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  1.  5
    Delayed Discounting of Pain with and Without Monetary Reward.Przemysław Bąbel & Paweł Kicman - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):464-469.
    We investigated the effect of monetary rewards on the rate of pain discounting. Our aim, also, was to understand the effect of previous painful dental experiences on the rate of discounting pain. Two groups completed a discounting task. In the first group, delayed pain was weaker than immediate pain, and in the second group delayed pain was stronger than immediate pain. Two conditions were studied: pain was either accompanied by a monetary reward or not. We found that people preferred immediate (...)
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  2.  10
    Overlapping Defaults. The Case of Intertemporal Choices.Michał Białek & Przemysław Sawicki - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):440-444.
    People make different choices depending on which decision is the default option. In intertemporal choices, the default option is typically imposed externally. For example, people expect more for delaying the gain than are willing to pay for accelerating the future gain over the same period. We claim that apart from the external default, people’s choices are also influenced by the internal default such as the time perspective resulting in the reference point in the present. By manipulating the congruency between the (...)
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  3.  5
    Acknowledgments.Dariusz Doliński - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):523-524.
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  4.  1
    Discounting: Theory, Applications and New Perspectives. An Introduction to the Special Issue.Paweł Ostaszewski & Wojciech Białaszek - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):430-432.
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  5.  10
    Higher Behavioral Profile of Mindfulness and Psychological Flexibility is Related to Reduced Impulsivity in Smokers, and Reduced Risk Aversion Regardless of Smoking Status.Paweł Ostaszewski, Joanna Dudek, Wojciech Białaszek & Przemysław Marcowski - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):445-455.
    Empirical evidence suggests that mindfulness, psychological flexibility, and addiction are interrelated in decision making. In our study, we investigated the relationship of the behavioral profile, composed of mindfulness and psychological flexibility, and smoking status on delay and probability discounting. We demonstrated the interaction of the behavioral profile of mindfulness and psychological flexibility and smoking status on delay discounting. We found that individuals who smoked and displayed higher mindfulness and psychological flexibility devalued rewards at a slower rate, compared to smokers with (...)
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  6.  6
    Intertemporal Decision Making After Brain Injury: Amount-Dependent Steeper Discounting After Frontal Cortex Damage.Paweł Ostaszewski, Bartłomiej Swebodziński & Wojciech Białaszek - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):456-463.
    Traumatic brain injuries to the frontal lobes are associated with many maladaptive forms of behavior. We investigated the association between brain damage and impulsivity, as measured by the rate of delay discounting. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of steeper discounting of different amounts in a group of patients with frontal lobe damage. We used a delay discounting task in the form of a structured interview. A total of 117 participants were divided into five groups: (...)
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  7.  10
    Shortening of Psychological Tests – Assumptions, Methods and Doubts.Władysław Jacek Paluchowski & Paweł Kleka - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):516-522.
    In this article, on the basis of questionnaire data collected for other purposes, the Authors want to show the consequences of various methods of shortening of tests and what may result from such an action for diagnosticians, researchers and examined individuals. The research aim of the work is to show the best method of shortening of the scale of questionnaires. Will shortening of a questionnaire according to different statistical techniques bring the same results? Will the quality of shortened scales be (...)
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  8.  14
    The Relationship Between Self-Control and Altruism in the Light of Discounting Literature.Jan Rusek, Adam Karbowski & Jerzy Osiński - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):433-439.
    On the basis of literature on delay discounting, potential mechanisms of relations between self-control and altruism are considered. The discussed possibilities are: cause-and-effect relationship, common mechanism, role of intelligence as a factor related both to self-control and altruism, and role of psychological distance. Relations between described perspectives are pointed out, and directions for further research are suggested.
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  9.  52
    Measurement Issues of the Social Class in Social Psychology of Education: Is It a Category Mistake?Chetan Sinha - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):481-488.
    The present article discusses the measurement of social class in the social psychology of education research. It was evident that social class experiences are conflated with the socioeconomic status indicators and the subjective measure of the class context was underrepresented. However, this was discussed in Rubin et al about the intersectional nature of social class taking into account both objective and subjective indicators. The derivation of the social class experience from the objective and subjective measures were critically discussed. An effort (...)
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  10.  18
    Explanatory Contribution of Social Responsibility and Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment: An Exploratory Study in a Higher Public Education Institution.Cátia Sousa, Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos, Joana Santos, Gabriela Gonçalves & Graça Rafael - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):470-480.
