiring careful attention to a number of distinct points to gain an adequate response to it. Questions of fact, theory, logic, professional responsibility, human being, metaphysics, education, law, religion, and ethics are all critically examined with a sampling of pertinent sources. As an unexpected movement in our time creation-science rhetoric represents many conflicting interests, most significantly a (...)
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  16.  15
    No Fool Like an Old Fool.Maryanne J. Bertram - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:333-342.
    Nietzsche published for the public only the first three parts of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This paper in examining the “tragic wisdom” of that work gives an account of why Nietzsche did not want his public to read Part IV. It shows the evolution in Nietzsche’s thought about tragic wisdom beginning with The Birth of Tragedy where satyric laughter is central to the wisdom of ancient Greek tragedy to Parts I-III of Thus Spoke Zarathustra where the significance of its major idea, (...)
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  17. No Fool Like an Old Fool: Part IV of Thus Spake Zarathustra.Maryanne J. Bertram - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:333-342.
    Nietzsche published for the public only the first three parts of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This paper in examining the “tragic wisdom” of that work gives an account of why Nietzsche did not want his public to read Part IV. It shows the evolution in Nietzsche’s thought about tragic wisdom beginning with The Birth of Tragedy where satyric laughter is central to the wisdom of ancient Greek tragedy to Parts I-III of Thus Spoke Zarathustra where the significance of its major idea, (...)
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  18.  28
    Is the Descriptivist / Cluster Theory of Reference “Wrong From the Fundamentals”?David B. Boersema - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:517-538.
    In this paper I suggest that Searle’s theory of reference is immune to the specific criticisms that have been levelled against it. I first present an overview of Searle’s “cluster” theory, followed by an overview of the Kripkean critique. I then examine in detail Kripke’s objections and suggest that they are not sufficient for a rejection of Searle’s theory. Finally, I consider several general objections to the cluster theory and argue that they, too, do not suffice to reject it.
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  19. Is the Descriptivist / Cluster Theory of Reference “Wrong From the Fundamentals”?David B. Boersema - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:517-538.
    In this paper I suggest that Searle’s theory of reference is immune to the specific criticisms that have been levelled against it. I first present an overview of Searle’s “cluster” theory, followed by an overview of the Kripkean critique. I then examine in detail Kripke’s objections and suggest that they are not sufficient for a rejection of Searle’s theory. Finally, I consider several general objections to the cluster theory and argue that they, too, do not suffice to reject it.
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  20. Hume’s Confusion About Sympathy.Douglas Chismar - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:237-246.
    David Hume argues that the prevalence of human sympathizing justifies our attributing to humans a certain degree of benevolence. This move from sympathy to having a concern for others has been challenged by recent critics. A more fine-grained look at Hume’s concept of sympathy may reveal the reasons why he thought that experiencing sympathy implied having a benevolent attitude. Two arguments from the Treatise are analyzed and found wanting. It is suggested that Hume’s confusion may derive from ambiguities surrounding the (...)
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  21.  11
    Cavell and the Comedy of Remarriage.Edwin Curley - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:581-603.
    This paper deals critically with Stanley Cavell’s Pursuits of Happiness, a study of seven film comedies from the 30’s and 40’s, among them The Philadelphia Story, His Girl Friday, Adam’s Rib, and It Happened One Night. Negatively, I argue that Cavell’s interpretations of the films he deals with are often extravagant, if held to any objective standard; that his conception of the genre of the comedy of remarriage is highly arbitrary, both in its inclusions and exclusions, and in its contention (...)
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  22.  1
    Cavell and the Comedy of Remarriage.Edwin Curley - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:581-603.
    This paper deals critically with Stanley Cavell’s Pursuits of Happiness, a study of seven film comedies from the 30’s and 40’s, among them The Philadelphia Story, His Girl Friday, Adam’s Rib, and It Happened One Night. Negatively, I argue that Cavell’s interpretations of the films he deals with are often extravagant, if held to any objective standard; that his conception of the genre of the comedy of remarriage is highly arbitrary, both in its inclusions and exclusions, and in its contention (...)
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  23.  19
    Responsibility Tout Court.Joel Feinberg - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:73-92.
    One who is responsible tout court may be contrasted either with irresponsible persons or with non-responsible (incompetent) persons. Calling one responsible may be either merely describing, or it may be ascribing certain excellences of character. Praising a person for being generally responsible may indicate his/her willingness to take on new liability when s/he has a duty or responsibility to do so, or it may point to virtues which make for effective use of discretion, or it may be certification of moral (...)
