Dilemata 34:121-132 (2021)

Abstract
The non-invasive stimulation techniques are already recognized as technology that allows neuroenhancement, specifically the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation can be applied following potentiation protocols in order to enhance both cognitive and motor systems. Hand in hand with this capacity arises the ethical problem of its application. The objective of this contribution is to describe and discuss what ethical aspects have been established in relation to this current phenomenon. Thus, we will first describe the mechanisms and results of non-invasive technology in relation to neuroenhancement, focusing on TMS enhancing protocols. Next, we will make a brief historical review of the ethical aspects established around the application of TMS and its ability to result in neuroenhancement. Finally, we will discuss the ethical aspects that have been described and new debates that arise from the previous ones, concluding in an expanded vision of addressing the discussion.
Keywords Estimulación no invasiva  cuestiones de seguridad  estimulación magnética transcraneal  neuromejora  tecnología disruptiva
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Neuroenhancement.Alexandre Erler & Cynthia Forlini - 2020 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online.

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and the Human Brain: An Ethical Evaluation.M. S. Steven & A. Pascual-Leone - forthcoming - Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice and Policy (Ed. J. Illes).
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