    This study aimed to analyze the explanatory contribution of social responsibility and organizational justice on commitment through the setting up of a theoretical model in order to better understand the relationships that are established between these constructs. The empirical study was developed in a public higher education institution with a sample of 233 employees, professors and staff. The proposed model was estimated using a structural equation model. It was possible to observe a relationship between interactional justice perceptions and social responsibility (...)
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  11.  21
    What Do Students Do in Their Free Time and Why?Domagoj Švegar, Domagoj Roguljić & Petra Anić - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):504-515.
    Numerous studies have explored what people do in their free time, but only a few of them have tried to explain why. In Study 1 we therefore aimed to obtain a detailed picture of the ways in which students spend their free time, but also we wanted to investigate their motivation for engaging in a specific activity that they consider to be their favourite. We found that the highest percentage of 585 students, who participated in Study 1, spend most of (...)
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  12.  10
    English as a Foreign Language Learners’ Anxiety and Interlocutors’ Status and Familiarity: An Idiodynamic Perspective.Nahid Talebzadeh & Majid Elahi Shirvan - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (4):489-503.
    Foreign language learning anxiety has been the target of many studies in the field of applied linguistics, but, with the dynamics turn in the field, attempts have been recently made to uncover the dynamics of anxiety English as a foreign language learners go through, especially within the moments of their conversational interactions. Within these interactions, dynamics of anxiety might emerge in different patterns under the influence of the status of the participants’ interlocutors and their familiarity with them. This study explores (...)
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  13.  10
    Resources Evaluation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Moderation Effect of Time Since Diagnosis.Lidia Cierpiałkowska & Natalia Nowaczyk - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):357-365.
    Multiple sclerosis significantly affects how patients maintain the resources they consider important. The aim of this paper is to describe the moderation effect of time since diagnosis on the evaluation of resources by patients with multiple sclerosis, on the basis of S.E. Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. The study was conducted using paper and pencil methods and involved 77 patients, of whom 32 received their diagnosis less than four years ago, and 45 more than four years ago. The patients’ resource (...)
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  14.  6
    Adherence to Treatment Among Chronically Ill Ambulatory Patients.Magdalena Durlik, Jolanta Gazdowska, Mateusz Zatorski & Agnieszka Bojanowska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):380-387.
    According to Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model, accurate Information, strong Motivation and adequate Behavioural skills are prerequisites of treatment adherence. This model has been verified among chronically ills patients, usually suffering from one particular disorder. No studies report how the model fits data from a more diverse group. The aim of the study was to analyze adherence and its barriers in a group of three hundred patients suffering from various, common chronic disorders. They filled out IMB and Adherence Questionnaire. Information and Motivation (...)
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  15.  4
    Special Issue of „Polish Psychological Bulletin”: Health, Stress and Coping.Ewa Gruszczyńska & Helena Wrona-Polańska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):326-327.
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  16.  3
    Heterogeneity of Change in State Affect Following Insulin Therapy Initiation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.Aleksandra Kroemeke, Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska & Ewa Gruszczyńska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):338-346.
    The aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of change in state affect following the introduction of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. State affect was assessed twice among 305 patients: just before the introduction of insulin therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Latent class growth modeling showed that negative affect increased in 78% of the sample, whereas positive affect improved in only 17% of the participants. On the basis of cross-tabulation of these changes a 4-class model of (...)
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  17.  8
    Assessing Size and Subjective Value of Objects with Diminutive Names.Michal Parzuchowski, Olga Bialobrzeska & Konrad Bocian - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):423-429.
    Numerous studies show that language can influence both perceptual judgments, as well as the mental categorization of objects in memory. Previous research showed that using diminutive names of objects resulted in being less satisfied with owning said objects and lowering their perceived value. In the present studies, to explore this phenomenon, we decided to investigate whether the influence of a diminutive on the reduction in the subjective value of an object is determined by the perceived size of the object, in (...)
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  18.  12
    The “Memory” Misinformation Effect May Not Be Caused by Memory Failures: Exploring Memory States of Misinformed Subjects.Romuald Polczyk - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):388-400.
    In experiments concerning the misinformation effect, participants first watch some original material, e.g. a video clip, and read a description that in the experimental group contains information inconsistent with the video clip. Afterwards, all participants answer questions about the video. Typically, the misled group more often reports erroneous misleading information than the non-misled one.Theoretical explanations of this effect are usually formulated in terms of the cognitive theories of memory. This article presents three experiments that demonstrate that the misinformation effect can (...)