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  24.  29
    Responsibility for the Future.Joel Feinberg - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:93-113.
    Prospective ascription of responsibility is hypothetical, commonly noting or setting conditions for critical judgment or liability if some event occurs or fails to occur, thus determining vulnerability to retrospective judgments. Prospective liabilities can be classified by source, by type or degree (if any) of accompanying control, and by structure or stages.But not all prospective responsibility can be understood in terms of liability. Actual or de facto control over X and/or responsibility for Y (persons, animals, inanimate things, etc.), though they may (...)
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  25. Responsibility Tout Court.Joel Feinberg - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:73-92.
    One who is responsible tout court may be contrasted either with irresponsible persons or with non-responsible persons. Calling one responsible may be either merely describing, or it may be ascribing certain excellences of character. Praising a person for being generally responsible may indicate his/her willingness to take on new liability when s/he has a duty or responsibility to do so, or it may point to virtues which make for effective use of discretion, or it may be certification of moral trustworthiness. (...)
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  26.  1
    Responsibility for the Future.Joel Feinberg - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:93-113.
    Prospective ascription of responsibility is hypothetical, commonly noting or setting conditions for critical judgment or liability if some event occurs or fails to occur, thus determining vulnerability to retrospective judgments. Prospective liabilities can be classified by source, by type or degree of accompanying control, and by structure or stages.But not all prospective responsibility can be understood in terms of liability. Actual or de facto control over X and/or responsibility for Y, though they may involve prospective liabilities, may not be responsibilities (...)
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  27.  10
    Ultimate Homogeneity.Stephen Friedman - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:425-453.
    Throughout his metaphysical writings, Sellars maintains that current microtheory, with its particulate paradigm, can never depict adequately---even in principle---a universe populated with sentient beings like us. Why not? Experience for us involves the presence of an occurrent perceptual core of ultimately homogeneous secondary qualities. Sellars’ “Grain Argument” demonstrates (1) that physical objects qua clouds of discrete particles cannot instantiate such qualities and (2) that they cannot be assigned to an intrasentient realm construed as clusters of discrete, particulate neurons. Neither, contends (...)
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  28. Ultimate Homogeneity: A Dialog.Stephen Friedman - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:425-453.
    Throughout his metaphysical writings, Sellars maintains that current microtheory, with its particulate paradigm, can never depict adequately---even in principle---a universe populated with sentient beings like us. Why not? Experience for us involves the presence of an occurrent perceptual core of ultimately homogeneous secondary qualities. Sellars’ “Grain Argument” demonstrates that physical objects qua clouds of discrete particles cannot instantiate such qualities and that they cannot be assigned to an intrasentient realm construed as clusters of discrete, particulate neurons. Neither, contends Sellars, can (...)
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  29.  9
    James Madison and the Classical Republican Tradition.Peter Fuss - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:165-181.
    The thesis pursued here is that Madison, in articulating the principles of political philosophy underlying his defense of the proposed constitution in his contributions to the Federalist Papers of 1787-8, can best be understood as at once invoking, enriching, and on several key points all but abandoning the “classical republican” or “civic humanist” tradition. I analyze the ambivalent character of Madison’s response to Plato and Aristotle, Machiavelli and Rousseau with respect to the quality and complexity of the body politic, the (...)
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  30. James Madison and the Classical Republican Tradition.Peter Fuss - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:165-181.
    The thesis pursued here is that Madison, in articulating the principles of political philosophy underlying his defense of the proposed constitution in his contributions to the Federalist Papers of 1787-8, can best be understood as at once invoking, enriching, and on several key points all but abandoning the “classical republican” or “civic humanist” tradition. I analyze the ambivalent character of Madison’s response to Plato and Aristotle, Machiavelli and Rousseau with respect to the quality and complexity of the body politic, the (...)
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  31.  44
    God and Descartes' Principle of Clear and Distinct Knowledge.Sara F. García-Gómez - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:283-302.
    In the present study of Descartes’ epistemological investigations, I have tried to show that his renowned principle of clarity and distinctness is not, in fact, one but two axioms. Most interpreters and critics have taken the two formulations of such a principle here considered as successive moments of it. At best, this position is insufficient, for each “version” of the principle of clarity and distinctness guarantees different kinds of cognitive content. Moreover, while the validity of one “version” is not dependent (...)
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  32. God and Descartes’ Principle of Clear and Distinct Knowledge.Sara F. García-gómez - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:283-302.
