Nature, Science, Bayes 'Theorem, and the Whole of Reality‖


A fundamental problem in science is how to make logical inferences from scientific data. Mere data does not suffice since additional information is necessary to select a domain of models or hypotheses and thus determine the likelihood of each model or hypothesis. Thomas Bayes’ Theorem relates the data and prior information to posterior probabilities associated with differing models or hypotheses and thus is useful in identifying the roles played by the known data and the assumed prior information when making inferences. Scientists, philosophers, and theologians accumulate knowledge when analyzing different aspects of reality and search for particular hypotheses or models to fit their respective subject matters. Of course, a main goal is then to integrate all kinds of knowledge into an all-encompassing worldview that would describe the whole of reality. A generous description of the whole of reality would span, in the order of complexity, from the purely physical to the supernatural. These two extreme aspects of reality are bridged by a nonphysical realm, which would include elements of life, man, consciousness, rationality, mental and mathematical abstractions, etc. An urgent problem in the theory of knowledge is what science is and what it is not. Albert Einstein’s notion of science in terms of sense perception is refined by defining operationally the data that makes up the subject matter of science. It is shown, for instance, that theological considerations included in the prior information assumed by Isaac Newton is irrelevant in relating the data logically to the model or hypothesis. In addition, the concepts of naturalism, intelligent design, and evolutionary theory are critically analyzed. Finally, Eugene P. Wigner’s suggestions concerning the nature of human consciousness, life, and the success of mathematics in the natural sciences is considered in the context of the creative power endowed in humans by God.



External links

  • This entry has no external links. Add one.
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

  • Only published works are available at libraries.

Similar books and articles

Bayes's theorem. [REVIEW]Massimo Pigliucci - 2005 - Quarterly Review of Biology 80 (1):93-95.
Bayes' theorem.James Joyce - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Bayes's Theorem.E. Eells - 2008 - Gogoa 8 (1):138.
Bayes, Hume, Price, and Miracles.John Earman - 2002 - In Richard Swinburne (ed.), Bayes’s Theorem. Oxford University Press. pp. 91--110.
Lawless Universe: Science and the Hunt for Reality.Joe Rosen - 2010 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
The Appraisal of Theories: Kuhn Meets Bayes.Wesley C. Salmon - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:325 - 332.
A Misuse of Bayes's Theorem.Michael Levin - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (1).
Gold’s Theorem and Cognitive Science.Kent Johnson - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (4):571-592.


Added to PP

424 (#26,161)

6 months
16 (#63,875)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Author's Profile

Moorad Alexanian
University of North Carolina at Wilmington

Citations of this work

No citations found.

Add more citations

References found in this work

On the psychology of prediction.Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (4):237-251.
The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences.Eugene Wigner - 1960 - Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics 13:1-14.
Probability Theory. The Logic of Science.Edwin T. Jaynes - 2003 - Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Godel's Proof.Ernest Nagel & James R. Newman - 1958 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
Godel's Proof.Ernest Nagel & James Roy Newman - 1958 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.

View all 14 references / Add more references