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  19.  4
    Determinants of Health-Related Lifestyle. Comparative Study of the Functioning of Young Adults in 2003 and 2013.Michał Sieński, Agnieszka Rosińska & Michał Ziarko - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):366-374.
    Background - Early adulthood is the developmental stage during which, for the first time, an individual can independently choose their own lifestyle. For the future health of a young adult, it is important that they incorporate healthy behaviors from different health dimensions into their lifestyle. Analyzing the foregoing issue gives rise to a fundamental question: did intensive social changes experienced after Poland’s accession to the European Union lead to changes in different aspects of a healthy lifestyle? Method - The presented (...)
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  20.  10
    Attitudes to Professional Boundaries Among Therapists with and Without Substance Abuse History.Karolina Skowrońska-Włoch & Igor Pietkiewicz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):411-422.
    There is no empirical research exploring how substance abuse therapists perceive and manage their professional role or privacy boundaries. This study explores their attitudes associated with self-disclosure and dual relationships. Ten therapists, five who had recovered and five who had never been substance dependent, shared their work experiences during semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which have been subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. While nonneophytes were generally reluctant to share personal information or establish alternative forms of relationship with current or former clients, neophytes (...)
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  21.  4
    The Mechanism of Non-Numerical Anchoring Heuristic Based on Magnitude Priming: Is It Just the Basic Anchoring Effect in Disguise?Jakub Traczyk & Pawel Tomczak - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):401-410.
    The anchoring heuristic refers to phenomena when an arbitrary number affects subsequent numerical estimations. Oppenheimer, LeBoeuf and Brewer showed that it is not necessary for the anchor to be a numerical value, yet current models describing the anchoring heuristic do not fully account for the mechanism of non-numerical anchoring. However, this effect shows similarity to the basic anchoring effect - obtained without the comparative question and based on the availability of the given number in working memory. In this study, we (...)
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  22.  5
    Experimental Clues in Favor of a Generalized Norm of Reciprocity.Boris Vallée, Nicolas Guéguen, Mickaël Dupré & Sebastien Meineri - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):375-379.
    The norm of reciprocity has only been considered and experimentally demonstrated between two individuals. However, comments from several authors invite the consideration of an expanded form of this norm. 120 passersby, randomly assigned to 3 conditions, were asked to watch a confederate’s belongings. Depending on the condition, they had either previously been given a gift or not. In addition, the gift was offered by either the confederate making the target request or by a second confederate, not initially involved. First, results (...)
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  23.  3
    Regulatory Function of Stress in the Process of Leukemia Patients’ Recovery After Bone Marrow Transplantation.Helena Wrona-Polańska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):328-337.
    The theoretical rationale was the author’s Functional Model of Health, where health is construed as a function of creative coping with stress. Participants in the study were 141 patients with blood cancer treated with bone marrow transplantation at the Hematology Clinic, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. Besides a standardized interview the following instruments were used: STAI by Spielberger, CISS and CHIP by Endler and Parker, and SOC-29 by Antonovsky. Health status was operationalized using 10-point self-rating scales to assess the patients’ perceived (...)
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  24.  6
    Relationship of Trait Curiosity to the Dynamics of Coping and Quality of Life in Myocardial Infarction Patients.Dorota Włodarczyk - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (3):347-356.
    This study is a continuation of the work of Professor Kazimierz Wrześniewski. It concerns the role of curiositytrait in the dynamics of changes in coping and quality of life after a heart attack. The study was attended by 222 people after a heart attack, of whom 140 participated in the three stages of the study: at the beginning and at the end of cardiac rehabilitation and a year after leaving the resort. The participants aged 24-64 years. Curiosity-trait was measured by (...)
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  25.  13
    Knowledge About the Joy in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability.Marzena Buchnat & Aleksandra Jasielska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):154-166.
    The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic (...)
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  26.  2
    Various Aspects of Human Functioning in the Positive Psychology Perspective.Agnieszka Czerw - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):141-142.
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  27.  13
    Organizational Roles and the Work and Organizational Engagement.Agnieszka Czerw & Anna Borkowska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):188-197.
