Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):977-999 (1997)

How do we explain organized complexity in human affairs? The most common model explain s human organization as the outcome of rational design; order in human affairs arises from the intentions, plans, and orders of those in charge. For organizational complexity on vast scales, this model is insufficient, misleading, and potentially disastrous. An alternative model, based upon self-organization within complex systems, is developed and applied to the tobacco industry.Leaked documents and public testimony point to widespread distortion of information within the tobacco industry. The model developed herein describes such behaviors as emergent outcomes, not reducible to or sufficiently explained by individual fraud and deliberate deceit. Critics of the tobacco industry often fail to appreciate the role of self-organization in complex systems. They presume rational design. Consequently, they imply more intentional deceit, deliberate planning, and conspiracy than needed to explain the distortions that actually occurred
Keywords Philosophy   Ethics   Business Education   Economic Growth   Management
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Reprint years 2004
DOI 10.1023/A:1005725617855
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Order Out of Chaos.Ilya Prigogine & Isabelle Stengers - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (3):352-354.

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Inconsistencies in Activists' Behaviours and the Ethics of Ngos.Yves Fassin - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):503 - 521.
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On Seeking First to Understand.Jonathan B. King - 1999 - Teaching Business Ethics 3 (2):113-136.
The Dark Side of Organizations and a Method to Reveal It.David E. Bella, Jonathan B. King & David Kailin - 2003 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 5 (3):66-82.

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