Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (2):478-487 (1984)

Abstract
A first order representation (f.o.r.) in topology is an assignment of finitary relational structures of the same type to topological spaces in such a way that homeomorphic spaces get sent to isomorphic structures. We first define the notions "one f.o.r. is at least as expressive as another relative to a class of spaces" and "one class of spaces is definable in another relative to an f.o.r.", and prove some general statements. Following this we compare some well-known classes of spaces and first order representations. A principal result is that if X and Y are two Tichonov spaces whose posets of zero-sets are elementarily equivalent then their respective rings of bounded continuous real-valued functions satisfy the same positive-universal sentences. The proof of this uses the technique of constructing ultraproducts as direct limits of products in a category theoretic setting
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DOI 10.2307/2274179
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