    Purpose - The article aims to attempt to define the work and organization engagement of the employees of one of the exclusive hotel spa in Poland. The present paper proposes that organizational roles taken by employees differentiate symptoms of their engagement. The research aims to test the hypothesis and to show the differences at the level of concepts and behaviors. Design/methodology/approach - The following study is an attempt to define the work and organizational engagement of employees of one of the (...)
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  28.  5
    A New Method to Measure Flow in Professional Tasks – A FLOW-W Questionnaire.Agnieszka Czerw & Beata Wolfigiel - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):220-228.
    The aim of the article is to present a new Polish tool for measuring the flow experience in professional tasks - a FLOW-W Questionnaire. The questionnaire was inspired by Csikszentmihalyi’s flow theory and flow in Bakker’s work. On its basis a set of positions was established, on which subsequently an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The analysis showed the possibility of a uni- or bifactorial solution. After checking the theoretical and empirical validity of both solutions, the unifactorial solution (...)
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  29.  8
    Positivity and Job Burnout in Emergency Personnel: Examining Linear and Curvilinear Relationship.Ewa Gruszczyńska & Beata Aleksandra Basińska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):212-219.
    The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of (...)
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  30.  4
    Obtaining Informed Consent From Study Participants and Results of Field Studies. Methodological Problems Caused by the Literal Treatment of Codes of Ethics.Tomasz Grzyb - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):288-292.
    The article discusses the issue of the necessity of obtaining informed consent from an individual who is to be a participant in an experiment. Codes of ethics concerning the behaviour of a psychologist fundamentally do not permit conducting experiments without informing their participants in advance that they will be conducted. Meanwhile, the act of obtaining prior consent can have a significant impact on results. The article describes an experiment in the field of social influence psychology during which one group was (...)
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  31.  5
    Narcissism and Self-Esteem Revisited: The Relationships Between the Subscales of the NPI and Explicit/Implicit Self-Esteem.Magdalena Hyla & Irena Pilch - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):264-278.
    The results of the previous research which tried to investigate links between self-esteem and narcissism in search of the source of narcissistic fragility are not consistent. The aim of the study was to contribute to the understanding of this complex relation by assessing relationships between the four facets of grandiose narcissism measured by the NPI and the two kinds of self-esteem i.e. explicit and implicit, and by comparing the results with theoretical models. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, a more recent (...)
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  32.  17
    Cognitive and Emotional Predictors of Episodic and Dispositional Forgiveness.Kinga Kaleta & Justyna Mróz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):143-153.
    The study examined the importance of cognitive and emotional variables for state and trait forgiveness. One hundred and thirty nine participants completed six inventories in Polish version: HFS, TRIM, P-Scale, BHI-12, SUPIN, CECS. Results showed that dispositional forgiveness was associated with cognitive and emotional predictors, whereas episodic forgiveness primarily with certain emotional variables. In addition, the results indicated that emotional predictors merely participate in the process of reducing unforgiveness, whereas cognitive and emotional variables were shown to be necessary for full (...)
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  33.  9
    The Community Feeling Versus Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Well-Being – Introductory Research.Alina Kałużna-Wielobób - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):167-174.
    In accordance with the concept of A. Adler - the community feeling is an individual characteristic which is relatively stable throughout life. It refers to an inner relationship of one person with other people: a feeling of unity with others or separation from others. People with high community feeling are motivated in their actions by striving towards the common good, whereas people with low community feeling intend to exhibit their superiority over others in their actions, which would allow them to (...)
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  34.  8
    Reliability of the Discounting Inventory: An Extension Into Substance-Use Population.Maria Maczuga & Marta Malesza - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):293-300.
    Recent research introduced the Discounting Inventory that allows the measurement of individual differences in the delay, probabilistic, effort, and social discounting rates. The goal of this investigation was to determine several aspects of the reliability of the Discounting Inventory using the responses of 385 participants. Two types of reliability are of interest. Internal consistency and test-retest stability. A secondary aim was to extend such reliability measures beyond the non-clinical participant. The current study aimed to measure the reliability of the DI (...)
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  35.  15
    Locus of Control and Styles of Coping with Stress in Students Educated at Polish Music and Visual Art Schools – a Cross-Sectional Study.Anna Antonina Nogaj - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):279-287.
    The article focuses on identifying differences in the locus of control and styles of coping with stress among young students who are artistically gifted within the fields of music and visual arts. The research group includes Polish students of both music and visual art schools who develop their artistic talents in schools placing particular emphasis on professional training of their artistic abilities and competences within the field of music or visual arts respectively. We make an assumption that different types of (...)
