Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):591-612 (2019)

Abstract
This article discusses the epistemology of design as a process, arguing specifically that sketching and drawing are essential modes of thinking and reasoning. It demonstrates that the commonly accepted notion of a spontaneous and intuitive vision in the mind’s eye—encapsulated in the cliché of the napkin sketch—obscures the exploratory inferences that are made while scribbling with a pencil on a sheet of paper. The draughtsperson, along with their work tools, modes of notation, specific techniques, and epistemic strategies as well as the resulting design artefacts form milieus of reflection that facilitate complex processes of exploration. Case studies, including the genesis of the Mini by Alec Issigonis, samples of work by Alvar Aalto, and a reinterpretation of student sketches from a classical design study by Gabriela Goldschmidt, serve to illustrate how drawing inferences with pencil and paper occurs.
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DOI 10.1007/s13347-018-0323-5
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References found in this work BETA

Mindsight: Image, Dream, Meaning.D. M. Lopes - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (4):543-545.
The Active Image.Remei Capdevila-Werning & Sabine Ammon (eds.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.

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