    In the present study of Descartes’ epistemological investigations, I have tried to show that his renowned principle of clarity and distinctness is not, in fact, one but two axioms. Most interpreters and critics have taken the two formulations of such a principle here considered as successive moments of it. At best, this position is insufficient, for each “version” of the principle of clarity and distinctness guarantees different kinds of cognitive content. Moreover, while the validity of one “version” is not dependent (...)
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  33. Erklärung and Begründung in Kantian Epistemology: A Reading of Synthetic Propositions A Priori.Gobar Ash - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:343-358.
    This essay attempts a re-reading of the meaning and import of “synthetic propositions a priori” in the light of two other background concepts in Kantian epistemology: Erklärung and Begründung. The significance of this pair of concepts lies in the fact that they represent the “philosophical motive” of Kant---leading him, inevitably, to take the “transcendental turn”. And the distinction between the “sensible world” and the “intelligible world” was the consequence. Did this distinction also provide the ontological matrix for the epistemological distinction (...)
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  34.  18
    Towards a Marxist Theory of the State.Steven Jay Gold - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:1-22.
    Though Karl Marx never developed a systematic theory of the state, he did have much to say about state action. In recent times philosophers have made attempts to capture essential elements of Marx’s political theory in order to reconstruct a general understanding of his ideas about state action that is consistent with his theory of history. It has been my purpose in this paper to layout and synthesize recent developments in this area with ideas developed in the late 1960’s and (...)
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  35.  20
    Non-Voluntary Compliance.Steven Jay Gold - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:115-120.
    It is often assumed that one cannot be forced to accept an offer as one can always reject it and be no worse off than one would have been had the offer not been made; offers involve benefits rather than the pains associated with threats. The confusion arises from the fact that we often also assume that in all cases where Q is forced to choose to do what P wants him to do, P coerces Q. I have argued that (...)
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  36. Towards a Marxist Theory of the State.Steven Jay Gold - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:1-22.
    Though Karl Marx never developed a systematic theory of the state, he did have much to say about state action. In recent times philosophers have made attempts to capture essential elements of Marx’s political theory in order to reconstruct a general understanding of his ideas about state action that is consistent with his theory of history. It has been my purpose in this paper to layout and synthesize recent developments in this area with ideas developed in the late 1960’s and (...)
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  37. Non-Voluntary Compliance.Steven Jay Gold - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:115-120.
    It is often assumed that one cannot be forced to accept an offer as one can always reject it and be no worse off than one would have been had the offer not been made; offers involve benefits rather than the pains associated with threats. The confusion arises from the fact that we often also assume that in all cases where Q is forced to choose to do what P wants him to do, P coerces Q. I have argued that (...)
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  38.  22
    Why God is Not Really Related to the World.Charles J. Kelly - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:455-487.
    The first part of the paper sketches the rationale for the classical theistic thesis that, though God is not really related to the world, the world is really related to God. Part II delineates four sets of recent criticisms ofthis thesis: (a) an objection which assesses it as conflating transparent and opaque construals of intentional propositions, (b) a dilemma which regards it as undermining either free divine creativity or God’s knowledge of the contingent, (c) arguments which view its adherence to (...)
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  39. Why God is Not Really Related to the World.Charles J. Kelly - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:455-487.
    The first part of the paper sketches the rationale for the classical theistic thesis that, though God is not really related to the world, the world is really related to God. Part II delineates four sets of recent criticisms ofthis thesis: an objection which assesses it as conflating transparent and opaque construals of intentional propositions, a dilemma which regards it as undermining either free divine creativity or God’s knowledge of the contingent, arguments which view its adherence to an absolute divine (...)
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  40.  2
    Medieval Arabic Poetics.Salim Kemal - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:20-122.
    The paper concerns the Commentary on Aristotle's Poetics written by Avicenna. The paper is divided into two parts, the first of which examines Avicenna's account of poetic imagination and the use he makes of this concept in justifying a 'poetic syllogism' that accounts for aesthetic validity. The second part develops this account of the poetic syllogism to show that the completeness of the syllogistic requires us to consider the kind of commurlty and moral validity sustained by poetic validity. To explain (...)
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  41. A Critique of Kant’s Defense of Theistic Faith.Kim Chin-tai - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:359-369.
    Kant’s account of the idea of God in the first Critique prefigures but does not imply a theism. It is in his ethical philosophy that this idea is given a theistic interpretation, and that the postulation of God’s existence, along with immortality, is practically justified as a condition of the possibility of the summum bonum. This paper argues that Kant’s reasoning from his initially austere conception of morality to the summum bonum and to immortality and God’s existence lacks compelling logic. (...)