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  36.  22
    Mere Recollection of Food Reduces Altruistic Behavior.Yasuto Okamura - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):250-254.
    The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods. Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree (...)
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  37.  13
    Work Engagement – A Systematic Review of Polish Research.Mateusz Paliga, Patrycja Rudnicka, Małgorzata Chrupała-Pniak & Anita Pollak - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):175-187.
    Over the past decade work engagement has gained both business and academia attention. With growing number of studies and meta-analyses the concept of work engagement is one of the pillars of positive work and organizational psychology. This systematic review presents the current state of research on work engagement in Poland. Results confirmed that work-engagement studies have not yet reached the threshold to conduct meta-analysis. The review of measurement methods and synthesis of findings allows to identify strengths and gaps in Polish (...)
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  38.  7
    Effects of Self-Concept Differentiation on Sense of Identity: The Divided Self Revisited Again.Aleksandra Pilarska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):255-263.
    This article describes research on the associations between self-concept structure and sense of personal identity. Particular emphasis was given to the feature of self-concept differentiation. Notably, it was examined whether the effects of SCD on such aspects of self-experience as sense of having inner contents, sense of uniqueness, sense of one’s own boundaries, sense of coherence, sense of continuity in time, and sense of self-worth depend on individuals’ epistemic motivation, and more specifically their joint need for cognition, reflection, and integrative (...)
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  39.  21
    Are Managers Also ‘Crafting Leaders’? The Link Between Organizational Rank, Autonomy, and Job Crafting.Malwina Puchalska-Kamińska & Marta Anna Roczniewska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):198-211.
    Although research has examined the role leaders may play in shaping job re-design behaviors among their subordinates, little is known about the way managers craft their jobs as compared to other employees. In two crosssectional studies we tested whether organizational rank affects the frequency of job crafting, and to what extent this relationship is mediated via perceived autonomy. Study 1 demonstrated that managers craft their jobs more frequently than non-managers by increasing structural job resources and seeking challenges at work. We (...)
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  40.  28
    Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the Short Grit Scale.Radosław Rogoza, Małgorzata Najderska, Dominika Karaś, Klaudia Ponikiewska & Patrycja Wyszyńska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):229-236.
    This study aimed to verify the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Grit-S questionnaire. Grit is understood here as the perseverance and passion for long-term goals, and it encompasses two dimensions: Consistency of Interest and Perseverance of Effort. The sample comprised N = 270 participants aged 18-34. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to verify the dimensional structure of grit, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis to compare the structure across gender, and correlation analysis to examine external validity. Findings showed satisfactory (...)
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  41.  6
    A Seven Nations Study of Leadership Attributes.Łukasz Sułkowski & Jerzy Mączyński - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):307-314.
    The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 research is the first study to investigate (...)
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  42.  7
    When is a Lie More of a Lie? Moral Judgment Mediates the Relationship Between Perceived Benefits of Others and Lie-Labeling.Piotr Szarota & Katarzyna Cantarero - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):315-325.
    Lay perceptions of lying are argued to consist of a lie prototype. The latter was found to entail the intention to deceive, belief in falsity and falsity. We proposed and found that the perceptions of the benefits of others are also an important factor that influences the extent, to which an act of intentional misleading someone to foster a false belief is labeled as a lie. Drawing from the intuitionist model of moral judgments we assumed that moral judgment of the (...)
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  43.  24
    Perfectionism and Marital Satisfaction Among Graduate Students: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis by Counseling Help-Seeking Attitudes.Noor Syamilah Zakaria, Mansor Abu Talib, Siti Aishah Hassan & Fatt Mee Foo - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):301-306.
    This study aims to measure the latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes. The respondents were 327 married graduate students from a research university in Malaysia. An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The respondents completed the Almost Perfect Scale- Revised, Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examined the instruments and the results indicated that construct validity were (...)
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  44.  7
    Love Styles in the Context of Life History Theory.Andrzej Łukasik & Magdalena Marzec - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):237-249.
    The evolutionary function of love is to create a strong bond between the partners with reproduction in view. In order to achieve this goal, humans use various sexual/reproductive strategies, which have evolved due to specific reproductive benefits. The use of particular strategies depends on many factors but one of the most important is early childhood experiences, on which life history theory focuses. John Lee identified 6 basic love styles: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, and mania. Our goal was to check (...)
