Espèces et opérativité de la fiction dans la pensée de David Hume


Abstract
En l'absence d'une définition univoque, les nombreuses occurrences du mot « fiction » dans les textes de David Hume posent la question de l'unité de la notion et invitent à un recensement qui permet de dégager trois grandes catégories de fictions. Cette approche dévoile une parenté d'origine renvoyant aux principes de la nature humaine comme à la source de la production de toutes nos idées fictives. Dès lors, le partage bien établi entre le sens de la réalité qu'est la croyance et la fiction éclate. Il est des fictions auxquelles nous croyons et qui constituent ce que nous appelons la réalité. Il ne s'agit plus alors de combattre le faux ou de déceler l'illusion. Si tout est fiction, la raison semble impuissante. Ici, la philosophie sceptique de Hume propose une de ses solutions les plus originales et les plus fortes, et le souhait, bien connu, de changer la manière de philosopher s'éclaire d'un jour nouveau. Since there's no univocal definition, the several occurrences of the word « fiction » in Hume's texts question the unity of the concept and call for an inventory enabling one to stress the three major categories of fictions. Such an approach discloses a relationship in their several origins referring to the principles of human nature as being the very origin of all our fictitious ideas. Hence the well-set division between fiction and the sense of reality which is embodied by belief becomes thus striking. There are indeed fictions in which we believe and which will build up what we call reality. No longer must we fight the false or make out illusion. If all is fiction, reason thus seems powerless. Here Hume's sceptical philosophy offers one of the most original and one of the strongest solutions, and the well-known wish that one may want to change how to philosophize, all this in quite a new light.
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