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  42.  17
    A Critique of Kant's Defense of Theistic Faith.Chin-Tai Kim - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:359-369.
    Kant’s account of the idea of God in the first Critique prefigures but does not imply a theism. It is in his ethical philosophy that this idea is given a theistic interpretation, and that the postulation (or fideic affirmation) of God’s existence, along with immortality, is practically justified as a condition of the possibility of the summum bonum. This paper argues that Kant’s reasoning from his initially austere conception of morality to the summum bonum and to immortality and God’s existence (...)
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  43.  15
    Modes of Individuation in Art.Douglas Lackey - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:567-580.
    Philosophers have developed various systems of individuation for handling questions of identity regarding works of art. But even a casual survey of different arts reveals that questions of individuation in one art form are markedly different from questions of individuation in another. Though distinctively philosophical concepts can go a short way in clarifying these issues, it is hardly likely that any single philosophical system can do justice to them all.
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  44. Modes of Individuation in Art.Douglas Lackey - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:567-580.
    Philosophers have developed various systems of individuation for handling questions of identity regarding works of art. But even a casual survey of different arts reveals that questions of individuation in one art form are markedly different from questions of individuation in another. Though distinctively philosophical concepts can go a short way in clarifying these issues, it is hardly likely that any single philosophical system can do justice to them all.
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  45. A Problem for Harman’s Moral Relativism.L. Langenfus William - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:121-136.
    Gilbert Harman’s defense of moral relativism is distinctive because it is grounded upon a fundamental theory of moral obligation, and not merely upon certain well-known anthropological facts. Harman’s theory of moral obligation is a particular form of “internalism”-roughly, that to have a moral obligation, one must have some adequate motivation to observe such constraints on action. It is argued, in the present piece, that Harman’s version of internalism fails to account for the sense of using common moral judgments for the (...)
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  46.  49
    A Problem for Harman's Moral Relativism.William L. Langenfus - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:121-136.
    Gilbert Harman’s defense of moral relativism is distinctive because it is grounded upon a fundamental theory of moral obligation, and not merely upon certain well-known anthropological facts (e.g., cultural diversity). Harman’s theory of moral obligation is a particular form of “internalism”-roughly, that to have a moral obligation, one must have some adequate motivation (either dispositional or occurrent) to observe such constraints on action. It is argued, in the present piece, that Harman’s version of internalism fails to account for the sense (...)
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  47. Bargaining Advantages and Coercion in the Market.Joan Mcgregor - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:23-50.
    Does the “free market” foster more freedom for individuals generally and less coercion? Libertarians and other market advocates argue that the unfettered market maximizes freedom and hence has less coercion than any feasible alternative. Welfare liberals, Socialist, and Marxists, in different ways, argue against the claim that the unrestricted market maximizes freedom generally. Both supporters and critics agree that coercion undermines freedom and that that is what is ultimately prima facie wrong with it. Further, they agree that the extent to (...)
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  48.  26
    Individuation.Dan Passell - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:395-403.
    In Sameness and Substance David Wiggins bas indicated difficulties with individuating objects. By confining attention to material objects, I show how spatio-temporal features will do the job for them. I construct the explanation by examining how we coordinate sensations of several senses to produce an apprehension of the three spatial dimensions. I also search out grounds for distinguishing between apprehensions of objects and apprehension of the space in which they reside. Several necessary truths that apply are also distinguished from each (...)
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  49. Individuation.Dan Passell - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:395-403.
    In Sameness and Substance David Wiggins bas indicated difficulties with individuating objects. By confining attention to material objects, I show how spatio-temporal features will do the job for them. I construct the explanation by examining how we coordinate sensations of several senses to produce an apprehension of the three spatial dimensions. I also search out grounds for distinguishing between apprehensions of objects and apprehension of the space in which they reside. Several necessary truths that apply are also distinguished from each (...)
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  50. Do Moral Explanations Matter?Charles Sayward - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:137-142.
    In a recent paper Nicholas Sturgeon claims moral explanations constitute one area of disagreement between moral realists and noncognitivists. The correctness of such explanation is consistent with moral realism but not with noncognitivism. Does this difference characterize other anti-realist views? I argue that it does not. Moral relativism is a distinct anti-realist view. And the correctness of moral explanations is consistent with moral relativism.
