Abstract: Background: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency prevalent in all age groups across the world is common in obesity and may play an important role in the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objectives: This cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between levels of adiponectin and circulating 25(OH)D, and its effect on metabolic biomarker among overweight/obese female students. Methods: Three hundred female students; with mean age 20.9 ± 3.2 years were attending the Aljouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia. They were randomly selected from university during the studying year 2015 – 2016. Anthropometric and biochemical indices were determined. Results: The study showed 19% of the female’s student were either overweight or obese (15% and 4%, respectively). The frequency of MS diagnosis among the students was 17%, with 13% and 4% had either three or four risk factors, respectively. Overweight/obese subjects had significantly worse anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, including waist/hip ratio, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (BG), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride levels (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C), leptin, adiponectin, leptin/adiponectin ratio and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) compared to normal weight. Of the subjects diagnosed with MS, 59% had mild and 8.6% had severe 25(OH)D deficiency. There was negative association between 25(OH)D and both FBG and HOMA-IR among young women obese/overweight. Conclusion: In our study, it suggested that low level of adiponectin was strongly correlated with low 25(OH)D levels. Also, the prevalence of MS tends to increase with high occurrence rate of low circulating 25(OH)D levels that is, known cause poor glycemic control and prediction of cardiovascular outcomes.
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