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  45.  4
    Introducing Emotioncy as an Invisible Force Controlling Causal Decisions: A Case of Attribution Theory.Hannaneh Abbasnejad & Reza Pishghadam - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):129-140.
    Given the prominence of studies aimed at determining the factors influencing causal judgments, this study attempts to introduce the newly-developed concept of emotioncy as one of the guiding factors pushing attribution judgments toward a certain spectrum. To this end, two scales of attribution and emotioncy were designed using ten hypothetical situations. A total number of 309 participants filled out the scales. The construct validity of the scales was substantiated through confirmatory factor analysis. Afterwards, structural equation modeling was utilized to examine (...)
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  46.  12
    Athletes′ Criticism of Coaching Behavior: Differences Among Gender, and Type of Sport.George Bebetsos, Filippos Filippou & Evangelos Bebetsos - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):66-71.
    Most athletes are subject to intense mental and physical pressure not only during competition but also during practice. An important variable which may influence athletes′ performance is coaching behavior. The aim of the present study is to investigate if coaching behavior and its antecedents differentiate athletes according to their gender, type of sport, competition experience and weekly practice-time. The sample consisted of 367 male and female athletes who participated in both individual and team sports. They completed the Greek version of (...)
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  47.  19
    Empathy Gap – What Do We Know About Empathizing with Others′ Pain?Paweł Boski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda & Aleksandra Dopierała - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):111-117.
    Empathy of pain as a multi-dimensional process includes sharing and understanding the pain of others in relation to oneself. Subjects in such studies are typically members of western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic societies. In the literature review that we conducted, we observed that little is known about the empathy for pain in people who are not members of societies with these cultural characteristics. We often understand those who are “similar” to us more easily - ones who belong to “our” (...)
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  48.  5
    The Creation of a Concept of One’s Own Life by Adolescents as a Manifestation of Subjectivity and Autonomy.Maria Czerwińska-Jasiewicz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):28-37.
    The article discusses the creation by young people of a concept of their own lives during adolescence, which is treated as a sign of their subjectivity and autonomy. What was emphasised therein was the significant relationship between the creation of the own life concept by adolescents and their overall development during adolescence. Deliberations were based on the theoretical concepts of Piaget and Niemczyński, as well as in the empirical studies of Nuttin, Nurmi, Zaleski, Trempała, Liberska, Katra, and Czerwińska-Jasiewicz. An extended (...)
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  49.  9
    Masculinity Ideology and Subjective Well-Being in a Sample of Polish Men and Women.Magdalena M. Formanowicz, Michèle C. Kaufmann & Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):79-86.
    Masculinity ideology is defined as a blend of cultural beliefs, types of behavior, and roles generally associated with men and boys. Previous studies have showed mixed effects of adherence to masculine ideology on men’s subjective well-being, indicating negative but also positive relationships. The present study focuses on agency, that is the core of stereotypic masculinity, and its relationship to subjective well-being by analyzing data from a representative Polish sample of the European Social Survey. Participants were 1751 adults, aged 17 years (...)
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  50.  7
    Testing the Construct Validity of the Discounting Inventory – Psychometric Properties of a Polish and German Samples.Marta Malesza - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):118-128.
    The Discounting Inventory, originally developed in polish language, allows the measurement of individual differences in the delay, probabilistic, effort, and social discounting rates. The present study attempted to validate the DI’s psychometric properties using German university students and to compare the results to those from a sample of Polish university students. Over four hundred participants completed the DI and traditional discounting measures. A confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original four-factor model of the DI provided an excellent fit for the (...)
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  51.  11
    Enhancement of Executive Control Through Short-Term Cognitive Training: Far-Transfer Effects on General Fluid Intelligence.Edward Nęcka, Michał Nowak & Radosław Wujcik - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):72-78.
    We predicted that short-term training of executive control would improve both cognitive control itself and general fluid intelligence. We randomly assigned 120 high school students to the experimental and control groups. The former underwent a 14-day training of four executive functions: interference resolution, response inhibition, task switching, and goal monitoring. The latter did not train anything. The training significantly improved cognitive control and IQ. The control group also improved their IQ scores but gained less than the experimental one. However, the (...)
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  52.  10
    Autonomy of Human Mind and Personality Development.Adam Niemczyński - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):7-19.