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  51.  14
    “Marginal Consequences” and Utilitarianism.C. L. Sheng - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:143-163.
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of marginal consequences of a group moral action. The situations in which a group action is taken are studied and classified. The assumption that the agents of a group action are similarly (or symmetrically) situated is clearly specified and emphasized. Then a probabilistic approach is used to determine the marginal consequences of a group action. It is shown that the refutation of utilitarian generalization by Bart Gruzalski is unjustified because of (...)
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  52.  14
    Sein Und Zeit Revisited.Brent A. Singer - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:311-332.
    In this paper I present the basic outlines of a nonstandard interpretation of Sein und Zeit. The merit of this interpretation is that it brings out and develops some of the radical possibilities contained in this rich text, possibilities which, I believe, have yet to be given their due. On the basis of this interpretation it is clear not only how Heidegger’s ontology departs from its Cartesian and Kantian predecessors, but also how his ontology puts the traditional mind/body problem, and (...)
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  53. Sein Und Zeit Revisited.Brent A. Singer - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:311-332.
    In this paper I present the basic outlines of a nonstandard interpretation of Sein und Zeit. The merit of this interpretation is that it brings out and develops some of the radical possibilities contained in this rich text, possibilities which, I believe, have yet to be given their due. On the basis of this interpretation it is clear not only how Heidegger’s ontology departs from its Cartesian and Kantian predecessors, but also how his ontology puts the traditional mind/body problem, and (...)
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  54.  80
    The Logical Structure of the Debate About McTaggart's Paradox.Quentin Smith - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:371-379.
    This short article aims to illustrate the mutually question-begging arguments that are often presented in debates between opponents and defenderss of McTaggart’s “proof” that A-properties (pastness, presentness and futurity) are logically incoherent. A sample of such arguments is taken from a recent debate between L. Nathan Oaklander (a defender of McTaggart) and myself (an opponent of McTaggart) and a method of escaping the impasse that is often reached in such debates is suggested.
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  55. The Logical Structure of the Debate About McTaggart’s Paradox.Quentin Smith - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:371-379.
    This short article aims to illustrate the mutually question-begging arguments that are often presented in debates between opponents and defenderss of McTaggart’s “proof” that A-properties are logically incoherent. A sample of such arguments is taken from a recent debate between L. Nathan Oaklander and myself and a method of escaping the impasse that is often reached in such debates is suggested.
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  56. Disembodied Minds and Personal Identity.W. Smythe Thomas - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:415-423.
    Discussion of the human soul has bulked large in the literature of philosophy and religion. I defend the possibility of disembodied Cartesian minds by examining the criticisms of three philosophers who argue that there are serious difficulties about any attempt to account for the identity of such Cartesian minds through time. I argue that their criticisms of the possibility of disembodied minds are damaging but not fatal. I hold that the central issue behind their criticisms of Cartesian minds is whether (...)
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  57.  32
    Disembodied Minds and Personal Identity.Thomas W. Smythe - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:415-423.
    Discussion of the human soul has bulked large in the literature of philosophy and religion. I defend the possibility of disembodied Cartesian minds by examining the criticisms of three philosophers who argue that there are serious difficulties about any attempt to account for the identity of such Cartesian minds through time. I argue that their criticisms of the possibility of disembodied minds are damaging but not fatal. I hold that the central issue behind their criticisms of Cartesian minds is whether (...)
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  58. Reichenbach and Smart on Temporal Discourse.Torgerson Jon - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:381-394.
    One of the problems which surfaces in philosophical literature as regularly as clockwork is the status of tensed and tenseless discourse. This received its most influential formulation in McTaggart The Nature of Existence. Two philosophers who respond to McTaggart are Hans Reichenbach and J.J.C. Smart. In this paper, I review their analysis of token-reflexive terms. First, I examine Reichenbach’s arguments for translating tensed discourse into tenseless discourse. In order to show its subtlety, I also discuss Smart’s attempt to provide such (...)
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  59.  13
    Reichenbach and Smart on Temporal Discourse.Jon Torgerson - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:381-394.
    One of the problems which surfaces in philosophical literature as regularly as clockwork is the status of tensed and tenseless discourse. This received its most influential formulation in McTaggart The Nature of Existence. Two philosophers who respond to McTaggart are Hans Reichenbach and J.J.C. Smart. In this paper, I review their analysis of token-reflexive terms. First, I examine Reichenbach’s arguments for translating tensed discourse into tenseless discourse. In order to show its subtlety, I also discuss Smart’s attempt to provide such (...)
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  60.  5
    The Polemical Employment of Pure Reason and Kantian Ethics.John L. Treloar - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:183-192.
    From the earliest days of philosophy, polemic has functioned as a common means of philosophical argumentation. Kant spends some time in the Critique of Pure Reason analyzing the place of polemic in rational argumentation. Even though it does not provide a legitimate approach to philosophical argument as employed by the dogmatists, Kant’s concern for the teaching of the young allows him to raise some issues concerning the ethics of philosophical argumentation also.
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  61. The Polemical Employment of Pure Reason and Kantian Ethics.John L. Treloar - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:183-192.
    From the earliest days of philosophy, polemic has functioned as a common means of philosophical argumentation. Kant spends some time in the Critique of Pure Reason analyzing the place of polemic in rational argumentation. Even though it does not provide a legitimate approach to philosophical argument as employed by the dogmatists, Kant’s concern for the teaching of the young allows him to raise some issues concerning the ethics of philosophical argumentation also.
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  62. Humean Minds and Moral Theory.Sheldon Wein - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:229-236.
    Grant that Hume is a contractarian. Justice then arises from more basic features of humans and their circumstances. Among these more basic features from which justice arises Hume includes the widely held passions of benevolence and sympathy. But it is mysterious why he included them in his contractarian theory for the derivation of justice does not need them, and may even be weaker with them included. This paper suggests that Hume’s philosophy of mind, in particular his account of the imagination, (...)
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  63.  23
    Was Hume a Subjectivist?Fred Wilson - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:247-282.
    In a crucial passage in the Treatise, Hume argues that all our sense impressions are dependent for their existence upon the state of our sense organs. Hume points out that this is not the same as an ontological dependence upon minds; and moreover the argument is clearly causal. Hume uses it to establish the system of the philosophers as opposed to the system of the vulgar. This paper argues that Hume’s case parallels that which, in this century, the critical realists (...)
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  64. Was Hume a Subjectivist?Fred Wilson - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:247-282.
    In a crucial passage in the Treatise, Hume argues that all our sense impressions are dependent for their existence upon the state of our sense organs. Hume points out that this is not the same as an ontological dependence upon minds; and moreover the argument is clearly causal. Hume uses it to establish the system of the philosophers as opposed to the system of the vulgar. This paper argues that Hume’s case parallels that which, in this century, the critical realists (...)
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  65.  22
    Spinoza's Temporal Argument for Actualism.Harold Zellner - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:303-309.
    In three places Spinoza presents an argument from (a) determinism and (b) God’s “eternity” to (c) “actualism”, i.e., the doctrine that this is (in some sense) the only possible world. That he does so shows that he distinguishes (a) from (c), which he has been thought to conflate. On one reading of ‘eternal’, he is claiming that an infinite past entails no other world was a “real” possibility. As might be expected, the argument is a failure, but it may help (...)
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  66. Spinoza’s Temporal Argument for Actualism.Harold Zellner - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:303-309.
    In three places Spinoza presents an argument from determinism and God’s “eternity” to “actualism”, i.e., the doctrine that this is the only possible world. That he does so shows that he distinguishes from, which he has been thought to conflate. On one reading of ‘eternal’, he is claiming that an infinite past entails no other world was a “real” possibility. As might be expected, the argument is a failure, but it may help explain why Spinoza holds that there are no (...)
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  67.  56
    A Closer Look at the Chinese Nation Argument.E. Sayan - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 13:129-36.
    Ned Block’s Chinese Nation Argument is offered as a counterexample to Turing-machine functionalism. According to that argument, one billion Chinese could be organized to instantiate Turing-machine descriptions of mental states. Since we wouldn’t want to impute qualia to such an organized population, functionalism cannot account for the qualitative character of mental states like pain. Paul Churchland and Patricia Churchland have challenged that argument by trying to show that an adequate representation of the complexity of mind requires at least 10 30,000,000 (...)
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  68.  32
    Qualia, Kripkean Arguments, and Subjectivity.Emmett L. Holman - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 13:411-29.
    The subjectivity of consciousness is widely regarded as a major stumbling block for materialist theories of mind. In this paper I show how Kripkean arguments against identity theories , and in particular a Kripkean argument against qualia-material property identity developed by Frank Jackson are a way of highlighting this problem. As such, Kripkean arguments are akin to recent discussions of subjectivity by Thomas Nagel and Frank Jackson . I then consider some recent attempts to refute Kripkean arguments or otherwise show (...)
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