    A psychology of human individual development is proposed which argues against its reduction to the description and control of human behavior or to cognitive psychology in the model of information and communication technology. Instead the author’s earlier conceptualization of the autonomy of human individual development is now elaborated further. The foundational premise to this end rests in Macnamara’s explication of Brentano’s notion of intentionality, i.e., referring to something as an object. It reveals the access of the mind to the ideal (...)
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  53.  4
    Ideological Inconsistencies on the Left and Right as a Product of Coherence of Preferences for Values. The Case of Poland.Piotr Radkiewicz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):93-104.
    The terms ‘left’ and ‘right’ cannot describe two extremes of a single ideological dimension. Instead, a bi-dimensional model including socio-cultural and socio-economic facets of leftism/rightism is postulated. Several studies conducted in the USA and Western Europe show a relative coherence of left-wing and right-wing orientation regarding both dimensions, whereas very diverse patterns can be found in the countries of Eastern Europe. In Poland cultural and economic leftism-rightism seem to be clearly negatively related. The general hypothesis in this paper claims that (...)
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  54.  12
    Brain Functional Asymmetry of Chimpanzees : The Example of Auditory Laterality.Julia Sikorska, Maciej Kapusta, Katarzyna Wejchert, Anna Jakucińska, Maciej Trojan & Justyna Szymańska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):87-92.
    The aim of this study was to verify whether chimpanzees demonstrate an auditory laterality during the orientation reaction, and which hemisphere is responsible for processing the emotional stimuli and which for the species-specific vocalizations. The study involved nine chimpanzees from the Warsaw Municipal Zoological Garden. They were tested individually in their bedrooms. Chimpanzees approached a tube filled with food, located in the centre of the cage. Randomly selected sounds were played from the speakers when the subject was focused on getting (...)
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  55.  2
    The Subjectivity of Older Adults in the Late Works of Eminent Creators.Maria M. Straś-Romanowska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):44-50.
    This article shows - in the light of personalistic psychology - the subjective features of old people which are manifested in the works of eminent creators. The progress of inner subjectivity is shown as a specific developmental tendency. It is characterized by reflection, concentration on one’s own experiences, remembrances and encapsulating life events. It is readily observable that old creators are open to spiritual values and that melancholy is a predominant mood in their creation.
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  56.  7
    Is There a Link Between the Volume of Physical Exercise and Emotional Intelligence (EQ)?Attila Szabo, István Soós & Zoltán Gáspár - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):105-110.
    Emotional intelligence was linked to sport participation. We report two studies in which we tested the link between exercise volume, defined as weekly hours of exercise, and EQ. Volunteers completed the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. In Study I, significant correlations between exercise volume and use- and regulation-of-emotions prompted us to use a posteriori grouping into high- and low exercise-volume groups. The former exhibited better use-of-emotions than the latter. In Study II, using a priori grouping, we replicated the finding (...)
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  57.  11
    Structure and Level of Religiosity Test.Małgorzata Tatala, Czesław Walesa & Elżbieta Rydz - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):20-27.
    The aim of the article is to present a new measure of structure and level of religiosity. The cognitive-developmental concept of integral development of religiosity by Czesław Walesa, which distinguishes eight parameters of religiosity: religious awareness, religious feelings, religious decisions, bond with the fellowship of believers, religious practices, religious morality, religious experience and forms of profession of faith served as the theoretical bases for the test. The measure was constructed to fit the specificity of the people of the Christian profession. (...)
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  58.  4
    Subjectivity and Generativity in Midlife.Ludwika Wojciechowska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):38-43.
    An important aspect of human development in midlife is, according to E. Erikson’s theory, the successful resolution of the crisis between generativity and stagnation. Generativity is understood as focusing one’s energy on productivity and creativity - the creation of new works and ideas dedicated to future generations. It is assumed that generativity results from personal needs and constitutes a response to the social expectations directed at individuals. Concern for the next generation does not go hand-in-hand with concern for the personal (...)
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  59.  2
    Discovering Subjectivity: A Subjective World of Meanings in the Stories of the Twilight of Life.Wanda Zagórska - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (1):51-65.
    Pointing to the subjective nature of human life, theorists argue that only in a dialogue with another person does the human disclose meanings important to him or her. The interpretation and analysis of stories with regard to the included subjective meanings included in them as manifestations of human subjectivity seem to be the most effective when undertaken in the hermeneutic approach where psychology and philosophy meet. In the paper advantages of a self-narrative method based on the principles of hermeneutic psychology (...)
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